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Many fermented or cultured products are produced from milk. These fermentations require the use of bacteria that ferment lactose or milk sugar. Cultured buttermilk.

Skim milk or low-fat milk is pasteurized at 180°F for 30 min, cooled to 72°F, and inoculated3 with an active starter culture. The mixture is incubated at 21°C and cooled when acidity is developed to approximately 0.8%. This viscous product is then agitated, pack­aged and cooled. The desired flavour is created by volatile acids.


One of the oldest fermented milks known is yogurt. Historically the people of the Middle East relied on yogurt as an important food item. Later consumption increased rapidly in Europe.

Yogurt is prepared using whole or low-fat milk with added non­fat milk solids. The milk is heated to approximately 180°F for 30 min, homogenized, cooled to 115°F, inoculated with an active culture, and packaged. The product after inoculation is incubated until ap­proximately 0.9% acidity has developed and then cooled.

In the United States, greater sales are realized in yogurts that contain added fruit than in the unflavoured product. Three types are marketed: fruit mixed throughout, fruit on top, and fruit on bottom. Yogurt is a custard like7 food and is generally eaten with a spoon.



1. cultured milk product – кисломолочные продукты

2. cultured buttermilk – сквашенная пакта

3. to inoculate – вносить закваску

4. starter culture – закваска

5. volatile acids – летучие кислоты

6. custard like – кремообразный


12.Answer the following questions:

1. What are many cultured products produced from?

2. What is the role of bacteria?

3. What is the acidity of the cultured buttermilk?

4. How is the desired flavor created?

5. Where is yogurt used as food item at first?

6. Where is later consumption increased?

7. How is yogurt prepared?

8. What kind of yogurt is the most popular in the USA?


Tasks to the Unit 2.

1. Name the products manufactured b milk industry.

2. How is milk processed before distribution.

3. Cultured milk products.





1. Read and translate the words having the same root in the English and Russian languages:

Extract, concentrate, syrop, contain, centrifugal, filter, filtration, vacuum, crystal, production, form, substance.


2. Remember the meaning of the following words and word-combinations:

sugar cane – сахарный тростник

sugar beet – сахарная свекла

crush – измельчать

express – выдавливать, выжимать

evaporate – выпаривать

remove – удалять

raw sugar – сахар-сырец

treat – обрабатывать

refine – очищать

sucrose – сахароза

be high in – быть богатым чем-либо, иметь высокое содержание чего-либо

result in - приводить к …


Group the synonyms

1. to refine; 2. to allow; 3. to clarify; 4. to stir; 5. to permit; 6. to agitate


4. Read and translate the following text:


Sugar is extracted from the sugar cane and the sugar beet. Cane sugar is manufactured from the sugar cane. In the manufacturing of sugar cane, the first step is crushing of the cane to express the juice. The juice is then clarified, usually by heating with lime. The clarified juice is then concentrated in vacuum evaporators to a brownish syrup containing about 35 per cent moisture of syrup and crystals.

The crystals are separated from the liquor or molasses by cen­trifugal machines. The molasses may be evaporated a second and a third time and the crystals are removed. The sugar thus separated from the molasses is known as raw sugar. The raw sugar must be washed, treated with lime, filtered, recrystallized, washed and dried to give the familiar refined sugar.

In some countries cane sugar is produced in small factories without use of centrifuges, and a dark-brown product, noncentrifugal sugar, is produced.

Recovery of crystalline sugar from the sugar beet is not a simple procedure. In its life processes, the sugar beet forms many organic substances other than sucrose and takes up inorganic nutrient ele­ments from the soil. These nonsucrose substances are also brought into solution of sucrose during processing and must be removed. Some are removed by liming and filtering, but those that remain in­hibit* crystallization of sucrose.

This is how beet sugar is produced. The beets are washed and sliced. The juice which is high in sucrose is leached by hot water. It is then subjected to clarification, filtration, and evaporation, resulting in formation of clear crystals.


1. lime – известь

2. molasses – меласса, оттек

3. to inhabit – тормозить, задерживать



5.Find in the text the equivalents to the following Russian word-combinations:

Сахарный тростник, измельчение тростника, нагревание известью, вакуумный выпариватель, отделять от жидкости, в некоторых странах, образовывать много органических веществ, иметь высокое содержание сахарозы, выщелачивать горячей водой.



6.Finish the following sentences:

1. cane sugar is manufactured from … . 2. Beet sugar is manufactured from … . 3. In the manufacturing of sugar cane the first step is … 4. To produce beet juice the beets are …


7.Put the names of processes in proper order:

a) обработка тросника для получения сахара-сырца:

clarification of the juice; crushing of the cane; separation of crystals from the mobasses; concentration of the clarified juice.

b) обработка сахара-сырца для получения рафинированного сахара:

filtering, treating with lime, washing, recrystal lizing, drying, washing.

c) обработка сахарной свеклы для получения сока:

slicing, leaching, washing.

d) Обработка сока сахарной свеклы для получения чистых кристаллов сахара:

evaporation; clarification; filtration.


8.Draw and fill in the following table (in Russian and English):

Производство тросникового сахара Manufacture of cane sugar
1. Измельчение тросника для получения сока. 2. 3. и т.д. 1. Crushing of the cane to express juice. 2. 3.


9.Fill in the same table for sugar manufacture from the sugar beet:


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