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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

лнте в каждом из них вндо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого.



1. Electric с srs will be widely used in future.

2. Newton wrote books on laws of motion, gravitation, astronomy, mathematics and optics.

3. The research workers will be making a number of important in­vestigations from January till August next year.

4. A group of engineers and workers had completed the construction of a big mine by the end of the year.

П. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, об­ращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. One can obtain better results if the force is increased.

2. The direction of a body's motion is the same as that of the force acting on it.

3. It is necessary to point out that one and the same word may have different meanings in different branches of science and engineer­ing.

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык,
обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have,
to do.

1. You have to come to the language laboratory to work at your pro­nunciation.

2. Various machines do different work in equal intervals of time.

3. Radical changes have taken place in science and education.

4. The point of application of the force is to be changed.

5. The function of this instrument is to control the work of thema­chines,

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, об-
ращая внимание на функции инфинитива.

1. It is important to train highly qualified research workers for thedevelopment of science.

2. Our task is to obtain new mixture with new properties.

3. To increase the productivity of the machine-tool one should knowthe characteristics of the material to be machined.


4. Gold, silver and copper were the first to be used by a primitive man.

5. Engineers hope to improve greatly the properties of modern met­als.

V. Прочитайте и устно переведите с1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2,3, 5 абзацы.

NEWTON'S LA WS OF MOTION

1. Isaak Newton, the man of powerful mathematical ability, was born in the family of a farmer in 1642. He was to become a professor of phys­ics, a great scientist, a Member of Parliament and President of the Royal Society. Last but not least, Newton discovered universal gravitation, one of the greatest discoveries. However to carry on scientific investigations was not so easy about three hundred years ago. It took him about twenty years to complete his theory of gravitation.

2. He was also the discoverer of the three basic laws of motion which are the foundation of practical mechanics. Newton's laws of motion are based upon his own and Galileo's experiments.

In his monumental work on mechanics Newton accurately related "velocity" and "acceleration" to the idea of "force". According to New­ton any body has a certain amount of inertia which can be overcome by some exterior force.

3. Newton's First Law of Motion states that any object remains at rest
or continues to move at constant speed in a straight line, unless it is acted
upon by some exterior force.

From everyday experience it is known that a change in the direction of motion also requires a force. When the speed or the direction of mo­tion changes we speak of the acceleration. The direction of the accelera­tion is the same as that of the acting force. The greater the acting force, the greater the acceleration if the mass is the same, and the greater the mass, the smaller the acceleration if the force is the same.

4. Newton's Second Law of Motion expresses the relation bet-ween force, mass and acceleration as follows: the acceleration of the body is directly proportional to the acting force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body.

5. Newton's Third Law of Motion may be expressed as follows: forces always act in pairs and the two forces in a pair are equal and op­posite. To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. It is to be


noted that action and reaction always act on different bodies and never act on the same body. Newton's Third Lew of Motion cannot be applied to force acting at a distance. On the other hand, it holds good for objects at rest and for contact forces.

Our modern conceptions of physics have been built on Newton's clear and wide ideas.

Вариант 2

 

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, опреде­
лите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-
сказуемого.

1. When much had been done in the study of ecology by our institu­te it became an important scientific centre.

2. The research of planets will be developed with the help of cosmic apparatus.

3. Beautiful houses of concrete and glass are being built in our dis­trict.

4. Since ancient times people studied nature and natural phenomena.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на
русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения it, that,
one.

1. It is necessary to find new sources of cheap energy.

2. That part of mechanics we dealt with at our last lesson is known as statics.

3. An elementary substance is the one which consists of only one kind of atoms.

III.Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык,
обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have,
to do.

1. Man had to learn to obtain electric power directly from the Sun.

2. The task of our scientists is to use atomic energy for peaceful pur­poses.

3. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of gases does not depend on the pressure.


4. The caloric theory of heat had existed up to the middle of the 19th century.

5. Weight is the force with which a body is attracted by the Earth.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложении и переведите их, об*
рашая внимание на функции инфинитива.

1. То convert nuclear energy into electrical called for expansive re­search.

2. To carry out research in quantum electronics this scientist will continue his experiments next month.

3. It is hard to overestimate the role of radioelectronics in technical progress.

4. Research to be conducted in the creation of new synthetic ma­terials is of great importance.

5. Modern industry is to make the life of a man more comfortable.

V. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста.
Перепишите и письменно переведите 2,3,4 абзацы.

FOUR STATES OFMATTER: SOLID, LIQUID, GAS, PLASMA

1. To understand the various states of matter and their connection to
each other, we must understand the meaning of the word molecule. We
can divide a piece of material into small parts and we shall continue this
process of division until the parts become very small. We call these
smallest particles atoms. They are fundamental building blocks of all
materials and have a definite attraction for each other.

Atoms are combined into molecules and molecules may contain one, two, three and more atoms.

2. Many substances can exist in more than one of the four possible states. That state depends on the substance itself as well as on its volume, temperature and pressure. The molecules of a solid are very close to­gether and have a great attraction for each other. The.closer they are to­gether, the heavier is the solid. It is the solid that has both volume and shape. In this state their attraction for each other is very great and it is very difficult to change the shape of a solid. The molecules of solids are able to move only through a limited range. The motion of the molecules of a solid is harmonic in type.

3. If we heat the solid the molecules begin to vibrate more and more


and therefore there is less attraction for each other. The molecules are in a state of continual vibration. A solid expands when we heat it. When the molecules are quite far apart from each other, the solid changes into a liquid. The molecules of liquids are in a state of constant random motion. A given molecule is free to move within the liquid itself but is not likely to leave its surface unless it moves very fast.

4. If we continue to heat the liquid the molecules begin to vibrate so
strongly, and move so far apart from each other that they will have very
little attraction for each other. Now the liquid becomes a gas which has
no definite size. The gas molecules move with an almost perfect free­
dom. The molecules move rapidly in every direction, colliding with one
another expanding to occupy every portion of the container.

Gases have no fixed volume or shape. Their volume and shape de­pend on the vessel that contains them.

5. The fourth state of matter, the plasma, consists of neutral atoms,
ionised atoms and electrons. A gas composed of positive ions and elec­
trons is called a plasma. A plasma differs greatly from ordinary gases
because it is composed of charged particles. A plasma is used in the di­
rect conversion of kinetic energy into electric energy. The four states of
matter - solid, liquid, gaseous and plasma are very close to each other.

 

Вариант 3

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, опреде­
лите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-
сказуемого.

1. Today plastics are being widely used instead of metals.

2. The construction of the factory has-been completed this month.

3. A further compression of this gas will require an increase in pres­sure.

4. The science which deals with the laws of mechanical motion is called mechanics.

II. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая
внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. It is the number of electrons within the atom that determines the properties of a substance.


2. Experiments show that evaporation of liquids takes place at any temperature.

3. One cannot speak of the pressure or temperature of one molecule.

III. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обра­
щая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1.Some substances do not conduct heat.

2. Accumulators of solar energy have been discovered comparati­vely recently.

3. The aim was to evaluate changes in speed using Newton's Second Law of Motion.

4. In this experiment they had to transform steam into water by cool­ing it.

5. Not all sources of energy are of great value.

IV. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обра­
щая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложениях.

1. Mercury thermometers are used to measure higher temperatures than alcohol ones.

2. It was rather difficult to maintain the temperature at the same level during the experiment.

3. Elasticity is the property of a body to return to its original form and dimensions.

4. Our laboratory assistant was to explain the methods of tem­perature measurement.

5. To supply heat to a substance means to raise its temperature.

V. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста.
Перепишите и письменно переведите 2,3, 5 абзацы.

NATURE OF HEAT

1. Heat is a general term applied to that branch of physical science which deals with the laws of transference of heat and transformations of heat into other kinds of energy, the effects of heat on material bodies. There were existed many theories explaining the nature of heat. Since the nature of heat was an important problem of natural science of that time, many scientists in different countries turn their attention to this phenomenon. Our great scientist M. V. Lomonosov showed that heat is a


form of motion of molecules and defined the difference in temperature as the difference in the velocity of molecular motion. His theory laid the foundation for the present-day molecular-kinetic theory of heat.

2. At present we know that heat is a form of energy due to the motion of the molecules of a body,. When heat, a form of energy, is supplied to a substance it produces a rise of temperature. In other words, heat usually causes an increase in the average kinetic energy of the random motion of the molecules of which the substance is made up. However, heat may also produce a change of state without any temperature change.

3. One can derive heat from work by using mechanical energy from chemical; reactions by using chemical energy and from sun by using ra­diant energy. When we study heat we study changes of energy. Heat may be transferred from a hotter body to a colder one by direct contact. Fast-moving molecules tend to speed up their slower neighbours on collision. This method of heat transfer is called conduction. Some materials are good conductors of heat and Others are poor conductors.

4. In gases and liquids another process of heat transfer is very effec­tive, namely, convection. Convection is the transfer of heat by the mo­tion of the hot body itself carrying its heat with it. As heat is absorbed by a body, the temperature of the body generally rises.

5. Nature has provided us with other sources of heat. The sun is the original source of all energies which are, stored in fuels. It steadily sends out the greatest amount of radiant energy. The very small portion of that energy falling on the earth is, nevertheless, a tremendous quantity. Most of the radiant energy is dissipated into space and only its minutest part reaches the earth. The effect of heat keeps a human budy at a nearly con­stant temperature even though that of the air may change widely.

Вариант 4_______

 

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложении, опреде­лите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого.

1. The automatic equipment is being installed in our shop.

2. The construction of this house will be completed in a month.

3. The engineer was asked about the new technology used at the plant.


4. Such scientists as Mendeleev, Bohr and others have done much in order to develop the basic laws of science.

II. Перепишите и переведитеследующие предложен и к, обращу внимание на разные значения слов it, that,one.

1.It was Joule who proved experimentally that a definite amount of mechanical energy is always equivalent to a definite amount of heat energy.

2. The new power stations are much more powerful than the old ones.

3. That some force acts on the body is seen from the following ex­ample.

HI. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обра­щая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1.The engineers are to study the problem of using solar energy.

2. The chemicaf industry is one of the ieading branches of our na­tional economy,

3. The engineer will have to improve the accuracy of th»s ma tool.

4. The force of friction has stopped the body's motion,

5. These scientists do their best to expand their knowledge of differ­ent phenomena of nature.

IV. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обра­щая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложении.

1.То apply new technology in production we are to have al! ne­cessary conditions.

2. To study this phenomenon requires much knowledge.

3. The scientific problem to be solved will help us to explore space.

4. It is hard to overestimate the role of radioelectronics in technical progress.

5. Gold, silver and copper were the first to be used by a primitive man.


V. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и переведите 2,3,5 абзацы.

FROM THE HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY

1. Our age is called the age of electricity, for electricity is now used for most various purposes. Many changes are caused by it both inside and outside our homes.

2. The discovery of electricity cannot be definitely associated with any man's name. For a long time it was the only electrical phenomenon to be observed by man. The Greeks knew how to get electricity by rub­bing substances. This electricity cannot be used to light lamps, to boil water, to run electric trains and so on. The Greeks of that time did not experiment. They could neither understand their observations in. the field of electricity nor make any use of them.

3. More than two thousand years had passed before the development of electricity as a science began. The study of electricity has begun with Dr. Gilbert who lived about the same time as Galileo. Ha wrote a book describing experiments in electricity and magnetism.

4. As early as 1753 Franklin made an important contribution to the science of electricity. He was the first to prove that unlike charges are produced due to rubbing dissimilar objects. To show that the charges are unlike and opposite, he decided to call the charge on the rubber - nega­tive and that on the glass -positive. He is acknowledged to be the pioneer of the theory of atmospheric electricity. In his famous kite experiment he demonstrated that atmospheric electricity and static electricity are one and the same thing. He found the ingenious defence against the destruc­tive action of lightning - the lightning rod,

5. Franklin's achievements were analyzed and approved by Lo-
monosov, who had made his own experiments independently.

The idea of "atmospheric electricity greatly interested both Xo-monosov and his friend Professor Rihman. Both of them had mads sys­tematic observations and experiments on the subject in question.


Вариант 5

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, опреде­лите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого.

1. The properties of materials are affected by solar radiation.

2. Scientific and engineering progress opens up wide prospects be­fore man.

3. The driver has changed the direction of the motion of the bus.

4. During the last three months we were studying a number of prob­lems that were associated with motion as well as with force.

П. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимаине на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. A program for the construction of new types of spaceship is to be carried out this year.

2. A change in the direction of motion requires a force just as a change of speed does.

3. We have to build special solar stations to convert solar energy into electrical one.

4. Mathematics is of great importance for engineers.

5. A stone in motion has an ability to do work.

III. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обра­
щая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.

1. It is necessary to obtain accurate data on the possibility of living and working in space.

2. Scientists had to find new methods of investigation because the old ones were unsatisfactory.

3. Chemists have long believed that chemical reactions are of an electric nature. ^

IV. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обра­
щая внимание на функции инфинитива в предложении.

1. The main problem of the computers is to solve complex problems quickly.

2. Scientific discoveries to be practically applied in industry and ag~


riculture are paid special attention to.

3. To produce changes in physical state a considerable amount of thermal energy must be supplied to metal.

4. The aim of any research is to enlarge the possibilities which are offered by modern science.

5. To carry on scientific investigations was not so easy about three hundred years ago.

V. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и переведите 2,3,4 абзацы.

THE SUN

1. The diameter of the Sun is about!, 391, 000 km. It is thousands of times larger than the earth. The Sun represents a mass of condensed gases and vapours. The temperature of the Sun is about 6000°C on the surface and nobody knows what it is in the interior. Most of the radiant energy is dissipated into space and only its minutest part reaches the earth.

2. The radiation reaching the earth from the sun does a great many things besides lightning and warming the earth and its atmosphere. The Sun is the original source of all the energy stored in fuels. We do know that light radiation is made use of by plants and under certain conditions the buried plants are gradually converted into coal.

3. The burning of coaf is a simple chemical reaction - the oxidation of coal. The heat is one result of this chemical action. So the plant con­verted the energy of radiation received from the sun into chemical en­ergy. This energy remained as potential chemical energy through the ages until the coal united with oxygen and this chemical potential energy was transformed again into heat.

4. The sunlight represents both the direct and indirect sources of en­ergy. Solar energy converters equipped with large mirrors have already been used. The development of high-temperature solar energy installa­tions makes it possible to produce steam at exactly the same tempertures end pressures as those obtained with ordinary boilers.

5. The high concentration of sunlight achieved with an installation of this type enables it to produce hot water and steam in quantities meas­ured of kilograms an hour. Thus the sun energy converter can help solv­ing many industrial problems in districts lacking fuel. It is able to supply fuelness energy, enough to meet all their power requirements.


I КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА М4\

Чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу №4, необхо­димо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка:

1. Условные предложения трех типов.

2. Сложные формы инфинитива и причастия.

3. Объектный инфинитивный оборот (complex object); субъект­ный инфинитивный оборот (complex subject); независимый (самостоятельный) причастный оборот.

Вариант!___________________________________________

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложе­ния, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты.

1. We know a lazer to be a device that stimulates the electrons of a light producing material to vibrate simultaneously giving off a light with tremendous energy.

2. Lazers are known to have found an application in the printing in­dustry.

3. Light waves are now believed to be due to the motions of elec­trons themselves within the atoms.

4. Chemical investigations have shown each element to combine with another only in definite proportions.

П. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложе­ния, учитывая различая в переводе зависимого и независимого причастных оборотов.

1. The first lazer having been built in the middle of the XX century, scientists developed several types of lazers.

2. Having developed quantum generators called lazers, scientists are looking for practical use for в new kind of ray which is millions of times brighter than the Sun.

3. Semiconductor lazers are able to transform electric energy directly into light wave energy, this property of semiconductor lazers opening up new possibilities of producing extremely economical sources of light.


III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

1. If the Earth had no atmosphere, its heated surface would quickly radiate back into space all the energy which reaches it from the Sun.

2. If we had tested this material, we should have used it in our con­struction.

II. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 7-й абзацы текста. Пе­репишите и письменно переведите 2, 5,6,7 абзацы. WHA T CAN THE LAZER DO?

1. The 20-th century has been often called the age of the atom, the age of polymers, or the space age. It is possible to call it the age of the lazer too. The lazer has become a multipurpose toot. It has caused a real revolution in technology and in the nature of productive labour.

2. A lazer is a device for making and concentrating light waves into a very intensive beam. The light made by a lazer is much more intensive than ordinary light. The devices known as lazers serve as generators of radiation. Their main characteristic is that they make use of conversion of atomic or molecular energy to electro-magnetic radiation.

3. The first ruby iazer having been developed in I960, many new lazer types were discovered. The world's most powerful lazer developed in England has reached an output of 250 kW for one millionth of a sec­ond and produced a temperature about 2, 5 million degrees Centigrade.

4. Lazers are now used for many scientific, medical and industrial purposes. They are used in electronics, medicine, engineering, commu­nications, machine building and other fields of economy and science. But the field of Lazer applications is expanding very rapidly.

At present there exist lazers of various sizes, big and rather small, the latter being widely used in various branches of our industry.

5. Great importance is attached today to the use of lazers in medicine.
The lazer can cure diseases. It has become indispensable as a means of
space communication. Its beam produces a sharp picture on the televi­
sion screen. Moreover, it can increase the size of the TV screen to that of
a modern cinema. The lazer cuts steel, hard alloys and diamonds, and
drills holes through them a few microns in diameter. The lazer can do
soldering and welding fobs and harden metals. The lazer is now being
used in communication lines.


6. Devices generating visible or nearly visible radiation are called op­tical lazers. Without the lazer beam there could be no optical electronics. Optical electronic instruments for recording, storing and processing in­formation use a lazer beam.

7. Great power in lazers has many important research uses, such as making a plazma, the ionized state of matter which will finally lead to fusion of atoms.

Nevertheless, the lazer no doubt has innumerable other applications which are still to be discovered.

Вариант 2_____________________________________________

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложе­
ния, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты.

1. We know the existence of life on the Earth to depend upon the continuous receipt of enormous quantities of energy from the Sun.

2. The Sun is known to be a source of energy.

3. He is expected to be asked to calculate the energy of particles.

4. One cannot expect a complicated problem of using solar energy to be solved in a year or two.

II. Перепишите и письменно Переведите следующие предложе­
ния, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого
причастных оборотов.

1. The world consists of atoms, atoms possessing potential and ki­netic energy.

2. All bodies in nature possess either potential or kinetic energy, most often they possessing both.

3. Having applied this method we solved complex mathematical problems.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные
предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

1. If you could have obtained the necessary information, you would have carried out these experiments.

2. Unless this material is treated properly it will not be a good insula­tor.


IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 6-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,2, 4, 5 абзацы.

SOLAR ENERGY

1. Most of the energy that we use on the Earth even in some con­verted form such as coal and oil, stems from the Sun. Indeed, oil, coal, natural gas are fuels that release energy received from the Sun millions of years ago. When we use wood in a fire it is necessary to remember that the Sun supplied the energy for the growth of trees.

2. Hydroelectric energy is known to be electricity produced from the energy of falling water. This is actually stored solar energy, the water be­ing lifted from the sea in the course of the hydrologica! cycle which is driven by the Sun. Hydroelectric energy has several advantages over other ways of producing electricity. No fuel is required, since the energy comes from the Sun.

3. The Sun is also important to us as a laboratory in which we can study hot gases in a magnetic field. The knowledge we are gathering from the studies of the solar gas enables us to control fusion processes here on Earth.

4. It is clear today that the supply of coal, oil and natural gas will soon become inadequate for our needs. It is natural that scientists began their search for new sources of energy. There is an increasing interest in obtaining energy from the Sun.

5. There are devices that give off an electrical signal when struck by sunlight. The device employed for converting solar energy into useful power is the solar cell. In the solar cell the junction consists of two dif­ferent kinds of semiconductors. The cell is energized not by heat but by light. But solar cells are still expensive to use for general commercial purposes. They proved to be an ideal source of power for artificial satel­lites.

6. There is now considerable research centering on finding ways of converting solar radiation into heat and electricity. Man has learned to obtain electric power directly from the Sun at present. Architects have built houses to be heated by solar radiation due to applying suitably de­signed roofs and using suitable construction materials, the latter tend to retain heat obtained from the Sun. Under suitable conditions solar radia­tion can raise the temperature of the air to 300°F.


В-3


I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложе­ния, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты.

1. Heavy water has been found by numerous tests to contain a very slight amount of hydrogen atom.

2. The kinetic theory of gases assumes a gas to be made up of parti­cles moving about, with random motion.

3. We know the apparatus used for converting electrical energy from one voltage to another to be called a transformer.

4. The steam engines and turbines are known to be heat engines.

П. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложе­ния, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастных оборотов.

1. In the steam engine the fuel burns slowly, the heat being used to
generate steam.

2. Having investigated the effect of temperature the authors men-tioned above came to a definite conclusion.

3. The laboratory having been provided with necessary instruments,
they could carry out the work successfully.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные
предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

1. The volume of gas will be proportional to its absolute tempe­rature if its pressure remains constant.

2. Unless the materia! had been treated properly, it would not have been a good insulator.

IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по б-й абзацы текста.
Перепишите и письменно переведите 2,4,5 абзацы.

ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

1. Many of the most serious environmental problems of the techno­logical nations result from the use of energy. Every form of energy pro­duction is known to cause some damage to the surroundings. A large part of urban air pollution is probably caused by emission from internal com­bustion engines. Other forms of air pollution result from the combustion


of coal and low grade oil in steam electric plants or central heating plants.

2. Hydroelectric plants are considered to cause serious problems in the environment us well. One major problem of hydro-electric plants* is the enormous weight of the water that fills the lake behind the dam rather quickly after the dam is constructed. The added weight places severe stresses on the geological formation, causing earthquakes in the area.

3. Perhaps, the tragic problem created by the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River is the increase of diseases. The still waters behind the dam prove to create a good ground for insects carrying diseases.

 

4. Another form of environment degradation common to electric power generation is thermal pollution - the dumping of wasted heat into streams of water or the atmosphere. The warmed water is rather quickly mixed with the streams of water in a lake, this having harmful effect upon ecological balance of the lake.

5. In order to obtain enormous amounts of energy powerful atomic electric stations are being built. However nuclear plants arc capable of polluting the environment with radioactive atoms of various elements. Moreover, nuclear reactors of the types now being built will not be widely used as a source of energy because of the scarcity of the isotope "U" which is used as fuel.

6. The largest potential source of nuclear energy к thermo-nuclear fu­sion by which the nuclei of small atoms are combined to form larger nu­clei. However these power plants also contaminate the environment witn radioactive elements that are released when the fuel is burnt.

Пояснения к тексту:

result from - происходить

internal combustion engine - двигатель внутреннего сгорания

wasted heat - отработанное тепло

scarcity - нехватка

thermo-nuclear fusion - термоядерная реакция


Вариант 4

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложе­
ния, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты.

1. Physical, economic and business systems are known to have tech­nical and human aspects.

2. We know many human activities to have played a part in scien­tific inventions.

3. The epoch of technical revolution is considered to be associated with the rapid development of science.

4. The new electronic device enabled workers to detect the defects inside thick metal parts.

II. Перепишите н письменно переведите следующие предложе­
ния, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого
причастных оборотов.

1. Our physicists have made some new discoveries, the latter being commented upon in various magazines.

2. Having investigated the substance under a microscope we came to the conclusion that it was not a pure one.

3. The information being given with respect to the new data, it must be made use of in our research.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные
предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

1. If scientists use the new methods, they will have better results.

2. If the plant had introduced the latest achievements of science and technology, it would have increased labour productivity.

ГУ. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,3,4 абзацы.

ROBOT TECHNOLOGY

1. Robots are machines of special type. They are considered to re­place man wherever he is to do hard, monotonous or hazardous work. Robots are sophisticated machines. Many of them are fitted with artifi­cial intellect systems, special programming devices and electronic con­trollers. Their development required the work of specialists in several


technical fields, together with specialists in biophysics and physiology.

2. The idea of robot technology was born in the forties, when the foundations of atomic power engineering - the basis of technological progress - wei«; laid. The materials the scientists must deal with are ra­dioactive. Besides the equipment used in obtaining and studying them is dangerous for man. At the same time work with radioactive substances, assembly and disassembly of atomic reactors, the servicing of machines and devices in radioactive zones require human effort. Remote-controlled equipment helps to solve this problem.

3. Research into radioactive materials is becoming ever more compli­cated, new problems arising in atomic power engineering and space technology. This calls for newer manipulators and devices to be handled by an operator. An analysis of these ideas and their solutions show two entirely different approaches. The first one is to bring the operator as close to the object as possible, the other requires remote control. Both approaches have already found practical application not only in atomic power engineering but in underwater exploration as well.

4. Our designers create robots for assembly operations, robots being used today for assembling various electronic circuits. Mention should be made that robots are in wide use for performing welding and painting.

5. Robot technology emerged at the Junction of two sciences - ma­chine mechanics and control theory. Its further progress requires wide application of modern control machines and systems, handled by scien­tists specializing in the theory of working pro-cesses, biology and phys­ics.

Пояснения к тексту

hazardous work - опасная работа

sophisticated machines - сложные машины

power engineering - энергетика

remote-controlled equipment - оборудование с дистанционным

управлением

call for - требовать

Вариант 5

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложе-


ния, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты.

1. Current research is known to be concerned with microsystems.

2. We expected our scientists to convert a computer into an in­dustrial engineering laboratory.

3 The new electronic computers to be employed at our enterprises are considered to influence on the work of the industrial engineer.

4. Modern discoveries allow science and engineering to be deve­loped rapidly.

И. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложе­ния, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастные оборотов.

1. Having been equipped with electronic computers many modern plants use them for controlling various processes.

2 Electronic computers performing both arithmetical and logical op­erations, it is possible to govern the process under rather compli­cated conditions.

3. The scientist gave explanations of the observed facts, his report
being accompanied by tables and diagrams.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие сложные
предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

1. If computers had not been worked out, many important problems might not have been solved.

2. If these scientists made the experiment in time, they would get more information about this process.

IV. Прочтите и уетно переведите с 1-го по 7-й абзацы текста.
Перепишите к письменно переведите 1,4, 6, 7 абзацы.

USES OF THE COMPUTERS

1. The computer is a universal information processing machine. The installation of computers in certain organizations has already greatly in­creased the efficiency of these organizations. Computers are a million times faster then humans in performing computing operations.

2. Computers play an increasingly important role in society, particu­larly in industrially developed countries.

3. The first electronic computers appeared in 1945. In the course of



i


some dozens of years mathematicians learned to solve problems of great complexity using these machines. Electronic computers can be classified into two general types: general-purpose computers and special-purpose machines.

4. General-purpose computers are electronic machines that do all types of arithmetical computation - add, subtract, multiply, divide, square root and a large number of other operations. A general-purpose computer can be regarded as a data-processing centre. Special-purpose electronic computers are limited either to the type of computations they can make or as to the functions they can perform.

5. Electronic computers cannot replace the judgement of the human brain, but they will release it from mechanical functions.

6. Without computers it would be impossible for engineers to perform the enormous number of calculations needed to solve many advanced technological problems. Computers help in the building of spacecraft, and they assist flight engineers in launching, controlling and tracking the vehicles. Computers also are used to develop equipment for exploring the Moon and planets. They enable architectural and civil engineers to design complicated bridges and other structural units with relative ease.

7. Computers have been of tremendous help to researchers in the bio­logical, physical and social sciences. They also have a major role in the field of information science. It brings together knowledge from many fields of study.


Содержание

ВВЕДЕНИЕ........................... :

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №1.................

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА Х»2.................

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №3................

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №4................

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