These two forces acted in the same direction in our experiment.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

These two forces acted in the same direction in our experiment.



6)

Newton's Laws of Motion are often referred to at the lectures on Mechanics.

This problem is discussed in the book published two years ago.

II. Перепишите я переведите следующие предложения, под­
черкните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каж­
дого из яях, то есть укажнте, является ли оно определением, об­
стоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

The formulated law is applied in many fields of science.

When cooled a substance can be converted from the liquid state into the solid.

The amount of heat generated depended on the quality of the fuel used.

4. The problem being considered in this paper is of great signifi­cance.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каж­
дом из них модальный глагол нлн его эквивалент. Переведите
предложения.

They were to give the results of their experimental work as soon as possible.

Your investigation must attract attention of all the scientists.

Motion may be defined as continuous change of position.

A number of substances can absorb considerable amount of gases.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста.
Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,2 и 4 абзацы.

MOTION

Never before motion has been so important as it is today. In our everyday life we have observed many cases when bodies act upon each other. When it is acted upon some force a body begins to move, stops or changes the direction of its motion. However in some cases a body is acted upon by some other body but its state does not change. Then we say that the body is in equilibrium.


2. Motion may be defined as a continuous change in place or position
with respect to the position of some other object or objects if they are at
rest. Because no object is really quite motionless.

If houses are at rest relative to the earth's surface, the earth itself is not motionless. It revolves about its axis and around the sun; the sun, in its turn, moves relative the stars which are also in a state of motion.

A man sitting in a tram may seem motionless to his passengers. In re­ality all are. moving rapidly with respect to any man in the street.

3. The motion of bodies may be divided into three classes: 1) transla­
tion; 2) rotation; 3) vibration or oscillation. A body has a motion of
translation when it moves continuously in the same direction. If a body
instead of travelling forward turns on a fixed axis, it has a motion of ro­
tation. The drive wheels of locomotive are moving forward and are at the
same time rotating. Therefore they have two motions, one of rotation and
the other of translation. Some bodies reverse their motions from time to
time and return at regular intervals to their original positions. Such bod­
ies have a motion of vibration or oscillation.

4. Whenever any movement occurs at a constant speed the forces
which tend to cause it are balanced by other forces which tend to stop

it. If the forces cause motion they are greater than the forces that oppose it. Thus, every body continues to remain in its state of rest or uniform motion unless it is acted upon some force. Any change of the direction of motion requires a force just a change of speed does.

5. When we speak of movement and speed it is necessary to mention
the Unit of Speed in the metre - kilogram - second (MKS) system and in
the old English system of units. The Unit of Speed in the MKS system is
one metre per second (m/s). The corresponding unit in the English sys­
tem of units is one foot per second (ft/s).


Вариант №2

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

а)

1.Today scientists arestilt looking for the substance as asource of energy.

2. The direction of motion has changed but the body continues its motion.

3. The development of physics resulted in the appearance of today's cinema, television, radio and so on.

4. These forces will cause the motion of a body.

6)

1. Heat energy is transmitted in two different ways.

2. The discovery of electron was followed by the investigation of its properties.

П. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, под­черкните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каж­дого из них,то есть укажите, является ли оно определением, об­стоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

1. The forces of two bodies acting on one another are always equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.

2. The plant equipped with modern machinery overfulfilled its plan last month.

3. When placed in a vessel a gas fills it completely.

4. A computer solving a lot of problems was designed by a group of students.

III.Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните вкаж­дом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения.

1. Energy can exist in many forms and each form can be transformed


into the other.

2. A force may cause a change in the size or shape of a body.

3. You have to define the direction of a force.

4. Everybody must know the temperature measuring devices.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 6-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,3,4 и 6 абзацы.

WORK, FORCE, POWER AND ENERGY

1. In the language of science such words as "work", "energy" "force" and "power" have definite meanings, they differ from the meanings that are often given to them in everyday life.

2. In physics energy is defined as the ability to do work. When a body is capable to perform work, it possesses energy. It is quite clear that the more work a body can do, the more energy it possesses. You use energy when you walk. It takes energy to carry something, You can do nothing without using energy. There are numerous forms of energy such as: elec­trical, chemical, mechanical, heat energy and so on. All they are useful to us. We use heat energy to heat our homes, electrical energy changes to light and sound.

3. Mechanical energy, in its turn, can be potential and kinetic. The ki­netic energy of a body is the energy of motion. The potential energy of a body is the energy of position. It is quite possible to transform one form of energy into another. Energy is measured in the same units as work and like work is a scalar quantity.

4) Work and energy are closely connected. Work is both an everyday word and a scientific term. In mechanics work is defined as the scalar product of a force multiplied by the distance through which that force acts. In other words, work is a product of force and displacement in the direction offeree. Work is done when a force is acting over a distance. In this case time is not taken into account.

5)An action of one body upon another which changes the state of rest or motion of the body acted upon is called force. The term force is a general term for any push or pull. A force is always exerted on a body by another body. There are three elements of determining a forcev namely, the direction of a force, its magnitude and point of its application. Forces агел'есгог quantities.

6) When we are speaking of power, time is taken into account, Power means the rate at which work is done in a unit of time. Power is related


to both work and energy. The English unit of power is called the horse­power.

Вариант 3______

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчерк­
ните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-
временную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на
перевод пассивных конструкций.

а)

1. The reactor Js fast becoming a major source of heat and electricity.

2. This young scientist makes great contribution to'mathematics.

3. The scientist Jiasjjubjished the fundamental principles of his in­vestigations.

4. He sjarted his investigations of the properties of a new compound.

6)

1. The law of gravitation was discovered by Newton.

2. A lot of industrial machines "will be made of various plastics.

II. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, под­
черкните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каж­
дого из них, то есть укажите, является ли оно определением, об­
стоятельством или частью сказуемого.

1. Physios is the science studying the various phenomena in nature.

2. The substances jnvestigated showed quite interesting properties.

3. When heated a magnet loses some of its magnetism. Г

4. The elements predicted by Mendeleyev were later discovered by scientists from different countries.

III. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, под­
черкните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквива­
лент.

1. These new materials had to withstand much higher temperatures than metals.


2. Wejnust use new methods in our research work.

3. He coujd jiot complete his research in time as he worked very slowly.

4. This power station will have to supply us with all necessary en­ergy.

IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 6-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,3,4 и 6 абзацы.

MECHANICS

1. Mechanics is a branch of physics. Mechanics deals with the motion and equilibrium of bodies. It also establishes mathematical equations which describe motion in terms of distance and time. The principles of mechanics are required by engineers in the construction of a motor-car, a building, an aeroplane, etc.

2. The word "mechanics" implies a connection with machinery, It deals with the laws of mechanical motion. When a body changes its posi­tion in respect to other bodies, we say it is in motion. We call this rela­tive change in position of a body mechanical motion. Motion takes place in space and in time, therefore space and time are inseparable from mat­ter in motion.

3. Mechanics studies a variety of problems associated with motion as well as with force. It consists of two main parts: kinematics and kinetics, The latter, in its turn, is divided into statics and dynamics.

4. Kinematics determines the trajectory which the points of a moving body describe, the position of any one of its points in its trajectory, its speed, acceleration, etc., in short, the relationship between the geometric elements of motion and time, independent of the forces that act on the body in motion. Engineers solve many problems, such as the setting of a lathe and other machine-tools through kinematics. Kinematics studies the nature of motion of a body and the forces that act on the body, or in other words, determines the forces that cause the motion.

5. Dynamics deals with the motions of bodies. Motion is connected with the ideas of length and time. The force is the agent which causes bodies to change their direction or speed of motion.- Dynamics is the study of the forces which keeps an airplane in flight. It also studies such concepts as work, power energy and therefore it is of great use in many branches of engineering.

6. Statics is that part of kinetics which studies bodies in a state of

 


equilibrium. In statics we investigate the conditions under which the forces that act on a body come into equilibrium and the consequent state of rest., This part of mechanics is of great use in different branches of en­gineering especially in civil engineering, for, if engineers know these conditions, they can ensure rigidity and strength to the structures they design and build.

Вариант 4

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчерк­ните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Ц разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

а)

1. After the engineer had made all the necessary calculations he be­gan to work/at the new project.

2. During some decades of the last century scientists were making a close study of the structure of natural rubber.

3. This gjant will produce a new type of machines.

4. The development of machine-tools accelerated the industrial revo­lution.

б)

1. His scientific paper will be spoken about at the end of the discus­sion.

2. Much attention was also paid to the interior of the house.

П. Перепишите и переведите следующее предложения, подчерк­ните Participle I и Participle П и установите функции каждого из них, то есть укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоя­тельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

1. Matter composed of any chemical combination of elements is called a compound.

2. The smallest particle having a.ll the characteristics of an element is called an atom.

3. The translated article is devoted to electrical furnaces.
22


4. Speaking about the new methods of work the engineer told us many interesting details.

III. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, под­
черкните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквива­
лент.

1. Heat can be divided into three different types.

2. A great number of plastics should Had their applications in the electrical industry.

3. An electronic machine has to be used to make these calculations.

4. Both elements were to be used in this experiment.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 6-й абзацы текста.
Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,3, 4,6 абзацы.

PHYSICS

1. Physics is one of the most ancient sciences about nature. It is the
science studying various phenomena. All the changes that take place in
nature are natural phenomena. Its object is to determine exact relations
between physical phenomena. :

In physics we call every object a physical body or simply a body. Bodies consist of matter but can differ in materials and in the quantity.

2. Modern physics is the science of motion of bodies, energy and dif­ferent sound, thermal, electric, magnetic, light, optical phenomena. We study all these phenomena in the following branches of physics: mechan­ics, sound, heat, electricity and magnetism, light, atomic and nuclear physics.

3. Physios is divided into two great branches: experimental and theo­retical physics. The task of the former is to make observations and carry out experiments. On the basis of the experimental facts theoretical phys­ics is to formulate laws and predict the behaviour of natural phenomena. Every law is based on experiments, therefore, it is important for the ex­periments to be done very accurately.

It was the study of natural phenomena that made it possible to formu­late various laws.

4. Physics has a long history. The history of this science begins with
Galileo. He introduced the two principles that made mathematical phys­
ics possible: the law of inertia and parallelogram law. The law of inertia,


now familiar as Newton's first law of motion made it possible to calcu­late the motions of matter by means of the law of dynamics alone.

5. After Newton the first novelty in physics was Plank's introduction of the quantum constant h. Another novelty followed in 1905, when Ein­stein published his theory of relativity.

6. Physics is one of the main sciences about nature and the develop­ment of many other sciences depends on the knowledge of physical phe­nomena. Physics together with mathematics and chemistry forms the foundation for all branches of engineering.

Discoveries in physics are very important for engineering. They re­sulted in the appearance of today's cinema, television, radio, various ma­chines and mechanisms, artificial earth satelites and spaceships.

Вариант 5

 

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчерк­ните в каждом нз них глагол-сказуемое Н определите его видо-ьременную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

а)



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