ТОП 10:


There are several holidays that are celebrated all over the world. Besides there are the holidays which are national only.

Among Them are “Kalyady” and “Kupalle”

Catholics celebrate ”Kalyady” from December, 25 to January, 6. As for Orthodox Christians and the old calendar, the mysterious time of the year comes a bit later – it continues from January, 7 to January, 19. People say that “Kalyady” is God’s holiday. In Russia, all these days and nights from Christmas till Epiphany are called “Svyatki” (Sacred Evenings) and in Belarus – “Kalyady”. It is a jolly time when people are enjoying themselves.

During “Kalyady” groups of merry young boys and girls in smart clothes go from house in Belarusian villages and towns.

Each person in the processions of «Kalyadouschchiki» (carol-singers) has a role according to his character and temperament: one of them bears the star, others sing carols, amateur musicians play the accordion or beat the tambourine, amateur actors are disguised as Goats, Bears, Storks, Horses, Gypsies and Old Men. Hosts and hostesses usually treat them to delicious things and thank them for well-wishing and carol-singing.

«Kalyady» is the time when three ritual suppers are cooked in every Belarusian home. They are called «Kalyadnaya Kuttzya». Our forefathers believed that «Kyttzya» (a sort of porridge («kasha») made from barley) was sacred food which could save and protect people's lives. So «Kuttzya» was a symbol of immortality and eternity of life.

The pagan holiday of «Kalyady» coincided later with Christmas, which was celebrated by Christians. The main purpose of «Kalyady» is to get rid of everything bad in one's life and to begin a new life cycle with joy and optimism.


1. Answer the questions:


1) When do Belarusians celebrate «Kalyady»? 2. What are the typical entertainments during «Kalyady»? 3. What do amateur actors wear? 4. How are three ritual suppers at «Kalyady» called? 5. What is the main purpose of «Kalyady»?

2) Work in groups. Find out


- what they know about the origin of this holiday;

- what is prepared for ritual suppers and why;

- whether they take part in «Kalyady» and what they do during this holiday.


Nowadays, since most Belarusians belong to the Orthodox Church, the holiday is celebrated on the night of July, 7 in accordance with the Orthodox calendar and is called «Kupalle». We must admit that it is one of the most mysterious holidays in Belarus.

According to the legend God Yarila is marrying the Earth on this day. That's why a lot of customs and traditions are associated with love. Girls gather flowers and weave coronets which they wear at the holiday and then, at dawn, they throw their coronets into the river and let them float downstream. The boy who fishes the coronet out of the water will be that girl's intended. It is the best time to gather herbs for medicine and love potions. At night, young and old light bonfires not far from their village or town and perform traditional dances, sing folk songs and jump over the fire. Jumping over the fire when it is burning low, as well as bathing (usually naked) in a river or lake are supposed to be the acts of purification. One of the culminating moments of the event is the search for a magic fern-flower in the forest. As the old legend says this flower blossoms only once a year, on «Kupalle», and the one who is lucky to find it will master the language of grass, trees, birds and animals and be happy for the rest of his life.

As for our Motherland, people of Belarus mark and celebrate; The New Year Day. On this day we see off the old year and meet the new year. Children and grown-ups always wait for this holiday. It is traditionally family holiday. All members of the family try to gather together at home to have a N.Y. party. On N.Y. Eve everything is rush and bustle. The cities are decorated with coloured lights across the streets. The trees are decorated with tinsel and a lot of toys and coloured lights. Children usually decorate their flats with pictures, flags, paper snow flakes. Everyone is very busy on these days. We help our parents about the house, clean the flat, do shopping and help mother to prepare (cook) delicious dishes for New Y. Supper. At 12 o'clock we are at the table and when me clock strikes we will congratulate each other with N.Y. and wish be happy, healthy, wealthy. We hope our wishes be fulfilled during the coming year.

UNIT 6. Ecological problems

Pre-reading task


1. Give your own environmental definitions to the following terms:

“green” and “brown”.


2. Read the correct ones and check if you are right.

Green – someone ecologically intelligent.

Brown – someone not environmentally aware, the opposite of being green.


3. Read the following questionnaire and try to answer the questions.





There is more to being green than recycling your newspapers and using unleaded fuel. Here is a chance to test your ecological intelligence 1. Which uses the most energy? a a fridge b a cooker or stove c a washing machine 2. What is the best way to make cars ecologically safer? a buying a car with a catalytic converter b using unleaded petrol c buying a more fuel-efficient car 3. Which of the following does not damage human health? a aspirin b roast beef c excessive intake of vitamin C 4. Which uses the most water in the home? a the toilet b the bath c the washing machine d the dishwasher 5. Which of these statements about ‘ozone friendlyaerosol cans is true? a they contain no ozone-damaging propellants b they are biodegradable c they are recyclable 6. Which is the best way of improving the quality of drinking water? a buying bottled water b collecting rainwater c lobbying for a dual water supply d boiling tap water 7.Which is the best way to dispose of waste? a burning it in incinerators that generate energy b recycling c composting 8 Which is the most environment-friendly form of energy? a nuclear power b coal c gas d oil


4. Explain the adjectives in italics from ex. 3 and put them in the two boxes below.

good bad




1. Match the words with their appropriate definition:

a) recycling 1. making dirty, impure or diseased

b) the ozone layer 2. become liquid as a result of being taken into a liquid

c) fertilizers 3. no longer in existence

d) flood 4. unwanted, unnecessary

e) waste 5. cause loss of value

f) extinct 6. the processing of used objects so that they can be

used again

g) to dissolve 7. chemicals which farmers use to stop diseases and

make plants grow quicker.

h) contamination 8. a thin layer of gas high above the surface of the earth

i) to damage 9. great quantity of water in a place that is usually dry


2. Divide the words given in the box between the following entries:

air pollution global warming deforestation

congestion contamination water pollution


damage to the wildlife; depletion of the ozone layer; oil spills; exhaust fumes; temperature rise; traffic jams; pesticides; lack of oxygen; dumping, smoke from factories; cutting down rainforests; aerosol cans; the greenhouse effect; rubbish dumps; sewage; chemical fertilizers; power stations; smog; acid rains




1. Read the text and answer the questions.



Scientists say the temperature of the earth could rise by 3o C over the next 50 years. This may cause drought in some parts of the world, and floods in others, as ice at the North and South Poles begins to melt and sea levels rise.

Global warming is caused by the greenhouse effect Normally, heat from the sun warms the earth and then escapes back into space. But carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere trap the sun's heat, and this is slowly making the earth warmer.

A greenhouse becomes hot for the same reason. Its glass lets the sun's heat pass through, then stops some of it from leaving. That's why scientists call the problem of Earth's rising temperature “The Greenhouse Effect”.

Pollution sends 4 main 'greenhouse gases' into the atmosphere. These are:

1) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

2) CFCs (Chloro-fluoro-carbons)

3) Methane

4) Nitrous Oxide

CO2 - The most important greenhouse gas, CO2, causes half of the problem. Nearly 6 billion tonnes of it enters the atmosphere every year. How? From the burning of fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil). An extra 1.5 billion tonnes every year comes from the burning of rainforest trees. This makes the problem worse in another way, too. Normally, trees absorb CO2. Today there are fewer and fewer trees. That means more and more CO2. In fact 50% of all carbon burned since 1850 is still in the atmosphere. CFCs -These gases are in...

...Aerosols (Britain alone used 800 million aerosols in 1988).

...Refrigerators (the CFCs are in the liquids which keep fridges cold).

...Plastic boxes (for hamburgers, pizzas, etc).

CFC molecules are very dangerous. Each one can trap 10.000 times more heat than a molecule of CO2. And they don't just stay in the air - they destroy it. Because of CFCs the top level of the atmosphere (the ozone) is now getting thinner.

Methane and Nitrous Oxide - these gases come from...

... fertilizers

... cows stomachs

... rubbish

Most scientists agree that the Greenhouse Effect will add between 1.9°-4° to the Earth's temperature by 2030 (It's already 1/20 hotter than in 1900).This will change the weather everywhere. For example, the ice at the North and South Poles will start to melt. And when that happens the level of the sea will rise. If it rises one metre by 2030 there will be serious floods in many countries. Eighteen million people wilt lose their homes in Bangladesh and 8 million in Egypt. A rise in sea level will have other effects, too. Holland, for example, already spends more on sea­walls (as a %) than America spends on military defence. Experts think that in 50 years, the Greenhouse Effect will cost 3% of every country's money each year. Then there's the problem of food. When the climate changes there will be less food in the world. At the moment, areas like the mid-west of America and central Russia grow a lot of wheat. In the future that may change when the USA and the countries of the CIS become too dry for farming. Other countries (like Canada and Sweden) will become wetter, but that won't help. The soil there isn't as rich. It won't be possible to grow the same amount of food as before.


1) What may global warming result in?

2) Why is the problem of Earth’s rising temperature called “The Greenhouse effect”?

3) Why is it happening?

4) Where do 4 main “greenhouse gases” come from?

5) What will it do?


2. Read the text and put in the given words:

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