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Перевод общественно-политических текстов



Введение

Предлагаемое пособие является базовым учебником для студентов неязыковых вузов, приступающих к изучению английского языка в аспекте «общественно-политического перевода».

Цель пособия – научить студентов читать и переводить тексты общественно-политической направленности, сформировать и развить навыки письменного перевода, а также перевода с листа с английского языка на русский язык, на материале статей из англо-американской прессы, отражающие актуальные проблемы современных международных отношений.

Пособие охватывает четыре темы:

1. Поездки, визиты, переговоры.

2. Сотрудничество и соглашение.

3. Конфликты.

4. Военные действия, терроризм.

Каждая тема включает следующее:

1) словарь, состоящий из слов и словосочетаний по данной теме;

2) упражнение на перевод с английского языка на русский язык с использованием активной лексики;

3) ряд основных текстов по соответствующей тематике;

4) упражнения коммуникативной направленности: вопросы по текстам, ответы на которые предполагают раскрытие и творческое осмысление проблемы;

5) задание на использование дополнительных материалов текущей прессы по заявленной тематике.

При отборе лексического материала для словаря автор руководствовался частотностью употребления лексических единиц в прессе. Конкретный текстовый материал был отобран на основе словаря-минимума оригинальных первоисточников: материалов английской и американской прессы. Содержание предлагаемых текстов способствует развитию у студентов навыков и умений в оценке актуальных проблем современности.

Contents

1. Предисловие………………………………………………………...5

 

2. Unit I “ARRIVALS, VISITS, TALKS”……………………………………….

 

3. Unit II “COOPERATION AND AGREEMENT”……………………………

 

4. Unit III “CONFLICTS”...............................................................................

 

5. Unit IV “MILITARY ACTIVITIES, HOSTILITIES, TERRORISM………….

 

6. Приложение………………………………………………………….

 

Предисловие

Перевод общественно-политических текстов

1. В газетных заголовках типа «Russian delegation to hold security talks in Iran»или «Russian-Chinese Foreign Ministers to meet» инфинитив указывает на то, что действие произойдет в ближайшем будущем: «Российская делегация проведет переговоры по вопросу безопасности в Иране», «Состоится встреча министров иностранных дел России и Китая». Глагол в Present Simple Tense в заголовке означает, что действие относится к прошлому: «Russia Signs WTO Accession Protocol with UAE» - «Россия подписала протокол о вступлении в ВТО с ОАЭ».

2. Обратите внимание на то, что в США и Великобритании существует различие в наименовании должности министра иностранных дел:

State Secretary – госсекретарь США (министр иностранных дел США);

Foreign Secretary - министр иностранных дел Великобритании.

(Deputy Foreign Secretary – заместитель министра иностранных дел Великобритании).

Соответственно различаются и названия министерств:

State Department – Госдепартамент (Министерство иностранных дел США);

Foreign Office - Министерство иностранных дел Великобритании.

Необходимо различать употребление слов minister и ministry, с помощью которых мы передаем понятия, соответствующие русским министр и министерство, от общепринятых в США и Великобритании терминов secretary и department.

3. Простой инфинитив (to do), следующий за конструкцией to be expected (to be reported, to be believed, to be announced и т. д.), относит действие к будущему, а перфектный (to have done) – к прошлому:

The sides are also expected to discuss the Iranian nuclear program. – Ожидается, что стороны также обсудят ядерную программу Ирана.

The Foreign Secretary is reported to have had talks with Russian government delegation. – По сообщениям прессы, министр иностранных дел Великобритании провел переговоры с представителями российского правительства.

4. Глагол to be с инфинитивом с частицей to выполняет функцию модального глагола и употребляется для выражения необходимости совершить действие согласно предварительной договоренности или заранее намеченному плану:

Lavrov is to meet with Slovenian Foreign Minister. – Лавров должен встретиться с министром иностранных дел Словении.

5. Head of Stateглава государства, Heads of State – главы государств.

Обратите внимание, что во втором случае существительное state употребляется в форме единственного числа.

 

UNIT I


ARRIVALS, VISITS, TALKS

Russia and U.S. to sign civilian nuclear pact

U.S. and Czech Republic sign deal on missile shield

Missile defense system hinders progress at Russia and U.S. talks

8) Venezuela, Colombia hold talks to repair ties

Talks signal Mideast shift

Germany moves into Georgia-Russia dispute

4. Translate the following article into Russian using active vocabulary: Russian delegation to hold security talks in Iran
   

 

 

 

MOSCOW, April 28 (RIA Novosti) -A high-ranking Russian Security Council official will hold talks with senior Iranian officials in Tehran on Monday.

The Russian delegation headed by acting Security Council secretary Valentin Sobolev is also due to meet with the Secretary of the Supreme National Security Council, Saeed Jalili, as a follow up to the secretary's visit to Moscow in December 2007.

The officials will discuss "bilateral cooperation in security, as well as topical international and regional issues," Iran's Security Council said in an official statement.

The sides are also expected to discuss the Iranian nuclear program, as well as the situation in the Middle East, a source close the negotiations told RIA Novosti.

A delegation from the International Atomic Energy Agency, led by its deputy director general, Olli Heinonen, will also arrive in Tehran on Monday to continue talks on the Islamic Republic's nuclear program started last week.

President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said Iran was prepared to try and reach an agreement with any country over its nuclear program, but will not stop its development of peaceful atomic energy despite outside pressure.

The international community has demanded that Tehran halt uranium enrichment, used both in electricity generation and nuclear weapons production. Iran insists on its right to civilian nuclear energy, and has defied three sets of United Nations sanctions over its nuclear program.

Iran, however, announced this month it was installing another 6,000 uranium enrichment centrifuges at its underground facility in Natanz in addition to the current 3,000. The country also announced tests of advanced enrichment centrifuges, along with plans to build a second uranium processing plant by next March.

The country's nuclear ambitions have fueled tensions with Washington, with U.S. President George Bush refusing late last year to rule out military action against Tehran.

Russia and China, which both have strong business interests in Iran, blocked stronger measures against the country using their vetoes at the UN Security Council.

 

28/04/2008, International Herald Tribune

5. Answer the questions:

1) What is the Russian delegation’s visit to Tehran aimed at?

2) Who will a high-ranking Russian Security Council official hold talks with?

Who is the Russian delegation headed by?

3) What issues will the Russian and Iranian officials discuss during this meeting?

4) Who will also arrive in Tehran to continue talks on the Islamic Republic's nuclear program?

5) What has the international community demanded from Tehran to do?

6) What announcements were made by the Iranian government this month?

7) Why has the Iranian nuclear program raised concern in the West?

8) How did the USA, Russia and China try to put more pressure on the Iranian government?

 

Translate the following article into Russian using active vocabulary

 

UNIT II


COOPERATION AND AGREEMENT

1. Active vocabulary: words and word combinations:

1. cooperation – сотрудничество

versatile (multiform, multisided) cooperation – многостороннее сотрудничество

fruitful cooperation – плодотворное сотрудничество

comprehensive cooperation – всеобъемлющее сотрудничество

cooperation in research work – сотрудничество в научно-исследовательской области

to cooperate in the field (sphere, branch, area) of economy – сотрудничать в области экономики

to intensify cooperation – усилить сотрудничество

 

2. an agreement (a contract, a deal, an accord) – соглашение, договор

a preliminary agreement – предварительное соглашение

an initial agreement - первоначальное соглашение

a final agreement – окончательное соглашение

a long-term agreement – долгосрочное соглашение

a short-term agreement - краткосрочное соглашение

a unilateral agreement – одностороннее соглашение

a bilateral agreement – двустороннее соглашение

an intergovernmental agreement – межправительственно соглашение

a framework agreement – рамочное соглашение

a landmark agreement – «эпохальное» соглашение

to seek an agreement – искать согласие

to reach (to come to) an agreement – прийти к соглашению

to sign an agreement – подписать соглашение

to conclude (strike) an agreement – заключить договор

to ratify an agreement – ратифицировать соглашение

to implement an agreement – выполнять соглашение

to cancel an agreement – аннулировать соглашение

to carry out provisions of an agreement – выполнять положения договора

under an agreement – по соглашению, согласно договоренности

 

3. to enter into force (to go into effect)– входить в силу (начать действовать)

 

4. to enter into a pact – заключить договор

5. to extend (to expand) – расширять

to extend ties (links) – расширять связи

an extension (spread) – расширение

extension of all-round cooperation – расширение всестороннего сотрудничества

extensive – широкий

 

6. links (ties, contacts, relations) – связи

interstate links – межгосударственные связи

longstanding links – продолжительные отношения

to maintain vast links – поддерживать обширные связи

to revitalize (to revive, to renew, to refresh) ties – оживлять связи

to intensify links – усиливать связи

to cement ties – устанавливать прочную связь

 

7. to boost – способствовать росту, повышать, усиливать

a boost – быстрый рост, повышение

to give a boost to (to give an impetus) – давать толчок, послужить стимулом, ускорять

 

8. an advantage (benefit) – выгода, преимущество

to seek advantage (over) – искать выгоду

to take advantage of – использовать что-либо в своих интересах

to one’s best advantage – наилучшим, самым выгодным образом

advantageous (beneficial) – выгодный

mutually advantageous terms – взаимовыгодные условия

 

9. benefit (profit) – выгода, польза

common benefit – общая выгода

to yield considerable benefit – приносить огромную пользу

to benefit from – извлекать пользу из чего-либо

 

10. a move (a step, an action) – шаг, действие, поступок

a political move – политическая инициатива (ход, маневр)

to make a move – предпринять что-либо, начать действовать

 

11. to promote ( develop, foster) – продвигать, содействовать

to promote cooperation – развивать сотрудничество

to promote the relaxation of international tension – способствовать ослаблению международной напряженности

 

12. to embrace (cover) fields (spheres) – охватывать области

 

13. to contribute to – способствовать чему-либо

 

14. to strengthen – укреплять

 

15. to deepen – углублять

 

16. to smooth (to ease, to lessen) – сглаживать, смягчать

 

17. to forge – вырабатывать, строить (отношения)

to forge a special relationship – устанавливать особые отношения

 

18. to be at an impasse – быть в тупике

 

19. rapprochement – сближение

 

20. to achieve a breakthrough – добиться прорыва

 

21. to iron out (bridge) differences – устранять противоречия

 

22. to rule out – исключить, вынести решение не делать

 

 

2. Translate into Russian using active vocabulary:

1. Agreements on extending trade and economic, industrial and technical cooperation between Russia and Canada were signed last week during Russian Foreign Minister’s stay in Ottawa. It was also agreed to resume talks on a programme for exchanges in science, education and other areas.

2. Russia has signed a protocol on completing bilateral talks with the United Arab Emirates on its accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), Russian Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin said on Sunday. "The agreement that has been signed testifies to the parties' intention to develop and strengthen bilateral cooperation in the economic sphere within a multilateral trade system, contribute to more intense mutual trade and closer friendly relations," Kudrin said after a signing ceremony.

3. President George W. Bush looked into the eyes of Russia's new president, Dmitri Medvedev, on Monday and saw, he said, "a smart guy."The two presidents spent more than an hour together here in their first face-to-face meeting since Medvedev succeeded Vladimir Putin. Afterward, they said they had agreed on the need for Iran and North Korea to abandon their nuclear ambitions, but did not bridge their differences on Bush's proposal to build a missile defense system in Eastern Europe.

4. The United States and the Czech Republic on Tuesday signed an initial agreement to begin basing part of a U.S. missile shield in the Czech Republic. Earlier, Rice all but ruled out a stop in Poland this week, saying that the United States had answered Polish demands for military hardware and the final agreement rested with Polish authorities.

5. Poland's top diplomats were in Washington on Monday in crisis talks to seek agreement with the United States over terms for deploying part of the Pentagon's anti-ballistic missile shield on its territory. The talks took place a day before Rice was to arrive in the Czech Republic for a landmark signing ceremony. The Czech Foreign Ministry confirmed Monday that Washington and Prague would sign a legal accord allowing the Pentagon to base its radar defense missile system not far from the capital, Prague. That ceremony, analysts say, will complete the Czech Republic's goal of becoming integrated into the U.S. security and strategic system.

6. The White House press secretary said Thursday that Bush hoped to discuss with Medvedev areas where the two countries could "intensify cooperation in the months ahead, including on missile defense and Russia's bid to join the World Trade Organization. Bush also wants to learn more about the Russian leader's domestic priorities.”

7. Russia is in favor of the development of all-round cooperation with Japan and other developed countries. Economic links are mutually beneficial, they promote the relaxation of international tension and help build confidence between the two countries.

8. Russia wants to trade and cooperate with Western countries, including Britain. It doesn’t seek one-sided advantages. Of course, such trade benefits Russia but it also benefits Western countries providing employment and often long-term orders. Long-term economic agreements between countries create trust in each other’s intentions. It is also true in a political sense as it promotes the development of peaceful coexistence. So the improvement in British-Russian economic cooperation is to be welcomed.

9. A landmark agreement was reached in Beijing that clears the way for direct chartered flights to the island and back every weekend — and businessmen keen on developing ties to the mainland are breathing easier. "The direct flights would save us a whole work day when we travel," says Samuel Chiu, a Taiwan-based business development manager at electronic instrumentation manufacturer Agilent Technologies. "That's the biggest cost benefit. Traveling to Shanghai will only take two hours now."

10. Russian–French cooperation has yielded considerable benefit to both countries. Economic and scientific ties of Russia and France embrace today such fields as space exploration, electronic computers, unique machinery and equipment.

11. The USA and China yesterday signed an accordto smooth future trade relations. The deal aimsto foster cooperation in areas such as telecommunications, chemicals, electric power, aviation, automotive machinery and services where China needs help and in which American business excels.

12. Plans to enter into a political and economic pact between the European Union and the Mediterranean countries of North Africa and the Middle East may fail on the issue of aid.

13. Russia and the United States will sign a long awaited civilian nuclear cooperation pact on Tuesday that will allow firms from the world's two biggest atomic powers to expand bilateral nuclear trade significantly. The deal will be signed in Moscow on the last full day of Vladimir Putin's presidency. The deal will open up the booming U.S. nuclear market and Russia's vast uranium fields to firms from both countries. Without a deal cooperation was severely limited and required official consent.

14. Russia and the European Union (EU) will start talks on a new Partnership and Cooperation Agreement in Brussels on July 4. This has become possible owing to the joint efforts undertaken under the 1994 PCA, which expired last year. The summit in Khanty-Mansiisk kicked off negotiations on a new agreement.Some of these areas have already been mentioned in Moscow and Brussels, for instance energy cooperation, science and technology, trade and investment (after Russia's WTO entry), and visa-free travel. Some specific agreements may be drafted alongside the basic document, but on the whole a package of such agreements is expected to be the next stage in the formation of a new political and legal foundation for a Russia-EU strategic partnership.

15. Ending an 18-month impasse, European Union countries agreed Wednesday to begin wide-ranging new negotiations with Russia, raising hopes that an era of tension and confrontation with Moscow could give way to an improved relationship.

16. In a rare diplomatic breakthrough in recent relations, the Bush administration signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement with Russia this month. But that deal is facing stiff opposition from lawmakers, who argue that Russia is not doing enough to prevent Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapon and that now is not the time for cooperation with Putin's Russia.

17. "We have agreed that there should be a joint strategic framework document for the presidents to be able to record all of the elements of the U.S.-Russian relationship as we go forward into the future," said Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. She said negotiations had brought consensus on which parts of the relationship would be in the document; the dozen or so policy issues include trade, counter-terrorism and nuclear proliferation. Her counterpart, Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov, said the talks also covered "some contentious issues where we have not reached agreement as of now," in particular missile defense and the exact legal form of a future bilateral limit on nuclear weapons.

18. There are many reasons for the chill but none greater than the regrettable wars both nations have launched: Russia's in Chechnya and the U.S.'s in Iraq. The wars have damaged prospects for what seemed attainable a decade and a half ago: Russia and the U.S. genuinely engaged in collaboration based on shared common values, spanning the old cold war dividing lines and thereby enhancing global security and expanding the transatlantic community.

19. Russia and Britain have put their differences over Iraq behind them, and are working together on key international issues. In a joint press conference on the last day of Mr Putin's state visit to Britain, the two leaders spoke of increasingly close political and economic ties between the countries, underlined by a landmark energy deal signed this morning that will see Britain become Russia's largest foreign investor.

20. In an interview with Sky News yesterday, Mr Brown said: “America is our most important ally, it will always be because of the values we share with America, and so it is central to how we conduct our foreign policy. The great change that is taking place, that I think is to the advantage of everyone, is that France and Germany and the EU are also moving more closely with America. And I think that’s to the benefit of Britain, it’s to the benefit of the world.”

 

3. Translate the following article into Russian using active vocabulary:

 

UNIT III


CONFLICTS

1. Active vocabulary: words and word combinations:

 

1. a stance - позиция

a tough stance – жесткая позиция

an aggressive stance – агрессивная позиция

to stiffen one’s stance – ужесточить позицию

 

2. to stall – зайти в тупик

stalled negotiations – зашедшие в тупик переговоры

 

3. to sever ties – порвать отношения

severance of diplomatic relations – разрыв дипломатических отношений

 

4. a party to a dispute – сторона, участник конфликта

 

5. a standoff – противостояние, конфликт

 

6. to be at loggerheads – быть в ссоре, не в ладу с кем-то

 

7. to handle (tackle) a dispute – заниматься разбором спорного вопроса

to settle (resolve) a dispute peacefully (through negotiations) – разрешить

спорный вопрос мирным путем (путем переговоров)

 

8. to constrain a conflict – сдерживать конфликт

 

9. to trigger a conflict – вызывать конфликт

 

10. to accuse smb. of doing smth. – обвинять кого-либо в чем-либо

 

11. sanctions (restrictions, an embargo, a ban) – меры воздействия, санкции

to apply restrictions in (trade) – применять, использовать ограничения (в торговле)

to violate embargo – нарушать эмбарго

to extend sanctions – продлить, распространить санкции

the extension of existing sanctions – продление существующих санкций

to back sanctions – поддерживать санкции

to drop (remove, lift, abandon ) sanctions – отменить (снять) ограничения

to impose sanctions – наложить (ввести) санкции

 

12. a hurdle – препятствие

to remove a hurdle – устранить препятствие

 

13. a deadlock (stalemate)– тупик

to break the deadlock – преодолеть тупик

 

14. to make concessions – делать уступки

to concede – уступать

 

15. to reach a consensus – прийти к согласию

 

16. to remove obstacles – устранить препятствия

 

17. to escalate (heighten) tensions – усиливать напряженность

 

18. to reduce (ease, lower) tensions – уменьшить, снизить напряженность

 

19. differences – зногласия

to iron out differences – устранять противоречия

to smooth differences – сглаживать противоречия

to resolve (tackle) differences – разрешить разногласия

to overcome differences – преодолевать разногласия

 

20. to be on the verge of collapse – быть на грани срыва

 

21. to collapse (to breakdown) – провалиться (о переговорах)

a breakdown – провал

to fail – не удаваться, терпеть неудачу

 

22. to urge smb. to do smth. – призывать кого-либо сделать что-либо

 

23. to put strong pressure on – оказывать давление на кого-либо

 

24. reconciliation – примирение

 

25. to thaw – теплеть (об отношениях)

a thaw in relations – оттепель в отношениях

 

26. deadline – крайний срок

 

 

2. Translate into Russian using active vocabulary:

1. The clash of interests will come over the CIS countries in Eastern Europe and the Southern Caucasus. In effect, the EU and Russia are competing for economic and political influence in these regions. If that were not enough, they are also divided on the domestic situation in Ukraine, Belarus, and Georgia, and hold deeply opposing views on the best ways of settling the "frozen conflicts" in Transdnestr in Moldova, Abkhazia and South Ossetia in Georgia, and Nagorny Karabakh between Armenia and Azerbaijan.

2. Seeking to force President Robert Mugabe into negotiations with the opposition, the United States formally proposed UN Security Council sanctions on Zimbabwe, including an international arms embargo and punitive measures against the 14 people it deemed most responsible for undermining the presidential election through violence.

3. Though Washington says it prefers a diplomatic resolution to the standoff over Iran's nuclear activity, the U.S. and Israel have not ruled out a military option. Iran insists its nuclear program is only for peaceful purposes, such as energy production. On Friday, Iran's top Revolutionary Guards commander, Gen. Mohammed Ali Jafari, said Iran would consider any military action against its nuclear facilities as the beginning of a war.

4. And while the governments may be at loggerheads, the business communities of Russia and the U.K. are closely entwined. “Russia still gets foreign direct investment from the U.K. and there's 400,000 Russians living in the U.K., and this is the Russian elite. The U.K. has an interest in them being here because they bring in a lot of money, with all these Russian companies listed on the London Stock Exchange."

5. Today the international community's deadline for the final attempt to hammer out a negotiated solution to the problem of Kosovo's future expired. The international "troika" overseeing talks between Kosovo Albanians, who want independence from Belgrade as soon as possible, and Serbs, who are willing to grant only a greater degree of autonomy, delivered their report on the talks' failure to the U.N. Security Council. The breakdown has raised fears of renewal of violence in the region. But while tensions are indeed rising, there are sound reasons why the worst-case scenarios — including new conflict in the Balkans — probably will not be realized.

6. Amid increasing concern from the United States and the European Union that tensions between Russia and Georgia could escalate into open conflict, the Foreign Minister of Germany is seeking to mediate among all sides, traveling to Georgia and its Russian-backed breakaway region of Abkhazia on Thursday, then to Moscow on Friday. He said Germany's equally close ties with Georgia and Russia offered a chance of at least lowering tensions and getting all sides to talk.

7. The Secretary of State will sign the plan in Prague, but it faces some hurdles. Talks with Poland have stalled over Warsaw's demands for U.S. aid to help modernize its army, and the Czech treaty will face opposition in Parliament.

8. In another sign of a step-by-step thaw in US-Iranian relations, The Secretary of State has softened the US warning against Americans traveling to the Islamic republic, a senior American official said.

9. The US yesterday imposed economic sanctions on Burma, banning new investments by American companies in the military-ruled southeast Asian country. The sanctions allow existing agreements to remain in place. The US is the fourth largest foreign investor in Burma. The White House has been under pressure from Congress to impose the sanctions and called for a ban on new investment.

10. Despite Zimbabwe's opposition Movement for Democratic Change holding its first talks with representatives of President Robert Mugabe's government on Thursday, there's no early end in sight to the country's political stalemate. The meeting in the South African capital, Tshwane (formerly Pretoria) was aimed at pursuing a power-sharing agreement, to resolve the increasingly violent deadlock that has followed the widely discredited June 27 runoff election through which Mugabe claimed reelection following the withdrawal of the MDC's Morgan Tsvangirai amid a torrent of violence against his supporters. The talks reflect mounting international pressure on both sides to achieve a compromise.

11. The most negative assessment of the impasse on missile defense issues came from the Russian Defense Minister, who said, "In principle our positions have not changed."The two sides also failed to reach a deal - but agreed to continue talks - on what sort of pact might set limits on their nuclear arsenals after current treaties expire.

12. Shared values and requirements of globalization will smooth differences between Russia and the West, making them more accommodating in regards to each other as well as in international affairs in general. In dealing with the CIS countries, Moscow will respect more their sovereignty and their desire to diversify foreign relations and will prefer to solve problems in a low-key diplomatic manner rather than resorting to rhetoric and public polemics. Efforts will be made to overcome differences with the West and work closer with it. The Asia-Pacific region will also remain a focus of the Kremlin's attention. Our cooperation with China will intensify while relations with Japan will be moved ahead.

13. The idea voiced by General Baluyevsky at the recent summit is aimed at breaking the CFE deadlock. He suggested that Russia should be allowed to lift restrictions on arms on its flanks - in the north and south of its European part. This would allow it to freely move armed forces and hardware in this territory, and to react promptly to emerging situations. Russia would not increase the strength of its troops under this proposal.

14. Chavez, who just months ago called reconciliation impossible, said the talks were aimed at a "relaunch of cooperation, peace and integration of Latin America." "We have a need to take up the path again and reactivate relations. Now that depends on many things," Chavez said.

15. The President of France, eager to realize his vision for harmony and prosperity around the Mediterranean, has reached out to Syria, a nation often accused of sponsoring terrorism and undermining regional unity.

16. Sarkozy asked Assad for help in easing the international standoff with Iran over its nuclear program. Assad, in turn, asked France to contribute efforts toward a peace deal between Syria and Israel. Sarkozy, whose country holds the rotating European Union presidency, also called for reviving efforts toward an EU deal with Syria that stalled in 2005.

17. After a more than three hour session at the Group of 8 summit meeting here, leaders of African countries and industrialized nations could not reach a consensus on how to move forward. President George W. Bush and other Western leaders urged the international community to condemn Mugabe and back strong sanctions against Zimbabwe, but the leaders of the seven African nations who were also in attendance resisted growing pressure to adopt a tougher stance.

18. The Foreign Secretary said today Russia and China's decision to block international sanctions against Zimbabwe was "incomprehensible" and confirmed Britain would continue to fight to end suffering at the hands of Robert Mugabe. A draft resolution, drawn up with the United States, that went before the UN Security Council, called for travel bans on the dictator and 13 other leading members of his regime and a freeze on their overseas assets. It also proposed an arms embargo and the appointment of a special envoy to help with the creation of a new government. But the move was scuppered by Russia and China's veto. Russia's UN ambassador, said the sanctions went beyond its mandate to deal with threats to international peace and security.

19. North Korea rejected a proposal to resume stalled reconciliation talks with South Korea, while Seoul denounced the communist regime Sunday for the shooting death of a tourist that heightened tension between the divided nations.

20. The South Korean government has been battered by weeks of protests against Lee’s decision to lift an import ban on U.S. beef. Last week, a South Korean tourist was shot and killed by the North Korean military at a tourist resort in the North, and Pyongyang scoffed at Lee's offer of dialogue to reverse the deepening chill in inter-Korean relations.

21. The new Russian President met the British Prime Minister for the first time today as the two leaders attempted to thaw relations after a period of diplomatic hostility. Relations between Britain and Russia has been strained over the past two years. At last year's G8 summit Tony Blair is believed to have become embroiled in angry exchanges with Vladimir Putin, Mr Medvedev's predecessor.

 

3. Translate the following article into Russian using active vocabulary:

 

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Dmitri Medvedev

Dmitri Medvedev, the new Russian President, met Gordon Brown for the first time today as the two leaders attempted to thaw relations after a period of diplomatic hostility.

Relations between Britain and Russia have been strained over the past two years. At last year's G8 summit Tony Blair is believed to have become embroiled in angry exchanges with Vladimir Putin, Mr Medvedev's predecessor.

Mr Medvedev attended this year's conference, at Lake Toya on the Japanese island of Hokkaido, without Mr Putin, but there are suspicions that the former President is pulling strings behind the scenes.

Speaking at the start of the 45-minute meeting this morning — one of four meetings with Western leaders — Mr Medvedev said that the relationship between Russia and Britain had "enormous potential".

"This reveals the enormous potential our relationship enjoys, even with certain problems faced there, and this is a good chance to discuss the potential of development with respect to the economy and trade and humanitarian issues," the Russian leader said, speaking through interpreters.

During the meeting, Mr Brown is believed to have raised Russia's refusal to extradite the former KGB officer Andrei Lugovoy, the chief suspect in the London poisoning of the dissident Alexander Litvinenko. It was this incident that caused the rift between Russia and Britain that culminated in last year's tit-for-tat expulsions of diplomats.

Further tension has been stoked by the treatment of the British Council in Russia, with numerous employees arrested and the council's operations hampered, as well as a dispute with the oil giant BP over its operations in Russia.

"International relations always require people to come towards each other. The Prime Minister hopes his bilateral meeting with Mr Medvedev will be a constructive discussion on a wide range of issues," a British official said.

In what represented the biggest round of diplomacy since he took power, Mr Medvedev held separate talks with President Bush, Angela Merkel, the German Chancellor, and Nicolas Sarkozy, the French President.

After the meeting with Mr Bush, a senior aide to Mr Medvedev said that the talks had been "constructive". However, he added that the United States had failed to ease Russia’s concerns about its plans for a Europe-based missile shield.

"There is no real progress," Sergei Prikhodko, said. He added that Mr Medvedev warned Mr Bush that deploying interceptor missiles for the system in the former Soviet republic of Lithuania "would be absolutely unacceptable for the Russian Federation".

Mr Prikhodko said that the talks were "exclusively well-intentioned, constructive and open, but at times critical." He said that Mr Medvedev believes "the overall balance of Russian-American relations is without a doubt positive".

Elsewhere at the G8 summit this morning, leaders were locked in tense negotiations over the future of aid to Africa, as Britain and Japan resisted efforts by France and Italy to water down historic promises made at the 2005 Gleneagles summit to double development in the world’s poorest continent.

The pressure to water down the proposals comes from Nicolas Sarkozy, the French President, and Italian leader Silvio Berlusconi, who both face pressure to trim their domestic spending. It is opposed by Mr Brown and by the Japanese Prime Minister, Yasuo Fukuda.

07/07/2008, Time

 

6. Answer the questions:

1. Where did the Russian President and the British Prime Minister attempt to thaw their diplomatic relations?

2. How long have the Russian and British political leaders been at loggerheads?

3. What incidents caused a rift and led to strained diplomatic relations between the two countries?

4. How did the Russian President characterize the Russian-British relations?

5. Why are the normalized diplomatic relations beneficial for both parties?

6. What other political leaders did the Russian President hold separate talks with?

7. What contentious issue was discussed by the Russian and American Presidents? Was any consensus reached by them?

8. What disputable negotiations were the G8 leaders locked in at that summit

7. Translate the following article into Russian using active vocabulary:

Turn to current press material. Find an article on the topic “Conflicts” in a current Russian newspaper and render it into English using active vocabulary. Prepare questions on the article for discussion.

 

UNIT IV


MILITARY ACTIVITIES, HOSTILITIES,

TERRORISM

1.Active vocabulary: words and word combinations:

1. rival (adversary, enemy, foe) – соперник, противник, конкурент

rival – конкурирующий

rivalry – соперничество, противостояние, конкуренция

2. ally – союзник

to ally with – вступать в союз с

alliance – союз

 

3. armed forces – вооруженные силы

 

4. conventional forces – силы общего назначения

 

5. arms race – гонка вооружений

 

6. strategic arms cuts – сокращение стратегического вооружения

 

7. disarmament – разоружение

 

8. weapon – оружие

conventional weapon - обычное оружие

nuclear weapon – ядерное оружие

NBC (Nuclear, Bacteriological and Chemical) weapons – ядерное, бактериологическое и химическое оружие

WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction) – оружие массового поражения

offensive and defensive advanced weaponry – современное наступательное и оборонительное вооружение

proliferation of weapons – распространение оружия

acquisition of weapons – приобретение оружия

unauthorized use of nuclear weapons – несанкционированное применение ядерного оружия

 

9. nuclear warheads – ядерные боеголовки

 

10. uranium enrichment programme – программа по обогащению урана

 

11. to test nuclear weapons (to conduct a nuclear-weapon test) – проводить испытания ядерного оружия

 

12. to halt tests – останавливать испытания

 

13. to ban (prohibit) the use of nuclear weapons – запретить использование ядерного оружия

 

14. an abolition – упразднение, отмена, ликвидация, уничтожение

abolition of nuclear weapons – ликвидация, уничтожение ядерного оружия

to abolish (to annihilate) – упразднять, уничтожать

 

15. the nuclear-weapon states (powers)– государства, обладающие ядерным оружием

16. “rouge” states – государства-изгои

 

17. transfer of armaments – поставка оружия

 

18. a supplying country – страна-поставщик

a recipient country – страна-получатель

 

19. missile – ракета

a cruise missile – крылатая ракета

a ballistic missile – баллистическая ракета

interceptor missiles – ракеты-перехватчики

 

20. antiballistic missile defence – противоракетная оборона (ПРО)

antiballistic missile defence system (shield) - система противоракетной обороны

to build, place (establish, station), install an antiballistic missile defence system (shield)– построить, разместить, установить систему противоракетной обороны

ABM Treaty – Договор по ПРО

 

21. a launch site – площадка для запуска ракет

 

22. to deploy – развертывать, применять, приводить в действие

deployment – размещение, развертывание

to deploy missiles – развертывать ракеты

to install missiles – устанавливать ракеты

 

23. war – война

full-scale war – полномасштабная война

all-out war – всеобщая война

civil war – гражданская война

on the brink of war – на гране войны

to wage the war – вести войну

warring parties – воюющие стороны

prisoners of war – военнопленные

 

24. to launch an attack – подвергнуть нападению

 

25. to pose a threat to – представлять угрозу

 

26. to jeopardize (endanger) – подвергать риску

 

27. to deter and defend against any threat of aggression – сдерживать и защищаться от любой угрозы агрессии

 

28. to fight (struggle) against smb. or smth. – бороться против кого-либо, чего-либо (с кем-либо,чем-либо)

to fight for smb. or smth. - бороться за кого-либо, что-либо

 

29. fighting - бои

 

30. hostilities - боевые действия

cessation of hostilities – прекращение боевых действий

ceasefire – прекращение огня

 

31. violence – насилие

an outbreak of violence – вспышка насилия

 

32. atrocities – зверства

 

33. massacres – массовые истребления (людей)

 

34. bloodshed – кровопролитие

 

35. military takeover – захват власти военными

 

36. civilian casualties (losses) – потери (гибели) среди мирного населения

 

37. the injured (the wounded) – раненные

 

38. a refugee – беженец

39. to flee (fled, fled) – покидать дома

 

40. truce – перемирие

 

41. a terrorist act – террористический акт

 

42. a terror group (cell) – террористическая группа (ячейка)

 

43. a militant – боевик

 

44. a suicide bomber – террорист-смертник

a suicide bombing – атака террориста смертника

 

45. a perpetrator of a terrorist attack – исполнитель террористической атаки

 

46. a blast (explosion) – взрыв

 

47. to claim responsibility for – взять на себя ответственность за

 

48. hostage-taking – захват заложников

 

2. Translate into Russian using active vocabulary:

1) Without a new multilateral effort, the risk of a new nuclear arms race and of rogue states and terrorist organizations getting their hands on nuclear material could bring the world back to the brink of nuclear war.

2) Nuclear disarmament is one of the most important issues of our time. As long as the United States and Russia between them have more than 11,000 nuclear warheads deployed, they have little credibility to persuade unrecognized nuclear weapons states like Israel, India, Pakistan and North Korea to scrap their arsenals, and perhaps even less to get Iran to trade in its enrichment program for any form of economic or other incentives.

3) Under Article 6 of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the five declared nuclear powers on the United Nations Security Council are committed to phasing out their arsenals.

4) Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov criticized U.S. plans for a missile defense system with element in Eastern Europe to protect against the threat posed by Iran, saying the system “has little in common with its declared goal.” Instead, he said, it is the “advancement of the strategic structure of the American system in Eastern Europe.”

5) The U.S. plan would install a radar base in the Czech Republic and 10 interceptor missiles in Poland — both former Soviet satellites that are now NATO members. It is part of a wider missile shield involving defenses in California and Alaska which the United States says are to defend against any long-range missile attack from countries such as North Korea or Iran.

Russia strongly opposes the idea, saying Iran is decades away from developing missile technology that could threaten Europe or North America, and it says the U.S. bases will undermine Russia's own missile deterrent force.

6) Russia threatened to deploy rockets in the European Union’s backyard yesterday in retaliation for American plans to install a missile defence shield. The US wants to place ten interceptor missiles in Poland and a radar station in the Czech Republic to counter possible rocket attacks from “rogue states” such as Iran. Russia has denounced the plan as a threat to its own security.

7) The last time the leaders met, when Mr Blair was on a state visit to Moscow in April, Mr Putin rebuffed his attempts at reconciliation by refusing to lift UN sanctions and mocking the possibility that weapons of mass destruction existed in Iraq.

8) Tehran’s test launches of medium-range ballistic missiles last week were seen in Washington as provocative and poorly judged, but both the Pentagon and the CIA concluded that they did not represent an immediate threat of attack against Israeli or US targets.

9) Iran has repeatedly insisted it will not give up enrichment, but it had said the incentives package had some "common ground" with Tehran's own proposals for a resolution to the standoff. Oil-rich Iran insists its enrichment work is intended to produce fuel for nuclear reactors that would generate electricity. The six nations — the U.S., China, Russia, France, Britain and Germany — first offered a package of economic, technological and political incentives to Tehran nearly two years ago on condition that it suspend enrichment.The standoff has led to increasingly tense exchanges about the possibility of a military strike by Israel or the U.S. An Israeli military exercise last month was seen as a warning to Iran.

10) The United States Friday called upon Macedonia's Slavs and ethnic Albanians to "cease fighting and focus on a political solution" to the violent conflict between Albanian extremists and government forces.

11) Monitoring the situation in Sderot, Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman expressed cautious optimism."We hope the truce will be kept by all parties. Yesterday, that barrage of 30 Qassams ... just before the cease-fire went into force shows that they decided to kill as many Israelis as possible before the cease-fire." There were no casualties as a result of the rocket strikes. Just an hour before the truce went into effect, an Israeli airstrike aimed at militants near the El Brag camp in the middle of Gaza killed one and injured three, Palestinian security and hospital sources said.

12) By agreeing to deal with Hamas through Egyptian mediators, Israel appears to be bending its policy of refusing to deal with Hamas, which does not recognize Israel and refuses to renounce terrorism. Several Israeli newspapers were critical of the cease-fire, saying it amounted to a political victory for Hamas. Shiron dismissed that assessment. “We have not dealt with Hamas, we spoke to the Egyptians," the Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman said. "The idea is to prevent bloodshed, and prevent Israeli citizens and Palestinians alike from getting hurt. And if this can be achieved, then I think this is good for everybody."

13) Two suicide bombers blew themselves up in a crowd of army recruits in the city of Baqouba on Tuesday, killing at least 28 people, Iraqi police said. At least 47 recruits were injured in the blast at the Saad military camp in Baqouba, the official said. The U.S. military confirmed the attack, saying it occurred around 8 a.m. on July 15, 2008.

14) The US launched a military air strike in Somalia to go after a group of terrorist suspects, defence officials said today. Somali police said three missiles hit a Somali town held by Islamic extremists, destroying a home and seriously injuring eight people early today.

15) Germany said yesterday it had arrested three Islamic militants suspected of planning "imminent" and "massive" bomb attacks on Frankfurt's international airport and a nearby US military base, preventing what would have been the most devastating terrorist attack on an American target since 11 September 2001. Since the start of this year, Chancellor Merkel's government has repeatedly warned that Germany faces the real threat of a terror attack.

16) In 2001, Islamist attacks were still a novelty in the US and the UK though not in France, which was one of the first European countries to recognize the threat posed by political Islam. Now we are growing used not just to the existence of an Islamist terror network in Britain, consisting both of young men who were born here and others from Pakistan and the Middle East, but of the inchoate rage which fuels it.

17) It was an attack everyone had warned was inevitable, a matter of time. That did not make the moment any less dreadful, however, or the task of catching the perpetrators any easier. By general consent the response of the emergency services to the wave of bombings that shattered London's Thursday morning rush hour could scarcely have been better. There are also fears that any future attack could involve attempts to detonate a "dirty" bomb - one contaminated with nuclear waste, which might not cause widespread casualties but could shut off a large area of London, disrupting the life of the city far more than Thursday's atrocity.

18) The major line of investigation is that the bombings were carried out by an alliance of terrorists formed specifically for this operation, perhaps using the name Secret Organisation Group of al-Qaida of Jihad Organisation in Europe, the first to claim responsibility.

19) The second stage of the German plan would involve the return of up to 250,000 Georgian refugees to Abkhazia. They fled in the early 1990s during the Soviet Union's breakup, which turned extremely violent in this part of its former empire.This stage would be followed by a donors' conference to finance the reconstruction of infrastructure and housing and promote business contacts between Georgia and Abkhazia.

20) After years of escalating tensions and bloodshed, the talk in the Middle East is suddenly about talking. The shift is still relatively subtle, but hints of a new approach in the waning months of the Bush administration are fueling hopes of at least short-term stability for the first time since the invasion of Iraq in 2003.Much is happening, adding up not to any great diplomatic breakthrough, but to a distinct change in direction. Syria is being welcomed out of isolation by Europe and is holding indirect talkswith Israel. Lebanon has formed a new government. Israel has cut deals with Hamas (a cease-fire) and Hezbollah (a prisoner exchange).

21) Unless Iran responds positively in the next two weeks, it can expect more sanctions to be imposed by the United States and the European Union as early as late August or September and may then be hit with a fourth sanctions resolution at the U.N. Security Council, Rice said. The offer envisions a six-week commitment from Iran to stop expanding uranium enrichment, during which time no additional sanctions would be imposed. That is intended to create the framework for formal negotiations that, it



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