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Plant Formations and Their Environment
Many elements make up a plant’s environment. One of the most important is weather. Sunlight, temperature, rain and snow affect the growth of plants.
The environment of a plant also includes the soil and other plants and animals that live in the same area. All these factors make up a natural formation. Scientists classify four natural plant formations in Ukraine.
The fist formation is the Forest Region.
It occupies the northern and north-western parts of Ukraine. Forests cover 30% of the territory and consist of both coniferous and deciduous trees.
The Forest-Steppe Region stretches in a wide belt between the Forest Region and the Steppe Region. It occupies 36% of the country’s agricultural land. Farmers grow there such crops as winter and spring wheat, corn, sugar beet, different vegetables and fruit.
The next formation is Steppe where we may find a lot of grasses. They are the most typical plants there, 45% of the grassland is used for agriculture. In the fields you can see winter wheat, corn, sunflower, vegetables, melons, watermelons and grapes. The soil there is a fertile chernozem (black soil).
Still another formation is the Carpathian Mountains. Most parts of them are forests. Firs and oaks grow there. The mountains influence the climate greatly. The highest point of Ukraine – Hoverla – is in the Carpathians.
The Crimean Mountains protect the Southern coast from bitter steppe winds and the climatic conditions there are close to those of the Mediterranean.
We must preserve forests, grasslands and soil. Thus the knowledge in the ecology of the natural plant formations becomes very important.
Read and translate the dialogue.
(Ann and Kate meet at the University)
Kate: Hello, Ann! You know, I am to speak about Ukrainian plant formations at the students’ conference.Where could I get the information?
Ann: Not long ago I read about it in the Ukrainian Biology journal. The article may be useful to you.
Kate:Could you tell me what plant formations there are in Ukraine?
Ann:Certainly. They are: forest region, forest-steppe region, steppe region, the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains.
Kate: And in which zone can farmers grow the highest yields of crops?
Ann: I think in the steppe region. It includes almost 45% of Ukraine’s total agricultural area. You know 95% of the Ukrainian area is flat.
Kate: And which is the highest point in Ukraine?
Ann: It’s Hoverla – 2061 m – in the Carpathians. The Crimean Mountains are not very high but they are very picturesque.
Kate: Thank you so much for the information you’ve given me.
I. Give English equivalents to the following words and word-combinations:
утворювати природну зону; сонячне світло; та ж сама площа; північно-західна частина; хвойні дерева; листяні дерева; широка смуга; сільськогосподарська площа; яра пшениця; озима пшениця; типові рослини; родючий грунт; південне узбережжя; впливати на ріст рослин; лісова зона; різні овочі та фрукти; знання екології; кліматичні умови; зберігати ліси та пасовиська.
II. Define parts of speech of the following words:
environment, important, growth, natural, formation, northern, deciduous, agricultural, typical, southern, condition, climatic.
III. Match each word on the left with a word on the right and use these word-combinations in your own sentences:
IV. Arrange the words to form a sentence:
1) winds, the Crimean, coast, bitter, mountains, from, protect, the southern, steppe.
2) occupies, parts, the north-western, of, Ukraine, region, the forest.
3) the most, plants, are, Steppe, typical, in, region, grasses.
4) classify, plant, in, scientists, four, Ukraine, natural, formations.
5) environment, the soil, includes, of, the plant, animals, other, weather, plants, and.
V. Define the meaning of the modal verbs in the following sentences and translate them:
1. You must heat the mixture for 2 hours.
2. You should control the experiment.
3. You can’t cross the street here.
4. It may rain today. Take an umbrella!
5. If he doesn’t know how to translate these words he should ask the teacher.
6. You mustn’t smoke here.
7. He can speak 3 foreign languages.
8. May I come in? – Yes, you may.
11. You shouldn’t speak Ukrainian at your English lessons.
12. He can drive a tractor well.
13. Peter must be at the University now. They have a meeting today.
14. She can meet you at the station today.
15. He can’t carry this bag. It is too heavy.
16. We had to come back home as it got quite dark.
17. He must be angry with you.
VI. Write these sentences in Past and Future Indefinite:
A. 1. We can solve this problem.
2. I can do this work myself.
3. She can translate this article without a dictionary.
4. He can buy a flat for his children.
5. They can read this text.
6. He can carry this box.
B.1. We must go home.
2. You must bring me a book.
3. He must get up early.
4. He must study well.
5. You must learn this poem by heart.
6. You must wait for me.
VII. Choose the correct option of the modal verb or its equivalent:
1. He (can / had to / could) help me yesterday.
2. When I was six, I (cannot / could not) cycle.
3. She (can / could) cook better than anyone else in the family.
4. We (can / could) read that Spanish text yesterday.
5. She (could / was able to) dance very well when she was a child.
6. We (had to / were to) meet them at the airport at 8 p.m. last Sunday.
7. (Can / could) your brother swim across the river? – No, he (can’t/ could not.)
8. I (can / could) play the guitar.
9. (Could / can) we play volleyball now?
10. What (will be able to / can) you cook for the next birthday?
11. He (cannot / couldn’t) do this work better than his partner does.
12. I (can / could) change it just because you want it.
13. She (can / will be able to) make you a new dress next Sunday.
14. We (will be able to / can) watch this performance tomorrow.
VIII. Choose the correct variant among must / to have to / to be to:
1. He (has to / must) wake uр early today.
2. You (must not / are not to) argue with the boss.
3. Every pupil (must / has to / is to) come to school in time.
4. You (must / have to) give up smoking if you want to be healthy.
5. They (are to / have to) meet her at the airport at 2 p.m.
6. What time (must / is to / have to) the meeting begin?
7. We (have to / are to) correct our mistakes.
8. He (has to / is to) find a better appartment for his family.
9. I (must / am to) handle the situation.
10. You (don’t have to / must not / are not to) do it, it’s not your duty.
11. They (are to / have to) be for the lesson in time.
IX. Translate into English using modal verbs:
1. Вам не варто кричати на дітей, це не допоможе.
2. Він не міг прийти вчасно, бо проспав.
3. Можна мені відчинити вікно? – Звісно.
4. Гори можуть впливати на клімат.
5. Ми повинні захищати довкілля.
6. Я мушу сьогодні прибрати в квартирі, бо завтра приїдуть гості.
7. Фермери мають отримувати високі врожаї на цих родючих ґрунтах.
8. Ці фактори можуть погано впливати на ріст рослин.
9. Озима та яра пшениця мають краще рости в лісостеповій зоні.
X. Answer the questions to the text “Plant Formations and Their Environment”:
1. What elements affect the growth of plants?
2. What does the environment of the plant include?
3. What natural plant formations are there in Ukraine?
4. Where is the Forest Region?
5. Where is the Forest-Steppe Region?
6. What crops do farmers grow in the Steppe Region?
7. What crops are usually grown in the Forest-Steppe Region?
8. What is the highest point in Ukraine?
Text:Agriculture in Great Britain.
Read and translate the text.
Farms in Britain
Geographically Great Britain consists of Highland Britain and Lowland Britain. Highland Britain is in the north and in the west. The soil in many parts of Highland Britain is thin and poor. Lowland Britain is a rich area with a fertile soil.
The agricultural area of England is toward the English Channel and the Continent of Europe. Most of the farms are less than 50 acres each. The types of farms are different in different soil and climatic areas. In the esatern part of Britain most farms are arable. The farmers grow different crops here. In the western part of the country most farms are dairy. Small farms in Britain are usually mixed and farmers both grow crops and keep farm animals there.
Today the main tendency in agricultural development of this country is that small traditional farms are gradually disappearing because they cannot compete with modern big industrial farms.
Britain has a mild climate. The weather changes with a wind. Winds from different parts of the world ranging from polar to tropical often visit Britain. The temperature seldom exceeds 32°C or falls below zero. The driest period is from March to June and the wettest months are from October to January.
The farmers work in the fields all the year round.
The main agricultural products of Britain are wheat, barley, oats, corn, different vegetables and fruit, dairy products and different kinds of meat.
A comparatively high level of agriculture enables Britain to provide about half of the foodstuff from its soil.
Britain imports meat, butter, wheat, tea, fruit, tobacco etc.
There are several million acres of woodland in Great Britain. The estimated private forests make up about a half of the forest area.
I. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following words and word-combinations:
Lowland Britain; Highland Britain; fertile soil; arable farms; mixed farms; the wettest months; the driest period; to keep farm animals; agricultural development; to compete; mild climate; tropical regions; to disappear gradually; the main tendency; different kinds of meat; to provide foodstuff; private forests; to estimate woodland.
II. Define parts of speech of the following words:
geographycally, climatic, arable, different, mixed, fertile, tendency, development, gradually, traditional, temperature, wettest, agricultural, winds, farmer, private.
III. Match the antonyms:
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