ТОП 10:

V. Complete the sentences with an appropriate word from the box. Make sure you use the correct form.

undergraduates, to discuss, department, diary, annual, applied ecology, to cooperate, to attend, to examine


1. The future students must ... day or evening classes in one of the subjects that has not been studied at school.

2. The student who shows the best knowledge of farming is given an ... prize.

3. The important problems of agricultural education ... at the conference.

4. The future students keep ... of their practical training which ... by the teacher.

5. Most of the universities have ... of agriculture.

6. Agricultural colleges usually ... with leading farmers of Britain in student practical training.

7. How many ... are accepted annually to the Honour School of Agriculture?

8. The students of agricultural departments have vocational courses in ...


VI. Transform the sentences using the verbs in brackets in the Passive Voice:

Example: That church looks very old (it / to build) 1760 – It was built in 1760.

1. This is a very popular festival of folk songs (it/ to attend/millions of people).

2. They could not meet yesterday (the date of meeting/ to change).

3. There is a very thick fog in the city today (all the flights/ to put off/at the airport).

4. Jim works as an accountant (he/not to pay/very well).

5. She always celebrates her birthday at the restaurant (many friends/ to invite /every year).

6. It is a beautiful monument! (it/ to construct/ in the 19th century).

7. The library is very rich (a lot of books/ to gather/from all over the world).

8. It was an international scientific conference (many scientists/to invite/to take part in it).


VII. Change the sentences from Active into Passive:

1. They have already signed the contract.

2. The plant has bought the new equipment.

3. The sales manager took the proposal last month.

4. We had settled all the problems by the end of the last week.

5. She is preparing her report for the conference.

6. They will analyse all the data in their work.

7. The secretary always brings the mail.

8. The tourists asked the guide a lot of questions about the history of London.

9. I have bought this dress at the supermarket.

10. She was writing a composition the whole lesson.

11. The people in many countries speak English.

12. They are looking through the catalogue now.

13. We will have made the final version by the end of the year.

14. He solved a difficult problem yesterday.

15. She has just cooked this wonderful pie.



VIII. Ask the questions to the underlined words:

1. The letter was delivered yesterday. (2)

2. This article has been perfectly translated by Petrenko. (3)

3. That programme is being shown on TV at the moment. (2)

4. The New Year tree will be decorated tomorrow. (2)

5. Many places of interest are visited by Ukrainian touristsevery year. (3)

6. English is spoken in many countries. (1)

7. The concert hall is being decorated now. (2)


IX. Translate into English:

1. Ці питання будуть обговорені завтра на семінарі.

2. Дані для дипломної роботи вже зібрані.

3. Польові досліди вже завершено.

4. Декілька доповідей на конференції було присвячено проблемі захисту довкілля.

5. Вам заплатять за цю роботу наступного понеділка.

6. Текст перекладається зараз студентами.

7. Харків був заснований у XVII сторіччі.

8. Англійська, французька, іспанська, російська та китайська мови широко розповсюджені серед народів світу.

9. Питання студентської практики обговорюються зараз.

10. Студентів запрошують взяти участь у конференції.

X. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. The meeting was attended by hundreds of people.

2. His works in the field of ecology are often referred to.

3. That law was soon followed by another one.

4. These books are needed by all students.

5. This lecturer is always listened to with a great interest.

6. This man can be relied on.

7. He was laughed at.

8. This article is just being translated.

9. His scientific report will be followed by a discussion.

10. The doctor was sent for at once.

11. Her child will be taken care of.

12. We are taught English twice a week.

XI. Answer the following questions to the text “Students of Agriculture and Forestry in Britain”:

1. What types of agricultural education are there in Britain?

2. Who do the agricultural colleges cooperate with in student practical work?

3. How many days does the annual conference last?

4. What problems are discussed at the conference?

5. What do the students of the college write down in their diaries?

6. Who is the college annual prize given to?

7. What does Oxford University provide for?

8. How many undergraduates can be accepted to the Honour School of Agriculture and Forest Sciences?


Lesson 9

Text:Protection of Nature in Ukraine.

Grammar:Participle I, Participle II and their Functions.




preserve (v) зберігати
generation (n) покоління
unrestricted (p.p.) необмежений
discharge (v) звільняти
pollution (n) забруднення
consequence (n) наслідок, результат
emit (v) випускати
by-products (n) відходи виробництва
compound (n) суміш
create (v) утворювати
disrupt(v) розривати
establish (v) встановлювати
damage (n) пошкодження
security (n) безпека
concern (n) турбота
prevent (v) запобігати
facilitate (v) сприяти
exchange (n) обмін

Read and translate the text.

Protection of Nature in Ukraine

Our common goal is to preserve land for the present and future generations. But as a result of unrestricted industrialization the biological balance has been broken. Hundreds tons of harmful substances are discharged every year into the air. The pollution is a consequence of poor technology used. Such atmospheric pollutant as carbon monoxide (CO) is emitted by automobiles; sulphuric oxides arise from coal and oil burning, electric power stations, chemical plants, their by-products and dust. With the modern scientific and technological progress, man’s influence changes the biosphere. Man creates new compounds, new substances, pure chemical elements which are unknown to the biosphere.

The volume of new synthetic compounds has reached million tons. Many of them disrupt the established mechanisms of the biosphere. That is why the first task of science is to find the effective means of protecting the biosphere from pollutants.

The most horrible ecological disaster happened to Ukraine and its people after the Chernobyl tragedy in April 1986. A great damage has been done to the nature, agriculture, and people’s health. The consequences of this explosion at the atomic power station are tragic for the Ukrainian, Byelorussian, Russian and other nations.

Environmental protection is of a universal concern. That is why serious measures should be taken to create a system of ecological security.

Some progress has already been made in this direction. A great number of countries – members of the UNO – have set up the environmental protection agencies. They hold conferences discussing problems of ecologically poor regions. The international organization “Green Peace” is also doing much to preserve the environment.

Soil is of the greatest importance in the life of people, as food production depends on it. So we must do our best to preserve our agricultural lands.

The Ministry of Environment was founded in Ukraine. Its task is to control the state of environment, to prevent the pollution of fresh water, air and soil, to facilitate ecological educational development and the exchange of information on research problems.



I. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following word- combinations:

common goal; future generation; harmful substances; atmospheric pollutants; chemical plants; by-products; scientific progress; man’s influence; synthetic compounds; effective means; horrible ecological disaster; environmental protection; serious measures; fresh water.


II. Choose the synonyms from the list A) to the words in the list B):

a) unrestricted, to break, to emit, different, to reach, disaster, substance, to protect, to facilitate, consequence, concern

b) to violate, care, various, tragedy, matter, unlimited, to discharge, to achieve, to secure, to help, result.


III. What derivatives can you give to the following words:

to pollute

to know


to restrict


IV. Complete the sentences with an appropriate word or word-combination from the list:

environmental protection, facilitates, consequence, biosphere, pollutants, effective means, pollution, damage, management


1. The pollution is a ___ of poor technology used, atmospheric ___ emitted by automobiles.

2. Nowadays man’s influence is changing the ___.

3. It is necessary to find ___ of protecting the biosphere from pollutants.

4. A great ___ has been done to the agriculture, forests and people’s health.

5. ___ is of a universal concern.

6. The Ministry of Environment ___ ecological educational development in Ukraine.

7. Environmental Organizations must control the ___ of fresh water, air and soil.

8. The soil is lost as a result of poor soil ___.

V. Make Participle I and Participle II from the following verbs:

to preserve, to break, to burn, to know, to protect, to do, to create, to take, to set, to face, to educate.


VI. Translate the sentences defining the functions of Participle I and Participle II:

1. The man working in the reading room is my brother.

2. Translating the text I didn’t look up words in the dictionary.

3. look at the trees growing here!

4. They were reading journals on an interesting problem of ecology.

5. A person bringing good news is always welcome.

6. Having lived in the town all his life he knew it very well.

7. While playing football yesterday he fell and hurt himself.

8. Having received the information required they signed the contract.

9. Having come to the theatre, she saw that the performance had already begun.

10. Using chemicals the firemen put out the fire in the forest very quickly.

11. Having entered the room, she turned the light on.

12. He saw his mother watering flowers in the garden.


VII. Complete the following sentences:

A.1. Running into the room ….

2. Looking through the newspaper….

3. The man playing the piano….

4. While speaking ….

5. the students speaking good English ….

6. They are working ….

7. Standing at the window….

8. When sending the telegram….

9. the girl washing the floor….

10. Talking to her neighbour ….


B.1. The lost book ….

2. The floor washed by ….

3. The exercises done by….

4. The house surrounded by ….

5. Everything written here ….

6. A letter sent from ….

7. The message left ….

8. well known all over the world ….

9. When given the book ….

10. The farmers have improved ….

11. When translated into English ….


VIII. Complete the sentences with the correct form of Participle I or Participle II:

1. Everybody knows that it is dangerous to jump from a___________ (to move) car.

2. Drivers must stop at a ___________ (to flash) red light.

3. Drunk drivers are a ___________ (to grow) problem.

4. Research showed that ___________ (to marry) men are better drivers than single men.

5. Is your car ___________ (to insure)?

6. There is a lot of traffic in the morning. The streets are ___________ (to crowd) with heavy transport.

7. I am ___________ (to lose). I need to stop at a gas station and ask for directions.

8. Steve stopped ___________ (to realize) he was talking to himself.

9. They saw a young woman ___________ (to hurry) away from the place of the accident.

10. ___________ (to open) the window, he went out to the terrace.

11. The two boys exchanged quick ___________ (to embarrass) glances.

12. ___________ (to find) in the garden after the rain, the letter was impossible to read.


IX. Read the text “Protection of Nature in Ukraine” and discuss the following problems:

1. Why has the biological balance of nature been broken?

2. What has happened to the environment recently?

3. What is the first concern of science today?

4. What is it necessary to do to solve the problem of environmental protection?



Lesson 10

Text:Ukraine’s Economy.

Grammar:The Infinitive and Its Constructions.




manganese(n) марганець
mercury(n) ртуть
plain (n) долина
topsoil (n) верхній шар грунту
treasure (n) скарб
moderate (adj) помірний
sediments (n) опади
allow for (v) дозволяти
reorient (v) реорієнтувати
vessel (n) судно
mine(n) шахта
confront (v) протистояти
requirement (n) потреба
pursue (v) переслідувати, іти
income (n) прибуток
expenditure (n) витрати
external (adj) internal (adj) зовнішній внутрішний
inefficient (adj) неефективний, нездатний
introduce (v) вводити, представляти
enterptise (n) підприємство
substitution (n) заміна
reduce (v) зменшувати
consumption (n) споживання
eliminate (v) усувати
attract (v) приваблювати
implement (v) виконувати, здійснювати
ability (n) здатність, здібність
obvious (adj) явний


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