The Belarusian Institute of Law

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The Belarusian Institute of Law

I have a Net-friend Alex. He is from Minsk, Belarus. We met in the Net last year. Truly speaking I have a very vague idea about this country in Central Europe. From my History course at school I remember something about the former Soviet Union, ‘iron curtain’, cold war, glasnost and perestroika. Belarus was, perhaps, one of those Union members.

Alex is a law student at the Belarusian Institute of Law which is one of the oldest private law institutions for higher education in the country. It was founded in 1990 with the purpose to give general knowledge to the students, to train professional generation of lawyers and to prepare them for careers in public service. Since 1990 the institute has developed its own traditions and formed experienced teaching staff.

The Institute has more than 6,000 students, six schools and two branches in Grodno and Mogilev. It provides higher education in Law, International Law, Economics, Political Science and Psychology, both full-time and part-time.

The Institute does not guarantee employment to its graduates. They have to find a job and their place in society and they do it successfully. There are not any names of its graduates on the lists of unemployed. The former students work not only in law-enforcement and judicial offices, but also in government bodies, public organizations, business, national economy and the system of higher education.


7. PRESENTATION. Use the information from the texts and the vocabulary of this Unit to present the topic ‘University Studies’. The following plan will be helpful:

1. Why did you decide to become a lawyer?

2. Why did you choose International Law?

3. What are your ideas about higher education nowadays?

4. What can you say about the institute you are studying in?

5. What are you going to do after graduation?





1. WARMING UP. What do you think is most important to you in a job and what is least important? Put the following in order from 1 to 6, then discuss it in class.


______ flexible working hours

______ contact with interesting people

______ chance to travel

______ long holidays

______ nice, quiet, attractive work space

______ good payment


2.1 Match each word or phrase on the left to the correct description on the right.


1 wages a) certificates and exams passed
2 skills b) a talk with a company about a possible job
3 experience c) the terms when you work
4 qualifications d) points in your character (politeness, honesty, etc.)
5 interview e) abilities, things you can do (type, drive, etc.)
6 hours f) work of the same type you have done before
7 personal qualities g) money you get, usually hourly or weekly


Now put each of the words on the left above in the correct space in the following conversation.

Valerie: Hello, I’m Valerie Woods. I’ve come for an … for a job as a secretary.

Mr. Watts: Oh yes, Miss Woods. Please take a seat. Well, have you done office work before? Have you any …?

Valerie: Well, I’m afraid I haven’t. I’ve just left college. But I have some …. Here are my typing and shorthand certificates.

Mr. Watts: Good. Do you have any other …. Can you use a computer?

Valerie: No, but I speak French and Spanish.

Mr. Watts:Good. Your teachers tell us you’re very careful and you get on well with other people, so there’s no problem about your …. In fact you seem very suitable.

Valerie:Thank you. Can I just make sure of one or two points? I believe the … are $150 a week? Is that right?

Mr. Watts: Yes, that’s right. And the … are nine to five, Monday to Friday. Well, we’d like to have you, Miss Woods.

Valerie:Thank you very much. I think the job will suit me very well.

2.2 Read the following passages.


a) My name is Martha Glass. I’m thirty-nine years old and I’m a doctor. I chose the medical profession, because I wanted to help people and at the same time make good money. When I was younger I wanted to become a teacher or a nurse, but I soon realized there wasn’t enough money in either of those professions. My parents didn’t help me much, because they didn’t want me to have a career at all. They wanted me to do what so many other girls did. They wanted me to become a secretary, marry the boss, have kids and stay at home. Well, I got married, and I had kids, but I have my career as well.

b) My name is John Ruston. I’m a businessman. I’m fifty years old and I’ve been working for the same company for twenty-five years. I think I’ve had a very successful career. I started work with the company as a poorly-paid clerk. I was one of those nine-to-five white-collar office workers who spend all day with a pencil in one hand and a telephone in the other. I hated it. So I got transferred to sales and became one of the company’s sales representatives. I traveled all over the country selling the company’s products and became the most successful salesperson on the staff. In ten years I have been promoted to manager of the sales department. In another ten years I hope to retire with a good pension.

c) Hi. I’m Billy. I left school when I was sixteen. I didn’t have any qualifications. I just wanted to earn some money. I got a job in a factory. I didn’t mind being a blue-collar worker. All I wanted was enough money to take my girlfriends out on a Saturday night. But then they got robots in to do my jobs and I was out of work. I was out of work for sixteen months. It’s terrible to be unemployed. The days seem so long. I finally got a job as an unskilled laborer, working for a builder. I’m twenty-five now. I suppose I should go to night classes and get some extra training so that I can earn more money as a skilled worker.

Answer the following questions according to the information in the passages. Put a cross (+) in the correct box.

  Martha George Billy No one
Who had a white-collar job for a while?        
Who works in a profession?        
Who wanted to become a secretary?        
Who is unemployed at the moment?        
Who is an unskilled worker?        
Who was a successful salesman?   +    
Who wanted a different career as a child?        
Who married the boss?        
Who has no career?        
Who was out of work for a while?        


Now find the words and phrases which are similar in meaning to the following:

Blue collar worker, factory worker, unemployed, boss, out of work, office worker, manager, white-collar worker.


a) ________________is similar in meaning to _____________________________

b) _______________ is similar in meaning to _____________________________

c) _______________ is similar in meaning to _____________________________

d) _______________ is similar in meaning to _____________________________

2.3 Decide what kinds of jobs the following are. Put a cross (+) in the correct box.


  professional worker white-collar worker skilled worker
bank cashier      
teacher +    
computer repair person      
office manager      


3. FIRST READING. Read the text to find out what it is about in general.

My Future Job

It’s me again – Tom Millhouse Bailey. Here are some of my ideas about my future job. When I left school I didn’t have any idea about what carrier to choose. I didn’t want to be a blue-collar worker or one of those nine-to-five white-collar office workers who spend all day with a pencil in one hand and a telephone in the other. As I said before all I wanted was to do something meaningful in the adult life and at the same time to make good money. My parents helped me much with their advice because they wanted me to have a good career. Besides my father is a lawyer, so it was easy for me to make my choice.

You know, the legal profession is very popular in the United States. The number of lawyers is growing rapidly. Today in the US there is one lawyer for every 350 people (thirty years ago there was one lawyer for every 700 people). Why is a career in law so popular?

There are a number of reasons. First of all, it’s good money. The average salary of experienced lawyers is substantially greater than that of any other professionals. Another reason is a growing demand for legal services in different areas of life: politics, business, crime and punishment and others. For example, by training and occupation a majority of the US Senators and Representatives are lawyers. They say lawyers are the best congressmen. Advertising can now create demand for legal services, too. Besides, companies and political institutions are often forced to compromise and refer disputable issues to the courts. One more thing is that crime rates are rather high in the country. And the duty of the lawyers is not only to punish people for various crimes but to do their best to prevent crime, to fight against evil in society. These are but a few areas which cause demand for legal services. Is it any wonder that America needs all the lawyers it can train?

I know, however, that being a lawyer is a very specific and difficult job. It shouldn’t be taken easy. Lawyers protect the rights and legal interests of citizens, organizations and states. A successful lawyer is one who knows how to analyze and synthesize legal issues in light of the existing law; how to advocate the views of groups and individuals; how to give intelligent legal advice. He must be able to write and speak clearly and to negotiate effectively. These are but a few skills that are required of all lawyers.

3.1 Choose a), b), or c) to complete the sentences.

1. Tom became a law student because …

a) his father wanted him to be a lawyer

b) he wanted to study law

c) he wanted to have a prestigious and well-paid job in the future

2. The number of lawyers in the United States is …

a) increasing

b) reducing

c) the same as thirty years ago

3. The average salary of experienced lawyers is … than that of any other professionals.

a) lower

b) a little bit higher

c) much higher

4. There are … areas which cause demand for legal services.

a) few

b) a few

c) quite a few

5. The legal profession is …

a) easy

b) fun

c) hard



4.1 Fill in the synonyms firm the list.

to combat; offence; education; quickly; occupation/profession; cause; sin; questions (for discussion); to be made to do sth;

  carrier to fight crime     rapidly to be forced to do sth training     evil issues reason

4.2 Match the following words and word-combinations from the text to their definitions. Suggest the Russian.

1 salary 2 professionals 3 demand 4 majority 5 Senators 6 Representatives 7 congressmen 8 crime rates 9 to punish 10courts 11 to negotiate   a) members of the US Congress b) places were law cases are held c) a number of crimes in relationship to a period of time d) members of the Upper House of the US Congress e) desire, by people ready to buy, employ, etc. (for goods, services, etc.) f) to cause suffering or discomfort for wrong-doing g) monthly payment for regular employment h) to discuss, confer in order to come to an agreement i) members of the Lower House of the US Congress j) persons with a University degree (doctors, teachers, lawyers, etc.) k) the greater number or part

3.4 Choose the words from the list to fill in the gaps.

evil; Representatives; experienced; various crimes; by training; salary; to do their best; rates; law; demand; issues; the rights;

1 average …………………………… 2 …………………………… lawyers 3 crime ……………………………… 4 to fight against ……………………. 5…………………… for legal services 6 career in ……………………………..   7 US Senators and…………………… 8 …………………….. and occupation 9 disputable ………………………….. 10 ………………… and legal interests 11 to punish people for ……………… 12……….………….. to prevent crime

3.5 Fill in the prepositions from the list where necessary.

against; by; with; in; for;

my parents helped me much … their advice; it was easy … me to make my choice; there is one lawyer … every 350 people; a career … law; a growing demand … legal services; … training and occupation; to fight … evil … society;


4. READING FOR DETAIL. Read the text carefully to answer the following questions.

1. Why did Tom choose a carrier in law?

2. Who helped him with the advice?

3. Is the legal profession very popular in the United States?

4. Why is a career in law so popular? Give reasons.

5. Why is the legal profession difficult?

6. What skills are required of a successful lawyer?

5. SPEAKING. Without looking at the text add information to the following statements.

1. When I left school I didn’t have any idea about …

2. I didn’t want to be a …

3. All I wanted was to …

4. My parents helped me much with their advice because …

5. The legal profession is very popular in the United States …

6. There are a number of …

7. The average salary of experienced lawyers is substantially greater than …

8. Another reason is a growing demand for …

9. By training and occupation a majority of …

10. Crime rates are rather …

11. The duty of the lawyers is not only to punish people for various crimes but …

12. Advertising can now create demand for …

13. Companies and political institutions are often forced to …

14. Lawyers protect …

15. These are but a few areas which …

16. Lawyers protect the rights and …

17. A successful lawyer is one who knows how to …


6. PRESENTATION. Use the information from the texts and the vocabulary of this Unit to present the topic ‘My Future Job’. The following plan will be helpful:

1. Why did you decide to become a lawyer?

2. Is the legal profession popular in your country?

3. Is it well-paid?

4. What are you going to do after graduation?




1st Year 2nd Term




1.1 Read the following conversations. Check whether you understand the expressions in the ‘Notes’ before reading.

Getting Ready for a Trip

(just for fun)

Mr. Smith: Hurry up, dear, we are leaving in about five minutes. Mrs. Smith: Well, I’m almost through with the packing. By the way, how do we get to the airport? Did you call a taxi? Mr. S: No, Val will take us there. I’m expecting him in a couple of minutes. He is quite reliable. He never lets people down. Mrs. S:You never know. But I like the way he drives. I feel quite safe with him, though I can’t say the same about you. Reckless driving is not my cup of tea. Mr. S: Don’t be too hard on me, honey. If you are in high spirits, you don’t mind fast driving. But you must be pretty much excited now because you’re having your first air trip, aren’t you? O.K., take it easy, you’ll be as safe in the plane with me as you are in the car with Val. Mrs. S:Stop kidding me. We have no time left. (The door bell rings.) Mr. S:That’s Val for sure. Will you answer the door, please? Val: Here I am. Hi there, people. Feeling excited, aren’t you? Cheer up, my dear; there is nothing at all to worry about. Once you are up in the air, it’s just like sitting at home in your own living room. Mrs. S:I’m quite frightened of the take-off and landing. Val:Just fasten your seat belt, close your eyes and count to 60. If you’re safe and sound afterwards, it means the landing has been soft. Otherwise you won’t feel anything. Mrs. S:I’m afraid I may get air sick. Val:The best way is not to look down and not to leave your seat. Have a good shot of whisky, as much as you can manage. Booze is the best fear killer. Mr. S:To hell with your jokes, Val. Can’t you see she is scared to death?


to be through with (doing) sth (US)to finish (doing) sth

to let sb down –to disappoint; to fail to help

you never know –you can’t be sure

reckless –careless (opposite to ‘careful’)

to be hard on sb –to be too strict, severe to sb

to be in high spirits –to be cheerful, happy

in low spirits –depressed, unhappy

to mind (doing) sth –to be troubled by sth; to feel objection to sth

to kid sb –to tease by joking or telling a lie

Cheer up! –Don’t worry, be happy!

to be safe and sound –to be secure and unharmed

air sick –feeling sick because of the motion of a plane

booze(coll.) – alcohol

to be scared to death –to be frightened very much

1.2 Complete the following sentences with the words from the ‘Notes’.

She was … by the thunder.

Do you … my smoking?

Are you … with your work? It’s time to go home.

He returned … and … from that dangerous expedition.

Have a glass of brandy to keep your … up.

Harry will never … you …. You can always rely on him.

I was sea … on the first day of the voyage.

You are … me! This can’t be true.

The teacher was too … on the students

He … up at once when I promised to help him

… driving may cause accidents on the road.


2.1 Study the following words describing the act of traveling.

1 travel 2 journey 3 trip 4 voyage 5 tour 6 cruise 7 flight a) the act of traveling, esp. a long one in distant or foreign places with the purpose of discovering sth new or in search of pleasure and adventure b) the act of going from one place to another, usually taking a rather long time c) journey, an excursion, often a brief one made by land or water d) rather long journey, esp. by water e) journey (usu. to see the sights) in which a short stay is made at a number of places, the traveler finally returning to the place from which he started f) sea voyage from port to port, esp. a pleasure trip g) journey made through the airor in space

2.2 Put each of the following words in its correct position in the sentences below. Some words may be used more than once.

trip/ travel/ journey/ cruise/ tour/ voyage/ flight


1. Did you enjoy your week-end … to the seaside?

2. The Mediterranean … promised many interesting impressions.

3. He is writing a book about his … to Africa.

4. On our Southern-England … we visited Windsor, Oxford, Cambridge, and then came back to London.

5. The idea of an Atlantic … terrified her: she was sure to be seasick all the time.

6. Air France … 507 from Paris to New York will be taking off in ten minutes.

7. I’m going on a business … to Paris next weekend.

8. We’re going on a … of Europe, visiting 11 countries in five weeks.

9. We went on a three-week … round the Mediterranean. The ship called at Venice, Athens, Istanbul and Alexandria.

10. For general advice about … go to a travel agent.

11. He once went by ship to Australia. The … took 4 weeks.

12. The … from Heathrow Airport to the centre of London takes about 45 minutes.

13. On our first day in New York we went on a three-hour … of the city by bus, which showed us the main sights.

14. During our stay in Paris we went on a day … to Disneyland.


2.3 Pay attention to the words which go together with different means of transport.

Bus driver drives ($) fare catch/take get on/ off bus stop Train driver drives ($) fare catch/take get on/ off railway station Plane pilot flies ($) air fare take get on/ off airport Taxi driver drives ($) fare take get in/ out taxi rank Bicycle cyclist rides ……… go on (my) get on/off Car driver drives ……… go by get in/out


2.4 Learn the following useful travel words in context.

1. When traveling people use different means of transport. They may travel by bus, coach, train, plane, taxi, bicycle, car, helicopter, and even balloon.

2. Vehicleis the general word for all types of road transport.

3. Young people often prefer hitch-hiking (getting a free ride by signaling to a passing car, lorry, etc.).

4. Can I have a single (USone-way)/ return (US round trip) ticket to Barcelona?

5. How much is the (train/bus/taxi/air) fare?

6. We hired a car for a week. We had to fill it with petrol (USgas).

7. Can I give you a lift(USa ride)? I’m going to town.

8. Have a good flight.

9. You can see notices showing arrivals and departures of planes on the board or hear announcements.

10. Sometimes buses are not punctual. Where I live buses should run every ten minutes, but sometimes I wait at a bus stop for half an hour with a long queue (USline) of people, and then buses come together, and they are full up. On other occasions the bus is early and I miss it.

11. The plane then taxis (moves slowly) to the runway, and when permission is received, it moves faster and faster along the runway and takes off.


2.5 Cross out the incorrect word in these sentences.

1. You mustn’t ride/drive a motorbike without a crash helmet.

2. She told him to get in/get on the car and fasten his seat belt.

3. Bus fares/tickets are getting more expensive.

4. Buses to the airport travel/run every half an hour.

5. The pilot couldn’t drive/fly the plane in such bad weather.

6. We were late, so we had to take/catch a taxi.

7. I left my house a bit late and lost/missed the bus.


3. FIRST READING. Read the text and put the following headings into the correct numbered positions (1-5).


a) Arrival

b) In the Air

c) At the Airport

d) Advantages and Disadvantages of Traveling by Air.

e) Great News!

Hi, I’m Alexander, Alex for short. I’m from Minsk, Belarus and I’m a first-year student at the Institute of Law. I’ve got great news! I’ve gotten a letter from my American friend Tom. It came last week. He has invited me to visit him in the States. That’s great! I’ve never been to America. I have been abroad before. I’ve traveled to Poland as a tourist. I’ve also been to Italy on vacation. But I’ve never been outside Europe.

The best time for my trip is in July, on my holiday. I am to visit New York and Washington. I know there going to be some problems. For example, I have to get an American visa and to buy an insurance policy. I’m going by plane, so the tickets are very expensive. And then there is the bank: you have to exchange rubles for dollars, which is actually not a problem any longer.

People traveling long distances often have to decide whether to go by land, sea or air. Man has always wanted to have the fastest way of traveling. On the one hand, aviation is the fastest. But it usually takes a few hours to get to the airport from downtown and then from the airport to the city. Sometimes they delay or cancel flights because of the weather. So you end up wasting a lot of time.

Besides planes have the reputation of being dangerous. They also have the grave disadvantage of being the most expensive form of transport. You can’t walk around and there’s nothing to do. You can’t open the windows and can’t get off. There’s no choice of food and there are never enough toilets. Yet nothing can match them for speed and comfort. Traveling at a height of 30,000 feet, far above the clouds, and at over 500 miles an hour is an exciting experience. It is more comfortable and far quicker than any other method.

On the day of departure I took a taxi to the airport and arrived early in order to check-in. First I went to the check-in desk where they weighed my luggage. Usually you are permitted 20 kilos, but if your bags weigh more, you may pay excess baggage. A light bag is classed as hand luggage and you can take it with you on to the plane. The airlinerepresentative checked my ticket and gave me a boarding card for the plane with my seat number on it. Then I went through passport control and into the departure loungeto wait for the flight to be called. About half an hour before take-off our flight was called and we went to gate 4, where we waited before we boarded the plane. When I entered the plane I gave my boarding card to the air hostess(US flight attendant)and found my seat.

Some people hate flying. It’s a crazy thing to do, they say. Birds fly; people don’t. For me flying is fun. I like being in a big airliner with flight attendants looking after me. They walk up and down the aisle bringing meals and drinks. When the flight is going through some turbulence, the crew warns everybody that it might be a bit bumpy and asks to fasten the seat belts. On a long flight I like listening to music through the headphones available to all passengers, and sometimes I have a sleep. I enjoy it all so much that I never want the plane to land.

When the plane finally landed at JFK Airport in New York, I went to the immigration counter where the inspector checked my visa and then to the baggage reclaim where I collected my luggage. Then I passed through Customs. The customs officer didn’t ask me to open my bags. He just asked me a few questions. Did I have anything to declare? I said no. Any foodstuffs? I had some cans (BR. tins). He said canned food was okay. Did I have any fresh or frozen food? No, I didn’t. Any gifts? No, just a few souvenirs. Did I have five thousand dollars or more in any currency? Certainly not! I had absolutely nothing to declare and the officer finally let me go.


JFKstsnds for John Fitzgerald Kennedy.

3.1 Choose a), b), or c) to complete the sentences.

1. Alex was going to New York …

a) on business

b) on vacation

c) by invitation

2. The great advantage of traveling by air is …

a) height

b) speed

c) cost

3. You have to arrive at the airport early in order to …

a) relax in the departure lounge

b) have a drink in the cafe

c) check in

4. Alex … flying.

a) hates

b) fears

c) enjoys

5. When passing through Customs Alex had … to declare.

a) money

b) nothing

c) goods



4.1 Fill in the synonyms from the list.

convenient; baggage; airliner/aircraft; stewards and stewardesses; allowed; on holiday; center of the city; quickest; serious;

plane comfortable luggage downtown fastest on vacation grave flight attendants permitted


4.2 Match the following words and word combinations from the text to their definitions. Suggest the Russian.

1 visa 2 insurance policy 3 airline 4 to board the plane 5 to take off 6to land 7aisle 8 Customs 9 to declare 10 a can 11currency 12 crew a) to get on the plane b) passage between any rows of seats c) metal container for food, drink, etc. d) to make a statement to customs officers of dutiable goods brought into a country e) written contract of insurance against sickness, accident or loss f) stamp put on a passport to show that it was approved by the officials of the foreign country which the owner intends to visit g) money that is actually in use in a country h) regular service of aircraft for public use i) to come on land j) all the persons working on a ship, aircraft, train, etc. k) to leave the ground and rise (of aircraft) l) department of Government that collects taxes (duties) on goods imported into a country

4.3 Match the following word-combinations from the text to their Russian equivalents.

1 traveling long distances 2 to make a choice 3 on the one hand 4 they delay or cancel flights 5you end up wasting a lot of time. 6 nothing can match them 7 exciting experience 8 check-in desk 9excess baggage 10 hand luggage 11 boarding card 12 departure lounge 13 up and down the aisle 14 a bit bumpy 15 immigration counter 16 baggage reclaim 17customs officer a) стойка регистрации b) все заканчивается пустой тратой времени c) ручная кладь d) сделать выбор e) излишек багажа f) путешествующие на дальние расстояния g) зал ожидания h) иммиграционная стойка i) с одной стороны j) небольшая тряска k) таможенник l) возврат багажа m) они задерживают или откладывают рейсы n) вперед-назад по проходу o) волнующее (захватывающее) впечатление p) ничто не может сравниться с ними q) посадочная карта

4.4 What do you call:

1. The place where you go when you arrive at the airport with your luggage?

2. The card they give you with the seat number on it?

3. The money you have to pay if your luggage is very heavy?

4. The place where you can sit and have a drink when you are waiting for your flight to be called?

5. The bags you carry onto the plane with you?

6. The people who look after you on the plane?

7. The place where you collect your luggage after you land?

8. The place where the inspector checks your visa on arrival?

9. The place where your luggage is checked in order to avoid smuggling?

4.5 Match the parts to form the word-combinations from the text.

1 delay or cancel 2 check-in 3 excess 4 hand 5 boarding 6 passport 7 departure 8 flight 9 seat 10immigration 11 baggage a) baggage b) card c) lounge d) counter e) attendant f) luggage g) belts h) flights i) reclaim j) control k) desk

4.6 Fill in the American equivalents.

British American
to finish doing sth single ticket return ticket to rent (a car) petrol luggage queue to give sb a ride air hostess tin ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................

5. READING FOR DETAIL. Read the text carefully.

5.1 Decide whether the following statements are True or False. Correct the False ones.

1. Alex has never been abroad before.

2. The great advantage of traveling by air is flying far above the clouds.

3. When you travel by air you have to arrive at the airport early in order to relax in the departure lounge.

4. If your luggage weighs more than 20 kilos, it can be expensive.

5. When Alex entered the plane he gave his boarding card to the steward.

6. When the plane finally landed at JFK Airport in New York, Alex went to the immigration counter to collect his luggage.


5.2 Answer the following questions.

1. What news has Alex got?

3. Why is July the best time for Alex’s trip?

4. What problems does a person have to face when going abroad?

5. What are the advantages (disadvantages) of traveling by air?

6. What were the procedures at the check-in desk?

7. Where did Alex go after he checked in?

8. Why does Alex like being in a big airliner?

9. Why did the crew ask the passengers to fasten their seat belts during the flight?

10. Where did Alex go when the plane finally landed at JFK Airport in New York?

11. What questions did the customs officer ask Alex when he passed through Customs?



6.1 Describe the procedure at the airport

before taking off

– after landing

6.2 Without looking at the text complete the following statements.

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