Advantages and disadvantages of traveling by plane 





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Advantages and disadvantages of traveling by plane



1. People traveling long distances often have to decide whether …

2. Man always wanted to have …

3. On the one hand, aviation is the fastest, but …

4. Sometimes they delay or cancel flights because of …

5. Besides planes have the reputation of …

6. They also have the grave disadvantage of …

7. You can’t …

8. Yet nothing can match planes for …

9. … is an exciting experience.

10. It is more … and far …

11. Some people hate (love) flying because …

12. For me flying is fun (a crazy thing to do) because …

 

6. PRESENTATION. Speak on ‘Advantages and Disadvantages of Traveling by Air’.

UNIT 2

THE CITY OF NEW YORK

1. WARMING UP. Read and practice the following conversations. Check whether you understand the expressions in the ‘Notes’ before reading.

Getting About Town

(Mr. Smith is on business in New York City. His plane landed at JFK Airport.)

Mr. Smith(to a policeman): Excuse me, where’s the downtown bus stop? Policeman: It’s quite near here. Go straight, along this passage, and turn right. You’ll see the bus stop within a few yards. Mr. S: Where will the bus take me to? P: The West Side Air Terminal, Eighth Avenue. Mr. S: Is it near Times Square? P: I wouldn’t say it’s far. You may either walk or use the subway. Besides, there are some buses running around.   In the bus Mr. S(to the bus driver): What’s the fare, please? Driver: Three dollars fifty. Mr. S:That’s pretty much, indeed. It used to be a couple of bucks just a year ago. Driver: Well, it’s because of those City Hall guys. They are pouring money into any thing but social services. The city’s transport is hit the most; no wonder the fares have skyrocketed in the past two years. Mr. S: I see.
At the West Side Air Terminal Mr. S (to a stranger): Excuse me, sir. I don’t know the city well. How far am I from Times Square? Stranger: Not very far, actually. See a bus stop over there? That’s your starting point. I’m not sure about the bus number, though.   At the bus stop Mr. S (to a lady): Excuse me. Lady: Yes? Mr. S: I wonder if you could help me. I need to get to Times Square. Which bus do I need? Lady: Times Square … Oh, yes, then you want the number 45. Mr. S: How often do they run? Lady: They are quite frequent. Oh, it’s Sunday today, isn’t it? Mr. S: Yes. Lady: I’m sorry the number 45 doesn’t run on Sunday. You may take 58 from here and then change at 24 to the cross-town bus marked “Times Square”. Mr. S: Oh, no. I’d better take a taxi. That’s the safest way to get anywhere. Lady: If it doesn’t bite hard at your budget. Mr. S: Well, you cannot eat your cake and have it.

Notes:

downtown –center of the city

yard –unit of length, 3 feet or 36 inches (91 cm)

foot –12 inches (30 cm)

inch –2,5 cm

subway (US) –Metro

City Hall– building for the official business of a city

to pour money into sth(coll.)to invest money into sth

to skyrocket –to go (fly) up

to bite hard at sb’s budget –to be too expensive for sb; to cause financial hardships

You cannot eat your cake and have it(spoken) –you can only choose one of two alternatives, not both.

2. WORD STUDY. Study the following expressions from the text before reading.

1 the Big Apple 2melting pot 2jet lag 3 laptop 4 deli 5 brunch 6to go Dutch   a) одно из названий Нью Иорка; b) плавильный котел; c) реактивная болезнь (дословно: реактивное отставание – нарушение суточного ритма организма в связи с перелетом через несколько часовых поясов); d) переносной компьютер (дословно: компьютер, который держат на коленях; notebook); e) сокращение от немецкого delicatessen; обычно там торгуют уже готовыми к употреблению продуктами; f) неологизм, объединяющий в себе звуки и понятия от слов breakfast и lunch. Он бывает по воскресеньям, когда люди встают попозже, между 10 утра и 2 часами дня; g) платить каждому за себя;  

3. FIRST READING. Read the text and put the following headings into the correct numbered positions (1-4).

a) Shopping in New York

b) Lost and Found

c) Eating Out

d) Some Glimpses of New York

The Big Apple

When I went out into the terminal I expected to find Tom there, but I saw only strangers. What’s wrong? What should I do? Should I wait for him? Will he come if I wait? Should I take a taxi and go to his home? But then he won’t be able to find me here if he comes. I decided to take it easy and took a walk around the terminal looking at the signs there: “post office”, “travel insurance”, “car rentals”, “currency exchange”, “news stand”, “gift shop”, “lost and found”. I am lost. Who will find me? Just then I saw Tom running into the terminal and waving at me. He was sorry he was so late. He got caught in a traffic jam on the way to the airport. We took a taxi to downtown. It was rather late but the city was well lit. So I could see some sights of the city. I wasn’t feeling well. Tom said I would have jet lag for a few days.

In New York there are so many sights to see, so many places to visit! Its five boroughs are Manhattan, Bronx, Brooklyn, Queens, and Richmond. During my stay I tried to see as much of New York as possible. I started with an organized tour before going sightseeing on my own. Next day I boarded a boat and sailed around Manhattan along the Hudson and East Rivers. I saw the Statue of Liberty and all the famous bridges and skyscrapers. By the way, the tallest skyscraper in New York is the Empire State Building. However, the World Trade Center attacked by the terrorists on September, 11, 2001 was a one hundred feet taller. I would take a subwayto some new parts of the city. Then I would walk about exploring the neighborhood.

New York is known by many different names. One of them is the Big Apple. I tried to see something new every day, but I didn’t manage to see much more than Manhattan. The problem is the Big Apple is too big.

New York is the unofficial capital of the United States (though it isn’t even the capital of New York State). It has the largest population and the greatest number of immigrants, the most important banks, the tallest buildings, the best department stores, the most superb museums and art galleries, and the widest range of restaurants.

They say the United States is a “melting pot” of people from different countries. I found this was especially true of New York with its many ethnic neighborhoods: Chinatown, Little Italy, Harlem and Spanish Harlem, the Jewish Lower East Side and, of course, the Brighton Beach area in Brooklyn. With so many immigrants nobody minds your foreign accent.

I was struck by the friendliness of the people in the street. Complete strangers smiled at me and even said “Hello” or “How are you?”. They also say “please” and “thank you” much more often than we do at home.

On the other hand, I was surprised by the distance people tried to keep from each other in public. People waiting in lines stand about two feet apart from one another. They feel they have a right to privacy and personal space.

Another big surprise was how few people smoked or drank. And all this in spite of the attractive magazine ads for cigarettes and TV commercials for wine and beer. Yes, health is definitely fashionable in America now. I had always wanted to give up smoking. I finally managed to do it there. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.

One last thing. I had heard many stories about crime in New York. I also read about muggings in local papers. But I never had any trouble myself. Maybe I followed Tom’s advice. He told me to avoid certain areas of the city after darkness, and to avoid others altogether.

During the first couple of days I didn’t buy anything except some groceries either from a grocery store or a supermarket. I didn’t have too much money to spend. So I had to plan carefully. I wanted to bring home some presents for my family and friends. I also wanted to buy a laptop and a guitar for myself.

Tom gave me some advice. If you don’t want to spend a lot of money, you should watch newspaper ads for sales. Most American consumers read labels and price tags carefully and regularly shop at sales. If you get to the store early on a sale day, you will have a wider choice. There are different kinds of sales: semi-annual and annual sales, one-day sales, half-price sales, close-out sales, clearance sales, warehouse sales and many others. The key word is SAVE. I got a few good buys there and a couple of real bargains! I did a lot of window shopping too. On Fifth Avenue and Madison Avenue the prices gave me quite a shock. I once saw a scarf costing $1,000. Tom explained to me that money was no object for customers who shopped there. This is wheremoney really talks!

Plastic money has become an important part of American life-style. The slogan is BUY NOW, PAY LATER, that is, stores allow you a credit by accepting your credit cards. People like using credit cards because they don’t like waiting to get anything. The system is not only very simple but very convenient too. You don’t have to carry cash, even a checkbook. So when you want to pay for something, you’ll hear the question: “Cash or charge?”

Eating outin New York is no problem at all. There are so many places to eat. Their names are also different – restaurant or café, cafeteria or coffee shop, pancake house or steak house, pizza place or sandwich shop, eatery or simply grill. Some of them have proper names like “The Pines”. Others are named after their owners like “Maria’s”, or former owners if the place has earned a good reputation. You can even eat at a deli. When you buy something they ask you: “Here or to go?”

The competition is so strong that you can always find a good meal you can afford. From time to time almost all restaurants make “special offers” of cheaper meals. On Sundays, when people like to sleep late, you can always look in the papers for a “Sunday brunch special”.

I tried to go to a different place each time I went out to eat. I first always asked Tom to come with me. He insisted on treating me to a meal. Then I would insist on treating him. After an argument we would, as a rule, go Dutch.

3.1 Choose a), b), or c) to complete the sentences below.

1. When Alex went out into the terminal and didn’t find Tom there he decided …

a) to take a taxi to Tom’s home

b) to phone him

c) not to panic and wait

2. Alex didn’t manage to see much of New York because …

a) he had heard many stories about crime in New York

b) New York is too big

c) he couldn’t understand American English well

3. If you want to get good buys at sales, you should …

a) get to the store early on a sale day

b) choose the right sale

c) use your plastic card

4. Alex often went out to eat because …

a) eating out in New York is no problem

b) he had neither time nor desire to cook

c) he wanted to try something really American

 

LEARNING THE WORDS.

4.1 Match the following words from the text to their definitions. Suggest the Russian.

1 traffic jam 2borough 3 skyscraper 4 neighborhood 5 privacy 6 ads 7 TV commercial 8 sale 9 consumers 10 bargain 11 mugging 12groceries 13 window shopping 14 owner 15former   a) selling goods at low prices for a period (to get rid of old stock, etc.) b) sth sold or bought cheap c) advertisement inserted in a TV or radio program d) (opposite to producers) people who use goods e) condition when many road vehicles are prevented from moving forward f) person who owns sth g) very tall building h) (colloq. abbr. for) advertisements in newspapers, etc. i) looking at goods displayed in a shop for interest, not necessarily with the idea of buying anything j) (people living in a) district, area, etc. k) crime of attacking and robbing sb (in a dark street, a lift, etc.) l) of an earlier period m) an administrative unit of New York City n) food sold in packets, cans (tins), bottles o) state of being away from others

 

4.2 Match the following expressions from the text to their Russian equivalents.

1 I decided to take it easy 2 I saw Tom waving at me 3 exploring the neighborhood 4 nobody minds your foreign accent 5 I was struck by … 6 apart from one another 7 to avoid certain areas 8money talks 9 Cash or charge? 10 former owners 11eating out 12 he insisted on treating me to a meal 13 a good meal you can afford 14 Here or to go? 15When in Rome, do as the Romans do. 16 One last thing a) никто не обращает внимания на ваш иностранный акцент b) бывшие владельцы c) Я был поражен … d) Наличными или в кредит? e) питание вне дома f) На месте или с собой? g) хорошая еда, которую вы можете себе позволить h) он настаивал на том, чтобы угостить меня i) на расстоянии друг от друга j) изучая окрестности k) избегать некоторых районов l) В чужой монастырь со своим уставом не ходи m) я решил не волноваться n) и последнее o) деньги говорят p) я увидел Тома, который махал мне рукой

 

4.3 Fill in the synonyms from the list.

walk around; first-class; rivalry; to learn about; district; to get on a boat; national; underground (Br.); customers; alone; notebook (PC);

on my own walk about consumers to board a boat   subway (US) superb ethnic to explore   laptop competition borough  

4.4 Match the parts to form the word-combinations from the text.

1 post 2 travel 3 car 4 currency 5 news 6 gift 7 lost and 8 semi- 9 one- 10half- 11 close-   a) price sales b) stand c) found d) out sales e) day sales f) office g) exchange h) insurance i) shop j) rentals k) annual sales

4.5 Match the following American money to their colloquial equivalents.

1 cent = 5 cents = 10 cents = 25 cents = 1 dollar = a dime a buck a quarter a nickel a penny

5. READING FOR DETAIL. Read the text carefully to answer the following questions.

1. Why did Alex feel lost when he came out into the terminal?

3. What did he decide to do?

4. What signs did he see in the airport terminal?

5. Did Tom appear? Why was he late?

6. Why wasn’t Alex feeling well?

7. What did Alex start his sightseeing with?

8. Why didn’t he see all of New York sights?

9. Why is New York considered the unofficial capital of the United States?

10. Why is the United States called a “melting pot”?

11. Do most Americans prefer to be formal or informal?

12. What shouldn’t you do when you wait in a line?

13. What bad habit did Alex give up in America? Why?

14. Did Alex have any trouble with crime in New York?

15. What did Alex plan to buy? Why did he have to plan carefully?

16. What advice did Tom give to him?

17. What kinds of sales are there?

18. What has become an important part of American life-style? Why?

19. Are there any problems with eating out in New York?

20. What does it mean “to go Dutch”?

21. Why are “Sunday brunch specials” offered on Sundays?

 

5. SPEAKING. Without looking at the text add information to the following statements.

Some Glimpses of New York

1. New York is the unofficial …

2. It is known by many different names. One of them is …

3. New York has the largest …, the greatest number of …, the most important …, the tallest …, the best …, the most superb …, and the widest range of …

4. Its five boroughs are …

5. If you take a boat around Manhattan along the Hudson and East Rivers, you’ll see …

6. By the way, the tallest skyscraper in New York is …

7. However, the … was a one hundred feet taller.

9. The term “melting pot” is especially true of New York because …

10. With so many immigrants nobody minds …

11. Visitors are struck by …

12. On the other hand, they are surprised by …

13. People waiting in lines stand about two feet …

14. They feel they have a right to …

15. A big surprise is …

16. One last thing, you won’t have any trouble with crime in New York if …

Shopping in New York

1. If you don’t want to spend a lot of money, you should …

2. Most American consumers read …

3. If you get to the store early on a sale day, you …

4. There are different kinds of sales: …

5. Sometimes you can buy real …

6. There are places, however, where ordinary people can only do …

7. On Fifth Avenue and Madison Avenue, for example, the prices can …

8. Money is no object for customers who …

9. This is where money …

10. Plastic money has become an …

11. The slogan is …

12. People like using credit cards because …

13. This system is very convenient because …

14. So when you want to pay for something, you’ll hear the question: …

Eating Out in New York

1. Eating out in New York is no …

2. There are so many places to …

3. Their names are also different – …

4. You can even eat at a …

5. When you buy something they ask you: …

6. The competition is so strong that …

7. From time to time almost all restaurants make …

8. On Sundays, when people like to sleep late, you can …

 

6. PRESENTATION. Speak on the following topics:

1. Some Glimpses of New York.

2. Shopping in New York.

3. Eating out in New York.

 

 

UNIT 3

TRAVELING BY TRAIN

1. WARMING UP. Read and practice the following conversations.

At a Railway Station

AWhen does the New York train leave, please? B9.25. Platform 3. A What time does it reach New York? BYou should be there at 12.15, but they’re running late today. ADo we have to change? BNo. It’s a through train.   AWhich train do I take for Washington D.C., please? B9.28. This end of Platform 2. AWhen does it get in? BIt gets there at 12.30. AIs it necessary to change? B No. There’s no need to change.  
AI’d like to book a ticket to Washington D.C. for Monday the 10th. BOne way or round trip? AOne way, please. And I’d prefer the morning. BEconomy or first class? AFirst class, please. BI’ll just see what there is. … Here you are. 9.26. Platform 5. AThank you.   AWhat time’s the next train to London? B10.24. Platform one. AWhat time does it arrive? BIt’s due in at 12.35. AFine. I need an economy class open return. BLet me check … Oh, yes. Here is one for you. But hurry up, the train is leaving in seven minutes. AThanks a lot.

Notes:

a through traina train which takes you to your destination without a change

an open returna return ticket which may be used at any time

WORD STUDY.

2.1 Learn the following useful travel words in context.

1. I’d like to book/reserve a seat in advance.

2. The train arriving at platform 3 is the 16.50 train to Paris.

3. The Edinburgh train departs/leaves from platform 6.

4. Do you have to change trains for New York? (= get off one train and go onto another)

5. We apologize to passengers for the late arrival of the 8.52 to Oxford.

6. The 9.06 to Washington is due (= timetabled) to arrive at platform 4.

7. At a big railway station one can see a lot of notices: Exit and Entrance, or perhaps Way In and Way Out; Arrivals and Departures; Refreshment Room and Waiting Room.

8. There are the shouts of the portersas they pull luggage along the platform to the waiting trains and the crowds at the booking-office getting tickets.

2.2 Read the following extract. Refer to the list below and fill in the blanks with the best word or words.

There are so many things you have to do when you …0… Always make sure your …1… has …2… on it!

If you are going …3… train, the …4… you have to do is buy yourself …5… You usually have to stand in a …6… and it’s easy to …7… your train and then waste hours …8… the next one.

You buy …9… or return ticket, and then look for a …10… where you hope you will find a free …11

At last, you can …12… the train and settle down to enjoy the …13… If you’re lucky, the train …14… the station …15

Sometimes …16… comes round to …17… your ticket, but usually you travel without interruption and can enjoy the …18… You can relax till …19… time for you to …20… when you arrive at your …21

          a) journey b) travel a) first b) first thing a) waiting b) expecting c) waiting for a) get into b) enter into c) go in a) a conductor b) a driver c) an inspector a) get off b) go down c) get down             a) luggage b) valise c) box a) a card b) a ticket c) an etiquette a) a single b) an ordinary a) travel b) voyage c) journey a) examine b) question c) look a) term b) terminal c) station         a) a card b) a label c) an etiquette a) queue b) line c) row a) wagon b) carriage a) leaves for b) leaves c) lives a) ride b) drive c) flight           a) with b) by c) through a) miss b) lose c) loose a) seat b) place c) space a) on time b) in time c) to time a) it’s b) its c) it has

3. FIRST READING. Read the text and put the following headings into the correct numbered positions (1-4).

a) Hotel

b) On the Train

c) Getting Ready for a Trip

d) Advantages and Disadvantages of Traveling by Train

By Train to Washington

Tom arranged a trip to Washington for me. I wanted to go there by train. I wondered if American roads were much different from ours. I also wanted to see more of America. You don’t see much from a plane, do you? Tom wanted to book tickets, but I insisted on making all the necessary arrangements myself. After some time in America I wanted to see if I could manage it. There was no problem with train tickets. We bought them on the day of the trip at the booking office. As far as I remember, we paid about a hundred dollars for our one-way tickets.

Traveling by train is slower than that by plane, but it has its advantages, too. It’s cheaper, safer and more comfortable. Modern trains have comfortable seats in all passenger carriages. From the comfortable corner seat of a railway carriage you have a splendid view of the whole countryside. And there are sleeping-cars and dining-cars which make even the longest journey enjoyable. If you are hungry, you can have a meal in the dining car; and if the journey is a long one you can have a wonderful bed in a sleeper. But that’s if you can sleep on the train, of course. Some people can’t. They feel tired and worn-out after a night on the train. Well, they can take a day train.

However, hardly anyone can enjoy sitting on a train for more than a few hours. Train compartments soon get cramped and stuffy. It is almost impossible to take your mind off the journey. Reading is only a partial solution. During the day, sleep comes in snatches. At night, when you really want to go to sleep, you rarely manage to do so. So you arrive at your destination almost exhausted.

Anyway, I prefer traveling by train to traveling by plane. I feel safer and more relaxed in a train compartment. With trains you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined.

The American passenger railroad is called Amtrak. On most trains you have the choice between First and Second (Economy) Class. First Class seats are more spacious and cost 50% more than the Second Class fare. We boarded the train at Pennsylvania Station. After we were seated, the conductor collected the tickets. He took our tickets and placed seat markers above our seats. I saw our destination – Washington D.C. – written on them. It took us just about three hours to reach Washington. Two hours and fifty minutes to be exact. On the train we had some pizza and cold drinks. Tom said he had always traveled by plane to Washington. It was convenient because the airport in Washington was so close to downtown. But Union Station was literally within sight of the Capitol. The train arrived at the station exactly on timeand wegot off.

The hotel was within walking distance from the station. We had made hotel reservation from New York.

At the hotel we checked in without any problems. The desk clerk confirmed our reservation for a double room. We filled out registration forms and got the key. The bellman took our bags up and I wondered how much I should tip him. Tom said a one-dollar tip would be okay. The room had all the necessary conveniences and after a light snack and a short rest we decided to go sightseeing.

 

3.1 Choose a), b), or c) to complete the sentences below.

1. Alex wanted to go to Washington by train because it was … than by plane.

a) much cheaper

b) less dangerous

c) more interesting

2. The great advantage of traveling by train is that you can …

a) eat on the train

b) see the countryside

c) sleep on the train

3. The conductor placed seat markers above the passengers’ seats with … written on them.

a) their names

b) their seat numbers

c) the names of places they were going to

4. The hotel was …

a) near the station

b) a long distance from the station

c) just across the road

 





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