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PAST SIMPLE Key words: ago, last year (week, etc.), yesterday, the other day, in 1988, for five years, for a week, etc.   PRESENT PERFECT Key words: recently, lately, already, yet, just, for, since, ever, never, always, so far, today, this week, etc.
1) Действия, совершенные в указанное время в прошлом. It rained heavily last night. She was IN Paris a year ago. 2) Действие, которое произошло только что. Mary went out just now. ‘Just now’ означает ‘a moment ago’. 3) Действия, совершенные в указанный период времени в прошлом (с союзом for). They lived in Germany for five years after the war. (Они жили в Германии пять лет после войны.) 4)Завершенные прошедшие действия со словами today, this morning, etc., если эти периоды времени закончены. I wrote three letters this morning. (it is not ‘this morning’) 5) Обычные, повторяющиеся действия или состояния в прошлом. a) I often wentcycling last summer. Pushkin wrotea lot of poems. б) used to + Infinitive Do you play golf? – No, but I used to when I lived in the country. The shops didn’t use to open in those days. в) would + Infinitive. When we worked in the same office, we would have coffee together. 6) Последовательность действий в прошлом, когда конкретное время не указано. I entered the office, looked around and came up to the secretary.   1) Действия, завершенные в прошлом, результаткоторых имеется в настоящем. Конкретное время действия не указано. My mother is angry because I’ve lost my watch. She has never been TOParis. 2) Действие, которое произошло только что. Mary has just gone out. 3)Незавершенные действия, начавшиеся в прошлом и все еще продолжающиеся в настоящем (с союзами for, since, ever, never, all my life, so far). They have lived in Germany for five years. (Они живут в Германии пять лет.) 4)Завершенные прошедшие действия со словами today, this morning, this week, etc., если эти периоды времени не закончены. I have written three letters this morning. (it is still ‘this morning’) 5)Действия, неоднократно происходившие в прошлом, и могут еще произойти. I have already seenthe doctor twice. Yevtushenko has written a lot of poems. 6)Действия, завершенные к настоящему времени, в сложныхпредложениях со следующими конструкциями в главном предложении. It’s the best salad I have eaten in this restaurant. It’s the second time I have seen this film. This is the only place he has been to.

1st Year 2nd Term


Указательные местоимения


  В единственном числе Во множественном числе
THIS 1 This car is mine. – Эта машина моя. 2 This is my car. – Это – моя машина.  
THESE   1 These girls are my sisters. Эти девочки мои сестры. 2 These are my sisters. Это – мои сестры.
THAT 1 Who is that man? – Кто тот мужчина? 2 That is the man I told you about. – (Э)то мужчина, о котором я тебе говорил. 3 My seat is next to that of John. – Мое место рядом с местом Джона.  
THOSE   1 Who are those people? Кто те люди? 2 Those are my parents. То – мои родители. 3 Your flowers are better than those in our garden. Ваши цветы лучше, чем цветы в нашем саду.


  A The No Article
SAME   He went to the same place as I did. She said the same yesterday.  
SUCH I had such a busy morning! She is such a beautiful baby!   She’s got such nice children. Such is the present state of things.


Неопределенные местоимения

SOME/ANY/NO and their derivatives

SOME/ANY/NO и их производные

Affirmative sentences Утвердительные предложения SOME– наличие какого-либо качества или количества ‘какой-то’, ‘некоторый’, ‘некоторое количество’ We must think of some plan. Give me some water, please. SOME – перед числительным переводится как ‘около’, ‘приблизительно’ It happened some five years ago. ANY – ‘всякий’, ‘любой’ You may take any of the boxes. I don’t mind which you take.
Negative sentences Отрицательные предложения ANY –отрицаниеналичиякакого-либо качества или количества. Отрицание может быть выражено словами not, never, without, seldom, hardly,etc. He didn’t have any cash. He went away without saying good-bye to any of us. They seldom have any visitors. NO=NOT ANY He had no cash. But: He did not have any cash.
Interrogative sentences Вопросительные предложения ANY –установление факта наличиякакого-либо качества или количества ‘сколько-нибудь’, ‘какой-нибудь’ Do you have anycash? Are there any apples left? SOME –если в вопросе содержится просьба или предложение May I have some more tea? Would you like some more coffee?

1.В значении наличия или отсутствия какого-либо количества иди качества SOME и ANY перед существительными во множественном числе и неисчисляемыми на русский язык часто не переводится отдельными словами.

2.Употребление местоименийSOME(ONE/BODY/THING),

ANY(ONE/BODY/THING), NO(ONE/BODY/THING)в предложении подчиняется тем же правилам, что и употребление местоимений SOME/ANY/NO.


1)в общем значении лица в предложениях, соответствующих русским обобщенно-личным предложениям (только с глаголом в единственном числе, может иметь форму притяжательного падежа) One should be careful when crossing the street. (При переходе улицы нужно быть осторожным.) One lives and learns. (Век живи, век учись.) 2) слово-заместитель существительных единственного и множественного числа (перед ним может стоять прилагательное, артикль, и местоимения – this(these), that(those), which, each, every, other) НО:не употребляется после слова own и после количественных числительных. I prefer red roses to white ones. That isn’t their car. Theirs is a green one. That apple-tree is old, but the other one is young. Don’t take her pen. Use your own. We have only one car, but our neighbors have two. 1)замещает NO+ существительное (Сочетается с глаголом в единственном и множественном числе) None of us knows where to go. I wanted some more tea, but none was left. NONEversusNO(BODY/ONE/THING) Who are you talking to? – Nobody (no one). What are you doing there? – Nothing. Howmuch sugar is left?– None. Howmany students were present?– None.


  Сисчисляемыми существительными Снеисчисляемыми существительными
Утвердительные предложения There are a lot of plants in the city. I have too many problems on my hand. I have so many problems on my hand. I have a lot of money left. I have so much work to do this morning. I have too much work to do this morning.
Вопросительные предложения Are there many plants in the city? Do you have much money left?
Отрицательные предложения There aren’t many plants in the city. I don’t have much money left.

(A) FEW and (A) LITTLE

  Сисчисляемыми существительными Снеисчисляемымисуществительными
FEW (мало) There are few applicants for this job. There are very few applicants for this job. There are too few applicants for this job. There are so few applicants for this job.  
LITTLE (мало)   There is little hope that they will win. There is very little hope that they will win. There is too little hope that they will win. There is so little hope that they will win.
A FEW (немного, но есть) There are a few applicants for this job. There are only a few applicants for this job.  
A LITTLE (немного, но есть)   There is a little hope they will win. There is only a little hope they will win.



Some Complex Numbers

Некоторые сложные числительные

a/one hundred and one three hundred and fifty-two a/one thousand and one two thousand eight hundred and seventy four fifteen thousand nine hundred and seventy two two hundred and thirty four thousand seven hundred and fifty-three a/one million six billion



Vulgar(Простые) Decimal(Десятичные)
½ – a half ¼ – a quarter ¾ – three quarters 1/3one third 2/3two thirds 1/5one fifth 3½ – three and a half 2¾ – two and three fourths   Complex(Сложные) 3/462 – three over four six two 20/83 – twenty over eighty-three 22/7 – twenty-two over seven   0,125 – (nought) point one two five 0,25 – (nought) point two five 5,33 – five point three three 0,5 – (nought) point five 10,75 – ten point seven five    



1% – one percent 0.25% – a quarter of one percent 0.5% – a half of one percent 50% fifty percent(a half) The Central Bank raised/lowered interest rates bya quarter of one percent.



1977 – nineteen (hundred and) seventy seven 2000 – two thousand/twenty hundred 2010 – twenty (hundred and) ten 1800 – eighteen hundred 1980s – the nineteen eighties 3 January 1995 – the thirdof January nineteen ninety-five May 4, 1974 – May (the) fourth nineteen seventy-four (US)

Telephone numbers

Номера телефонов

2607354 – two, six, oh, seven, three, five, four 663815 – double six, three, eight, one, five 381566 – three, eight, one, five, double six But: 386615 – three, eight, six, six, one, five  





at after/before during for by in on since at 5 o’clock; at weekends; at the end of August; at night; after/before the classes; during the holiday (When?); for a few days (How long?); by the end of the month; in three days; in the morning on Monday; on Monday morning; on 12th October; on such a lovely day; since last year;



above/over below/under among between by at in on to in front of/behind/ opposite above the table; overthe picture; below the picture; underthe table; among the best football players; between Mike and Peter; by a small river; at the top/bottom of the page;atthe table; atthe cinema/ theatre;atsb’s place;atwork,athome;atschool;atuniversity; at 21 Central Avenue; in a flat/room/town;inthe sky;inthe tree;inthe picture; in the middle of the square; in Central Avenue; in the North of England; inbed; in hospital; in the corner of the room; on the table;onthe second floor;onthe right; on the corner of the street; to the north of Russia; in front of/opposite/behind the building;


along across at/in for from out of into off on to through up/down along the road; across the bridge; arrive at the station/airport but: inMinsk; leave for Italy; from Brussels to Paris; from the table; out of the bag; out of the house; into the house; get into the car; get offthe bus/train; get on the bike; go to the seaside; I’ve never been to Rome but I’ve been toParis. through the wood; run up and downthe stairs;


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