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Carnegie Mellon University - Weird and wonderful university traditions



 

Pittsburgh's Carnegie Mellon University has a low concrete fence (pictured) in the middle of its campus which can be painted by any student providing they paint the entire length between midnight and sunrise using only a paintbrush (rollers and sprays not allowed). The original wooden fence made the Guinness Book of World Records for being "the most painted object in the world." In 1993 it gave way under the layers of paint and was replaced with the current concrete version. Often students can be found camping next to the fence for up to a week in order to protect their particular work of art from being painted over. One romantic student famously used the fence to paint a marriage proposal.

 

3. Складіть невеликий опис однієї-двух традицій Вашого Університету.

 

ІІ. Граматичний матеріал. Тема: Види запитань. Звороти there is, there are.

 

Зворот there is (there are) повідомляє про наявність у визначеному місці особи (осіб) чи предмету (предметів), ще невідомих співрозмовнику. Зворот thereis має значення «є, знаходиться».

В українській мові речення у таких випадках, як правило, розпочинається з обставини місця чи часу: На столі книга. В класі учні. Учора в клубі було зібрання.

В англійській мові такі речення розпочинаються із звороту thereis/are, за яким слідує іменник зі словами що до нього відносяться, а потім обставина місця чи часу. Дієслово tobe узгоджується з іменником що прямує на за ним:

There is a book, some pencil and a pen on the table.

There are some pencils, a book and a pen on the table.

Переклад таких речень розпочинається з обставини місця чи часу, при чому зворот there is на українську мову часто-густо не перекладається.

There is a book on the desk.

На письмовому столі (лежить) книга.

Читайте більше на http://opentalk.org.ua/langstory/zvorot-%E2%80%9Cthere-is%E2%80%9D-%E2%80%9Cthere-are%E2%80%9D або у будь-якому граматичному довіднику на Ваш розсуд.

 

Прочитайте та перекладіть речення.

1. There are many books on the shelf.

2. There is a monument not far from my hostel.

3. There were 75 students at the lecture yesterday.

4. There was a flower on the desk.

5. There will be the meeting in this lecture-hall tomorrow.

Оберіть правильну форму у дужках.

1. There…(is, are) a laboratory in this building.

2. There…(was, were) some cars in the street.

3. There…(is, was, will be) many people here tomorrow.

4. There…(is, are, was, were) newspapers in his bag 10 minutes ago.

5. There…(is, were, will be) a reading room in a new building next year.

3. Сформуйте питальну та заперечну форми.

Приклад

  1. There was a small shop in my street last year. Was there a small shop in my street last year? There was no small shop in my street last year.
  2. There were two books at the table. Were there two books on the table? There weren’t two books on the table.
  1. There were a lot of flowers in the garden.
  2. There was an apple-tree in the garden.
  3. There were a lot of chickens on the farm.
  4. There were many white sheep on the farm.
  5. There was a table at the window.
  6. There was a bus stop here.

3. Уявіть Ваш майбутній офіс. Складіть питання у майбутньому часі. Дайте відповіді на запитання.

Приклад

  1. Will it be a lamp on the table? – Yes, it will be a lamp on the table.
  2. Will it be any plants in the office? - No, there will not be any plants in the office.

 

1. Задайте як найбільше питань до наступних речень:

1) I go to school at 8 o’clock every morning.

2) I will visit this wonderful place next year.

 

 

III. Робота над текстом за професійним спрямуванням.

1. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст.

The Constitution of the USA

The Constitution of the USA was adopted after the War of Independence on September 17, 1787. It lists the set of rules, laws and regulations which provide the practical norms regulating the work of the government. The document embodied the political theories of the Founding Fathers, who represented the interests of a privileged class, as the great majority of those who formulated the Constitution were men of property. The main principle underlying the Constitution was as follows: private property is the backbone of liberty. It was put forward by a rich plantation owner from Virginia, James Madison, who is known to be the “Father of the Constitution” precisely for this reason.

The Constitution consists of the Preamble and seven articles. Twenty-seven amendments have so far been added to its original text. The first 10 amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, were added in a group in 1791, as a result of growing popular demands. These amendments establish the individual rights and freedoms to all people of the States, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of worship, the right to peaceful assembly, etc. Some of the amendments are now rela lively unimportant, but the Fifth Amendment retains its significance in the fight of the American people for their civil rights. It provides that “no person shall deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law”, and no person “shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself”.

All the amendments adopted by the Congress become an integral part of the Constitution. Mention should be made of some of them. The Thirteenth amendment abolished slavery. The fourteenth and Fifteenth adopted in 1868 and 1870 defined citizenship and gave the vote to all male citizens, regardless of race, colour or previous condition of servitude. The Nineteenth gave the vote to women and was adopted in 1920. The Twenty-second amendment, adopted in 1951, makes it impossible for any President to hold office for more than two terms. The 26th amendment was adopted in 1971, it lowered the voting age to 18 years.

Americans feel that of all freedoms proclaimed in the Constitution there is only one freedom - freedom of enterprise. But freedom of enterprise does not at all expand personal freedoms of all citizens. On the contrary, it limits them. Freedom of enterpise in practice means freedom of the wealthy to profit at the expense of the working man.

2. Дайте відповіді на наступні запитання:

1. What three main branches is the federal government of the US divided into?

2. Whose interests has the US Constitution reflected from the very beginning?

3. What principle forms the basis of the Constitution?

4. What freedoms are proclaimed by the Constitution? Which of them has become the most important?

5. In what way has the original text of the Constitution been changed?

3. Складіть план до тексту.

4. Перекажіть текст, використовуючи план.

Модуль самостійної роботи до модуля 2 для І курсу

Дієслова “to be”, “to have”

Питання для самоконтролю:

  1. Граматичні функції дієслова to beв реченні.
  2. Форми дієслова to beв англійській мові.
  3. Граматичні функції та форми дієслова to have в англійській мові.
  4. Вживання дієслова to beв теперішньому, минулому та майбутньому часі.
  5. Вживання дієслова to have в теперішньому, минулому та майбутньому часі.

 

Вправа 1. Вставте дієслово to be в Present, Past або Future Simple.

1. The students ... in the Russian Museum now. Last month they ...in the Hermitage. There ... an inter­esting exhibition there. In two weeks they ... in the Tretyakov Gallery.

2. My father ... a teacher. He ... a pupil twenty years ago.

3. I ... a doctor when I grow up.

4. My sister ... not ... at home tomorrow. She ... at school tomorrow.

5. ... you ... at home tomorrow?

6. ... your father at work yesterday?

7. My sister … ill last week. She ... not ill now.

8. Yesterday we ... at the theatre.

9. Where ... your mother now? — She ... in the kitchen.

10. Where ... you yesterday? – I ... at the cinema.

11. When I come home tomorrow, all my family ... at home.

12. ... your little sister in bed now? —Yes, she ... .

13. ... you ... at school tomor­row? — Yes, I ... .

14. When my granny ... young, she ... an actress.

15. My friend ... in Moscow now. He ... in St. Petersburg tomorrow.

16. Where ... your books now? — They ... in my bag.

 

Вправа 2. Утворіть із поданих стверджувальних речень заперечні та питальні.

1. I am busy today. 2. He is on duty. 3. My parents are well. 4. We will be ready soon. 5. They were late. 6. Mary was in the country last month. 7. He was a businessman. 8. Peter and John will be in the garden.

 

Вправа 3. Вставте дієслово to have в Present, Past або Future Simple. Перекладіть речення українською мовою.

  1. We … a good flat next year.
  2. My neighbour … a car when he lived in Odessa.
  3. They … a TV set.
  4. I … eight English books.
  5. She … a new dress for the upcoming New Year party.
  6. You … a good dictionary in your upper drawer.
  7. Our room … two windows.
  8. Many farmers … motor cycles in a couple of years.
  9. Our teacher … two daughters.
  10. I … a very special reason to go there when he came.

 

 

Література:

1. Верба Л.Г., Верба Г.В Граматика сучасної англійської мови. Посібник. – Логос, 1997.- 341 с.

2. Голицынский Ю.Б. Грамматика: Сборник упражнений. – 3-е изд. - СПб.: Каро, 2001. – 512 с.

3. Гордон Е.М., Крылова И.П. Грамматика современного английского языка: Учебник для институтов и факультетов иностранных языков. – 2-е изд., испр. и доп. – М.: Высшая школа, 1980. – 335 с.

 

 

When I came to Cambridge I was surprised a lot. Any student cannot escape the influence of the Cambridge traditions. Here I have felt at one and the same time the Past, the Present and even the Future. It’s easy to see in the old grey stone buildings how the past has influenced the present and how the present is giving shape to the future. So let me tell you a little of what this University town looks like. The story of the University begins as I know, in 1209 when several hundred students and scholars arrived in the little town of Cambridge from Oxford. Then they united into a "Universitas" of Society - the word "University", like the word "College", meant a society of people with a common employment.

These students were all churchmen and had been studying in Oxford at that city’s well-known schools. Then one day a student accidentally killed a man of the town. The Mayor arrested three other students, who were innocent, and by order of King John (who was fighting with the Church and knew that the death of three clergymen would annoy it) they were put to death by hanging (повішання). In protest, all the students moved, some coming to Cambridge; and the University began.

The University wanted to be independent of the Town, and the Town was anxious for authority over the new student population. "Town" and "Gown" battles were frequent. All the students organized themselves under an elected leader called a Chancellor. The students were armed. Life in College was strict; students were forbidden to play games, to sing (except sacred music), to hunt or fish or even to dance.

Task 1. Доберіть найбільш вдалий варіант заголовку до тексту.

 

Task 2. Визначте, які з поданих нижче речень є правдивими по відношенню до тексту.

1. The author of the story was not surprised at all visiting Cambridge for the first time.

2. First students and scholars came to Cambridge from Oxford.

3. In the 13th century all the students in Cambridge were merchants.

4. The University fought for its independence from the Town.

5. The students’ leader name was Bachelor.

6. Students’ life was very difficult; students even had no opportunity to have rest and fun.

Task 3. Складіть словник до тексту відповідно до теми модуля (Навчання в університеті).

 





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