Theme Case Law and Codified Law Systems.



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Theme Case Law and Codified Law Systems.



The plan:

1.Anglo-Saxon law and Roman Law.

2.The concept of precedent.

3. The doctrine of stare devises as a bases of Case Law.

Лексический уровень текста. Виды лексики: общеупотребительная, общенаучная, терминологическая лексика. Общая и специальная правовая терминология. Термины в юридическом тексте. Дефиниция термина. Классификация юридических терминов. Юридические понятия и категории, их научные определения.

Key words: concept of precedent, legal systems

1. Anglo-Saxon law, the body of legal principles that prevailed in England from the 6th century until the Norman Conquest (1066). In conjunction with Scandinavian law and the so-called barbarian laws (leges barbarorum) of continental Europe, it made up the body of law called Germanic law. Anglo-Saxon law was written in the vernacular and was relatively free of the Roman influence found in continental laws that were written in Latin. Roman influence on Anglo-Saxon law was indirect and exerted primarily through the church. There was a definite Scandinavian influence upon Anglo-Saxon law as a result of the Viking invasions of the 8th and 9th centuries. Only with the Norman Conquest did Roman law, as embodied in Frankish law, make its influence felt on the laws of England.

Anglo-Saxon law was made up of three components: the laws and collections promulgated by the king, authoritative statements of custom such as those found in the Norman-instituted Domesday Book, and private compilations of legal rules and enactments. The primary emphasis was on criminal law rather than on private law, although certain material dealt with problems of public administration, public order, and ecclesiastical matters.

Before the 10th century, the codes often merely presented lists of compositions—money paid to an injured party or his family—but by the 10th century a new penal system had evolved based on outlawry (declaring a criminal an outlaw), confiscation, and corporal and capital punishment. By this time there also had been an increased development of the law relating to administrative and police functions.

The Anglo-Saxon legal system rested on the fundamental opposition between folkright and privilege.Folkright is the aggregate of rules, whether formulated or not, that can be appealed to as an expression of the juridical consciousness of the people at large or of the communities of which it is composed. It is tribal in origin and is differentiated on highly localized bases. Thus, there was a folkright of East and West Saxons, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, and Welshmen, and these main folkright divisions persisted even after the tribal kingdoms disappeared in the 8th and 9th centuries. The responsibility for the formulation and application of the folkright rested, in the 10th and 11th centuries, with the local shire moots (assemblies); the national council of the realm, or witan, only occasionally used folkright ideas. The older laws of real property, succession, contracts, and compositions were mainly regulated by folkright; the law had to be declared and applied by the people themselves in their communities.

Folkright could, however, be broken or modified by special enactment or grant, and the foundation of such privileges was royal power, especially once England became a single kingdom in the 10th century. In this manner a privileged land tenure was created; the rules pertaining to the succession of kinsmen were replaced by concessions of testamentary power and confirmations of grants and wills, and special privileges as to levying fines were conferred. In time, the rights originating in the royal grants of privilege came to outweigh folkright in many respects and were the starting point for the feudal system.

Before the 10th century an individual’s actions were considered not as exertions of his own will but as acts of his kinship group. Personal protection and revenge, oaths, marriage, wardship, and succession were all regulated by the law of kinship. What began as a natural alliance later became a means of enforcing responsibility and keeping lawless individuals in order. As the associations proved insufficient, other collective bodies, such as guilds and townships, assumed these functions. In the period before the Norman Conquest, much regulation was formalized by the king’s legislation in order to protect the individual. In the area of property, for example, witnesses were required at cattle sales, not to validate the sale but as protection against later claims on the cattle. Some ordinances required the presence of witnesses for all sales outside the town gate, and others simply prohibited sales except in town, again for the buyer’s protection.

The preservation of peace was an important feature of Anglo-Saxon law. Peace was thought of as the rule of an authority within a specific region. Because the ultimate authority was the king, there was a gradual evolution of stringent rules and regulations against violating the king’s peace.

Roman law,the law of ancient Rome from the time of the founding of the city in 753 bce until the fall of the Western Empire in the 5th century ce. It remained in use in the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire until 1453. As a legal system, Roman law has affected the development of law in most of Western civilization as well as in parts of the East. It forms the basis for the law codes of most countries of continental Europe (see civil law) and derivative systems elsewhere.

The term Roman law today often refers to more than the laws of Roman society. The legal institutions evolved by the Romans had influence on the laws of other peoples in times long after the disappearance of the Roman Empire and in countries that were never subject to Roman rule. To take the most striking example, in a large part of Germany, until the adoption of a common code for the whole empire in 1900, the Roman law was in force as “subsidiary law”; that is, it was applied unless excluded by contrary local provisions. This law, however, which was in force in parts of Europe long after the fall of the Roman Empire, was not the Roman law in its original form. Although its basis was indeed the Corpus Juris Civilis—the codifying legislation of the emperor Justinian I—this legislation had been interpreted, developed, and adapted to later conditions by generations of jurists from the 11th century onward and had received additions from non-Roman sources.

2. 3.In common law legal systems, a precedent or authority is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts. Common law legal systems place great value on deciding cases according to consistent principled rules so that similar facts will yield similar and predictable outcomes, and observance of precedent is the mechanism by which that goal is attained. Black's Law Dictionary defines "precedent" as a "rule of law established for the first time by a court for a particular type of case and thereafter referred to in deciding similar cases. Common law precedent is a third kind of law, on equal footing with statutory law (statutes and codes enacted by legislative bodies), and Delegated legislation (in U.K. parlance) or regulatory law (in U.S. parlance) (regulations promulgated by executive branch agencies).

Case law or common law is the set of decisions of adjudicatory tribunals that can be cited as precedent. In most countries, including most European countries, the term is applied to any set of rulings on law which is guided by previous rulings, for example, previous decisions of a government agency.

Precedential (whether strongly binding or weakly persuasive) case law can arise from a ruling by either a judicial court, or by an executive branch agency. Trials and hearings that do not result in written decisions, written decisions that are designated "nonprecedential" by the tribunal, or written decisions of agencies that are not issued and indexed with sufficient formality to gain precedential effect, do not create precedent for future court decisions

Stare decisis (Anglo-Latin pronunciation:) is a legal principle by which judges are obligated to respect the precedent established by prior decisions. The words originate from the phrasing of the principle in the Latin maxim Stare decisis et non quieta movere: "to stand by decisions and not disturb the undisturbed."[3] In a legal context, this is understood to mean that courts should generally abide by precedent and not disturb settled matters.The principle ofstare decisis can be divided into two components.

The first is the rule that a decision made by a superior court, or by the same court in an earlier decision, is binding precedent that the court itself and all its inferior courts are obligated to follow. The second is the principle that a court should not overturn its own precedent unless there is a strong reason to do so and should be guided by principles from lateral and inferior courts. The second principle, regarding persuasive precedent, is an advisory one that courts can and do ignore occasionally.

- Классификация лексики: общеупотребительную (общенародную) лексику, используемую всеми носителями языка, независимо от территории проживания или социальной принадлежности. Общенаучная лексика – лексика, используемая в науч. текстах всех областей знания. Специфической чертой науч. прозы является лексико центричность. Именно слово в науч. тексте является необходимой предпосылкой для последовательных операций с понятиями в процессе формирования мысли. Состав лексики науч. речи неоднороден. В нем выделяются три относительно самостоятельных слоя: нетерминологическая (неспециальная), общенаучная и терминологическая лексика. Каждый слой играет свою роль в языке науки. Нетерминологическая лексика формирует нейтральную словесную ткань специального текста. Характеризуется однородностью не только сферы употребления, экспрессивно-стилистической окраски, но и семантики. В ее состав входят отглагольные имена процессуального значения (введение, заключение, формирование, использование и др.), оценочные прилагательные и наречия типа активный, глубокий, важный, новый, существенный, активно и др., имена отвлеченного качества типа сложность, активность, истинность, актуальность и др. Используется для связи науч. понятий, выражения их отношений, толкования понятий, описания материала.

Кроме нетерминологической и общенаучной лексики в науч. тексте используется терминологическая. Она представляет собой совокупность специальных наименований, объединенных в термина системы, каждая из которых отражает категориальный аппарат, систему понятий конкретной науки. В этих системах термин безразличен к контексту, жанру высказывания, ситуации речи. Кроме того, "термины – наиболее "управляемая" часть лексики… пример целесообразно управляемого приспособления языковых средств к потребностям обмена опытом в человеческом обществе". Основными признаками терминов являются точность, однозначность, удобство образования от них производных слов, ориентированность на объект в системе.

- Юридическая терминологияВопрос о терминологии существует в любой специальной отрасли знания; и чем такая отрасль специфичнее, тем более остро этот вопрос стоит. В юриспруденции проблема терминологии достаточно актуальна. Чем совершеннее законодательство, тем более четко и глубоко оно регулирует общественные отношения, тем большее значение приобретает проблема терминологии. Без терминов, т. е. слов точного значения, имеющих один четко очерченный смысл, невозможно добиться максимальной точности изложения законодательной мысли. Они делают законодательство более компактным, избавляют его от пространных описаний.

Юридический термин (от лат. Terminus- граница, предел) - слово или словосочетание, которые, обеспечивая определенность и четкость языка права, конкретизируют используемые в нем понятия для определенной сферы регулирования.

Необходимо обратить внимание на следующее. Специально-юридическую терминологию нельзя ограничивать набором особо сложных юридических выражений и слов. По сути дела, в законах, иных нормативных документах выражения и слова, которые, казалось бы, относятся к обычным, общеупотребляемым, в действительности имеют свое специфическое правовое содержание, причем в ряде случаев отличающееся от общеупотребляемого. Характерный пример - слово "сделка", которое, в обиходе имея даже упречный по этическим критериям оттенок, в своем юридическом значении является высокозначимой правовой категорией.

В юридической науке и законодательстве следует различать основные группы понятий и терминов:

·обиходные слова и выражения повседневной речи, которые без всякого своего изменения своего обычного литературного содержания используются и для обозначения юридических понятий. Например, такие слова как, «строение», «здание», «документ», «родители», «находка», они применяются как в обычном смысле, так и в специальном.

·общеупотребимые слова и выражения, которым юристы придают специальное значение, наделяя терминологические слова или словосочетания особым смыслом. Например «эмансипация», у обычного человека ассоциируется с представлением женщинам равноправия в общественной или семейной жизни, а в гражданском праве означает объявление несовершеннолетнего полностью дееспособным в случаях, если он работает по трудовому соглашению, либо он вступил в официальные брачные отношения.

·профессиональные понятия и термины из других сфер социального регулирования. Они включены в понятийный аппарат юриспруденции из других научных областей, оперирующих специальной терминологией (в частности, из техники, медицины, экономики, биологии и т.д.). Примерами могут служить используемые в юридических текстах такие слова, как депозит, промышленное предприятие, эвтаназия и т.п.

·собственно юридические термины и понятия, используемые в юриспруденции и правоприменительной практике для обозначения специфических государственных и правовых явлений и отношений. Среди них, в частности, «абдикция»- официальное отречение монарха от престола; «кассация»- обжалование и опротестование в вышестоящий суд судебных решений, приговоров, не вступивших в законную силу; шикана- в науке гражданского права злоупотребление своим правом.

·полисемичные (многозначные) термины и понятия. Применяя юридическую терминологию, следует помнить, что различный смысл имеют не только одни и те же слова, общеупотребимые как в повседневном, так и правовых аспектах. Разными по вложенному в них содержанию могут быть и специальные термины, используемые в одной или нескольких областях права. В гражданском праве термин сожительство имеет два значения обычное и техническое. В обычном значении сожительство - это, как известно, факт проживания двух супругов под одной крышей. В техническом же значении сожительство понимается как обязанность каждого из супругов соглашаться на вступление в половые сношения с супругом. Равным образом, «задержание» в гражданском праве означает понятие, совершенно отличное от понятия «задержания» в уголовном праве.

·профессиональный жаргон (юридическое арго). Жаргон- речь относительно открытой социальной или профессиональной группы, которая отличается от общеразговорного языка особым составом слов и выражений. Это условный язык, понятный только в определенной среде, в нем много искусственных, иногда условных слов и выражений. Юристами жаргон применяется не только для разнообразия своей речи, но и в правотворческом процессе и правоприменения. Среди подобных особенностей юридического языка следует обратить внимание на корпоративное ударение (дОговор, договОр), профессиональные сокращения и аббревиатуры (МВД, КНБ), профессиональный сленг (зеркальные условия договора, агентская комиссия) и просторечия. Также как и у представителей многих других профессий, у юристов существует свой профессиональный жаргон (аблакат, микст, пасквиль), нередко юристы практики её используют, вошедшую в их язык от общения с криминальными элементами.

Подобное можно высказать в отношении попыток внедрения в отечественный правовой язык ряда юридических терминов современного зарубежного права, в частности, таких как «транстермипологизация», «правовой модус», «инвалидизация» или «параюрист».

В любом случае будущий юрист для того, чтобы хорошо владеть и излагать сложнейшие правовые материалы, должен владеть юридической терминологией. В этом процессе целесообразнее обращаться к существующим специальным словарям-справочникам, содержащих совокупность юридических терминов как по общим вопросам государства и права, так и в сфере правового регулирования отдельных общественных отношений.

 

Lecture 4.

Theme: Constitutional law.

The plan:

1. The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

2. Legislative, executive and judicial branches

3. The system of checks and balances

Функциональные стили, книжные стили и разговорный стиль. Стили языка и стили речи. Законодательные официальный стиль. Клише (языковые стандарты). Работа с текстами научного стиля (аннотация, реферирование, конпекстирование). Структура изложения и правила оформления научного текста. Официально-деловые юридические документы (обвинительное заключение, исковое заявление и.т.д.)

Keywords: the constitution, a branch of law.

1. - Constitutional law – is the leading branch of the law of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Constitutional law of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a branch of the law and the legal science. Constitutional and legal norms and their types. Legal institutions.

- The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan - is the highest law of the state. Principles of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The essence of the Constitution. General characteristics of the Constitution of Kazakhstan .

- About correspondence of the Constitution and laws. Correspondence of the Constitution norms with the norms of international agreements. The stages of constitutional legislation development.

 

Constitutional law is the main branch of a national legal system of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Constitutional law defines the relationships making the basis of the society and the state, relationships connected with the execution of public authority and also relationships between the state and the person.

Constitutional law is formed of legal norms defining and regulating social relations that represent the main concepts of the constitutional system of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the legal status of the person and the citizen, and a system of state power and control bodies.

The source of the constitutional law of the Republic of Kazakhstan is understood to be normative legal acts acting within the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan and regulating society structure and state power organization.

The source of the constitutional law, i.e. of the outer form of representation is, first of all, the Constitution, constitutional laws, laws and other regulatory acts, legal customs, normative agreements.

The main source of the constitutional law of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the Constitution. It can be explained by the fact that the Constitution has an external legal force and direct effect within the whole territory of the republic. All other sourced are derived from the norms of the Constitution and should not contradict it.

The Constitution is the main state law. The word “constitution” has Latin origin; “constitution” can be translated from the Latin language as a “body”, “establishment”. Being the main law of the state the Constitution appeared with the development of bourgeois states. Constitutions can be classified according to various characteristics. It can be rigid and flexible according to the type of changes and amendments. Rigid constitutions are adopted by the general voting by referendum or by special constitutional procedure, constitutional meetings or by Parliament.

Flexible constitutions are adopted and amended within the adoption of usual laws.

According to the shape Constitutions can be written and unwritten. Written constitution is a single legal document. Unwritten constitution includes several unsystematized acts of constitutional character, judicial precedents and legal customs.

The Constitution has a special position in the legal system of a modern democratic state and is one of essential characteristics of the legal state. To have a constitution – is an obligatory factor of the law, rule of law and stability of the government institution.

Constitutions have specific legal characteristics: supreme legal force, direct operation, constituent character, special way of adoption and amendments.

The Constitution is a legal act of a constituent character. The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan was approved by nation-wide voting thus the nation will is realized in the constitutional norms which are of constituent character i.e. primary character. The Constitution regulates basic, fundamental relationships that appears in the society and covers all spheres of life: political, economic, social and cultural.

The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan has supreme legal force and is in the head of the system of legal acts in the country. Supremacy of the Constitution is that none of laws or legal acts should contradict the norms of the Constitution. Law or other legal acts that contradicts the constitutional norms are subject to the abolition in the manner prescribed by the laws. Direct operation of the constitutional norms means that norms are applicable directly while regulation of the public relations. The Constitution is an acting legal act; norms of the Constitution are applicable within the whole territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Direct operation of the constitutional norms means that public bodies and officials must follow the Constitution. Citizens and their associations in case of their rights protection should invoke only the constitutional norms.

The Constitution being the highest law is characterized by the stability thus it has special procedure of its adoption and changes. Article 91 Section 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan stipulates that basic fundamental principles may not be changed. They are: the unitary status and territorial integrity of the Republic and also the forms of government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. These principles can be changed only by the adoption of a new constitution. Additions to the Constitution may be introduced only by an all-nation referendum held by the decision of the President of the Republic. Amendments and additions may be introduced by the Parliament in case the President decides to pass it to the consideration of the highest representative body. The draft of the amendments to the Constitution shall be considered within a joint session of both Chambers. Amendments and additions are considered to be adopted if not less than two-thirds of the total number of Parliament deputies vote for them.

Constitutional development of Kazakhstan. The question about the period of time when the constitutional development of Kazakhstan began is a subject of discussions among scientists of law, historians and etc. It is assumed that the first attempts to create a constitutional state were taken by the representatives of the alashsk movement in 1916-1919 years. Such lawyers of Kazakhstan as Nurpeisov E.K., Kotov A.K. suppose that “the activity of the Alash Horde government appears to be interesting as a state beginning the constitutional evolution of Kazakhstan to sovereignty”.

The next stage of the constitutional development of Kazakhstan is represented by the Soviet constitutionalism that began when Soviet came to power. Three Constitutions were adopted during that period: the Constitution of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (KASSR) dated the 18th of February 1926, the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR in 1937 and the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR in 1978. The peculiarities of the mentioned above Constitutions are formal democratic character and at the same time a significant divergence with the reality. In general, the constitutional law of 20-30s did not reflect the realities of the totalitarian – oppressive regime set up in Kazakhstan. As for the latter constitutional law of the soviet period it is necessary to note that it was based on the principle of the state priority over the person. It can be also mentioned that legal norms did not correspond to their implementation in a real life.

The modern stage of the constitutional development begins with the proclamation of state sovereignty of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the 25th October 1990. The Declaration of the state sovereignty of the Kazakh SSR and the constitutional law “On state independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan” were adopted at that time. The milestone of the constitutional evolution was the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the 28th January, 1993. It was a significant step in the democratization of the Kazakh society, the Constitution made a civilized constitutional state from a new independent one. The Constitution of 1993 has not defined the shape of state governmental rule in the text, at the same time from the meaning of the Constitution it was easy to assert that the Republic of Kazakhstan moved more towards a parliamentary republic. For the first time a principle of separation of authorities was the constitutional one, the system of checks and balances in the organization of state was fixed and it was represented by the following elements: presidential veto and mechanism to overcome it, the resignation of the President and Vice - President, the resignation of the Cabinet of Ministers and etc.

The modern Constitution of the 30 August 1995 consolidated presidential form of government in Kazakhstan and thus became the symbol of the newest stage of constitutional evolution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted by nation-wide voting by national referendum dated the 30 August 1995. Due to the further establishment of the state character of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the 7th October 1998 the Constitution was amended and added by the Constitutional law adopted by the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan consists of a preamble and nine chapters. Preamble reflects the constituent nature of the Constitution and indicates a special party who received it - the people of Kazakhstan. The first section, called the “general provisions”, provides the basis of the Republic system, the fundamental principles of the Republic of Kazakhstan activity.

Constitution made from Kazakhstan a democratic, secular, social and legal state (Article 1). The Republic of Kazakhstan is constituted like a unitary state with a presidential form of government. It is emphasized that the only source of the power is the people. Constitution establishes the principle of powers separation into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. Moreover, the Constitution establishes a strong power of the President. The presidential form of government is set forth in the Constitution. The second section, called “The Individual and the Citizen” provides the basis of the legal status of individuals and citizenship of citizens of Kazakhstan. The third section fixes a constitutional status of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and it is called “The President”. Sections IV, V and VII are devoted to the definition of the constitutional and legal status of the Parliament, the Government and the courts of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Section number Six defines the status of the Constitutional Council apart. The eighth chapter is devoted to the base of a local government and self-government in the Republic of Kazakhstan. And the last IX section defines the final and transitional provisions. ]

2.Legislative branch The legislature, known as the Parliament (Parliament), has two chambers. The Assembly (Mazhilis) has 77 seats, elected for a four-year term, 67 in single seat constituencies and 10 by proportional representation. The Senate has 47 members, 40 of whom are elected for six-year terms in double-seat constituencies by the local assemblies, half renewed every two years, and 7 presidential appointees. In addition, ex-presidents are ex-officio senators for life. Majilis deputies and the government both have the right of legislative initiative, though most legislation considered by the Parliament is proposed by the government.

The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The prime minister and first deputy prime minister are appointed by the president. Council of Ministers is also appointed by the president. President Nazarbayev expanded his presidential powers by decree: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint and dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referendums at his discretion, and appoint administrative heads of regions and cities.

The president is the head of state. He also is the commander in chief of the armed forces and may veto legislation that has been passed by the Parliament. President Nursultan Nazarbayev, who has been in office since Kazakhstan became independent, won a new 7-year term in the 1999 election that the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe said fell short of international standards. On top of this the election was unconstitutionally called two years ahead of schedule. Free access to the media is also denied to opposing opinions. In 2002 a law set very stringent requirements for the maintenance of legal status of a political party, which lowered the number of legal parties from 19 in 2002 to 8 in 2003. The prime minister, who serves at the pleasure of the president, chairs the Cabinet of Ministers and serves as Kazakhstan's head of government. There are three deputy prime ministers and 16 ministers in the Cabinet.

Judicial Branch There are 44 judges on the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan. There are seven members of the Constitutional Council.

There are local and oblast (regional) level courts, and a national-level Supreme Court. Local level courts serve as courts of first instance for less serious crimes such as theft and vandalism. Oblast level courts hear more serious criminal cases and also hear cases in rural areas where no local courts have been established. A judgment by a local court may be appealed to the oblast level. The Supreme Court hears appeals from the oblast courts.

The constitution establishes a seven-member Constitutional Council to determine the constitutionality of laws adopted by the legislature. It also rules on challenges to elections and referendums and interprets the constitution. The president appoints three of its members, including the chair.

Under constitutional amendments of 1998, the president appoints a chairperson of a Supreme Judicial Council, which nominates judges for the Supreme Court. The Council consists of the chairperson of the Constitutional Council, the chairperson of the Supreme Court, the Prosecutor General, the Minister of Justice, senators, judges, and other persons appointed by the president. The president recommends and the Senate (upper legislative chamber) approves these nominees for the Supreme Court. Oblast judges (nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council) are appointed by the president. Lower level judges are appointed by the president from a list presented by the Ministry of Justice. The Ministry receives the list from a Qualification Collegiums of Justice, composed of deputies from the Majlis (lower legislative chamber), judges, prosecutors, and others appointed by the president. Under legislation approved in 1996, judges serve for life.

3. Checks and balances

To prevent one branch from becoming supreme, protect the "opulent minority" from the majority, and to induce the branches to cooperate, government systems that employ a separation of powers need a way to balance each of the branches. Typically this was accomplished through a system of "checks and balances", the origin of which, like separation of powers itself, is specifically credited to Montesquieu. Checks and balances allow for a system-based regulation that allows one branch to limit another, such as the power of the United States Congress to alter the composition and jurisdiction of the federal courts. Both bipartite and tripartite governmental systems apply the principles of the separation of powers to allow for the branches represented by the separate powers to hold each other reciprocally responsible to the assertion of powers as apportioned by law. The following example of the separation of powers and their mutual checks and balances for the experience of the Republic of Kazkhsran Constitution is presented as illustrative of the general principles applied in similar forms of government as well.

Legislative (Parliament) Executive (President) Judicial (Supreme Court)
Passes bills; has broad taxing and spending power; regulates inter-state commerce; controls the federal budget; has power to borrow money on the credit of the United States (may be vetoed by President, but vetoes may be overridden with a two-thirds vote of both houses) Has sole power to declare war, as well as to raise, support, and regulate the military. Oversees, investigates, and makes the rules for the government and its officers. Defines by law the jurisdiction of the federal judiciary in cases not specified by the Constitution Ratification of treaties signed by the President and gives advice and consent to presidential appointments to the federal judiciary, federal executive departments, and other posts (Senate only) Has sole power of impeachment (Mazhilis) and trial of impeachments (Senate); can remove federal executive and judicial officers from office for high crimes and misdemeanors Is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces Executes the instructions of Congress. May veto bills passed by Congress (but the veto may be overridden by a two-thirds majority of both houses) Executes the spending authorized by Congress. Declares states of emergency and publishesregulations and executive orders. Makes executive agreements (does not require ratification) and signs treaties (ratification requiring approval by two-thirds of the Senate) Makes appointments to the federal judiciary,federal executive departments, and other posts with the advice and consent of the Senate. Has power to make temporary appointment during the recess of the Senate Has the power to grant "reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment." Determines which laws Congress intended to apply to any given case Exercises judicial review, reviewing the constitutionality of laws Determines how Congress meant the law to apply to disputes Determines how a law acts to determine the disposition of prisoners Determines how a law acts to compel testimony and the production of evidence Determines how laws should be interpreted to assure uniform policies in a top-down fashion via the appeals process, but gives discretion in individual cases to low-level judges. The amount of discretion depends upon the standard of review, determined by the type of case in question.

Функциональные стили речи— исторически сложившаяся система речевых средств, используемых в той или иной сфере человеческого общения; разновидность литературного языка, выполняющая определенную функцию в общении.

Публицистический стиль служит для воздействия на людей через средства массовой информации. Он встречается в жанрах статьи, очерка, репортажа,фельетона, интервью, ораторской речи и характеризуется наличием общественно-политической лексики, логичностью, эмоциональностью.

Этот стиль употребляется в сферах политико-идеологических, общественных и культурных отношений. Информация предназначена не для узкого круга специалистов, а для широких слоёв общества, причём воздействие направляется не только на разум, но и на чувства адресата.

Для него характерны отвлечённые слова с общественно-политическим значением (гуманность, прогресс, народность, гласность, миролюбивый).

Задача — сообщить информацию о жизни страны, воздействовать на массы, сформировать определенное отношение к общественным делам

Стилевые черты — логичность, образность, эмоциональность, оценочность, призывность.

Разговорный стиль служит для непосредственного общения, когда автор делится с окружающими своими мыслями или чувствами, обменивается информацией по бытовым вопросам в неофициальной обстановке. В нём часто используется разговорная и просторечная лексика. Отличается большой смысловой ёмкостью и красочностью, придает речи живость и экспрессивность.

Обычная форма реализации разговорного стиля — диалог, этот стиль чаще используется в устной речи. В нём отсутствует предварительный отбор языкового материала. В этом стиле речи большую роль играют внеязыковые факторы: мимика, жесты, окружающая обстановка.

Языковые средства разговорного стиля: эмоциональность, выразительность разговорной лексики, слова с суффиксами субъективной оценки; употребление неполных предложений, вводных слов, слов-обращений, междометия, модальные частицы, повторы. Жанры — диалог, личные письма, личные записки, телефон.

Деловой стиль используется для сообщения, информирования в официальной обстановке (сфера законодательства, делопроизводства, административно-правовой деятельности). Этот стиль служит для оформления документов: законов, приказов, постановлений, характеристик, протоколов, расписок и справок. Сфера применения официально-делового стиля — право, автор — юрист, правовед, дипломат и просто гражданин. Адресуются работы в данном стиле государству, гражданам государства, учреждениям, служащим и т. д., с целью установления административно-правовых отношений.

Этот стиль существует чаще в письменной форме речи, тип речи— преимущественно рассуждение. Вид речи — чаще всего монолог, вид коммуникации— общественная.

Стилевые черты — императивность (долженствующий характер), точность, не допускающая двух толкований, стандартизированность (строгая композиция текста, точный отбор фактов и способов их подачи), отсутствие эмоциональности.

Основная функция официально-делового стиля— информационная (передача информации). Для него характерно наличие речевых клише, общепринятой формы изложения, стандартного изложения материала, широкое использование терминологии и номенклатурных наименований, наличие сложных несокращенных слов, аббревиатур, отглагольных существительных, преобладание прямого порядка слов.

Lecture 5.

Theme 5. Civil Law

The plan

1. Offence.

2. Indictable and-indictable offences.

3. The party brining a civil action.

Понятие культуры речи. Профессиональная культура. Роль профессионального иностранного языка в становлении конкуретноспособного специалиста. Ориентация в текстах на иностранном языке, монологическое высказывание профессионального содержания.

Keywords: civil law, offence.

 

Central Normative legal act in the sphere of civil law relations, the Civil Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, consists of two parts – General and Special. General Part was adopted on December 27, 1994, and became effective from March 1, 1995. Special Part entered into force on June 1, 1999. Notwithstanding that both parts of the Civil Code are already in effect, the process of their improvement through modifications and amendments is still in progress. The General Part of the Civil Code regulates such issues as legal status of private and legal entities, transactions, ownership rights, general provisions on obligations and contracts, The Special Part of the Civil Code contains norms that regulate specific types of obligations (sale and purchase, donations, lease, services, etc.), as well of intellectual property rights, inheritance (succession) and international private law. Along with the Civil Code, business activity in Kazakhstan is regulated by other normative legal acts, including: - Law of the RK dated March 31, 1998, “On farming enterprise”; - Edict of the President of the RK, having a force law, dated May 2, 1995, “On economic partnerships”; - Law of the RK dated April 22, 1998, “On partnerships with limited and additional liability”; - Law of the RK dated May 13, 2003, “On joint-stock companies”; - Law of the RK dated January 21, 1997, “On bankruptcy.” Unique feature of Kazakhstani legislation, compared to that of CIS countries, is that from July 1, 2006, private businessmen and enterprises are statutorily entitled to participate in lawmaking process, in drafting laws that concern regulation of private business. Central and local authorities submit such draft laws to accredited associations of private businessmen and enterprises for their expert opinion. Such opinion is a recommendation, and must accompany the draft law during the process of discussion and adoption.

Civil offenses

The main non-criminal offences under the Competition Act and subject to review by the Competition Tribunal are:

Abuse of dominance

Misleading advertising

Refusal to deal

Price discrimination

Price maintenance

Other non-criminal offences

Abuse of dominance occurs when a company (or group of companies) that has market power engages in business practices intended to reduce competition or prevent competition from entering the market.

Misleading advertising

Some forms of misleading advertising are classified as civil offences. Some examples of civil offences would include making a performance claim based on false testing, giving a warranty or guarantee that will not be honoured and falsely representing the selling price of a product.

Refusal to deal

Refusal to deal exists under certain circumstances when a person does not supply a product to a customer, and as a result, the customer's business is substantially affected, or the customer is unable to carry on his/her business.

Other non-criminal offenses

There are other forms of non-criminal reviewable matters governed by the civil process. The Competition Tribunal deals with applications that fall under parts VII.1 and VIII of theCompetition Act.

Competition Act Part VII.1 - Deceptive Marketing Practices

Competition Act Part VIII - Restrictive Trade Practices

3. Civil procedure legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan regulates public relations arising in the process of administration of justice by courts in the course of consideration and adjudication of claims and other cases assigned to their competence by this Code and other laws.

The order of legal proceedings on civil cases in the Republic of Kazakhstan is determined by Constitutional Laws, Civil Procedure Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan based on the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan and generally recognized principles and norms of International Law. Provisions of other laws regulating civil proceedings shall be included in this Code.
International contractual and other obligations of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as regulatory resolutions of the Constitutional Council and the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan are integral part of the civil procedure law.
Legislation on civil proceedings establishes the order of legal proceedings on disputes arising from civil, marital, employment, housing, administrative, financial, economic, land relationships, relations on use of natural resources and environmental protection and other legal relations, as well as special proceeding cases.

If in the course of civil proceedings the necessity to consider an issue subject to resolving under the administrative law arises, it shall be resolved in the civil proceeding in accordance with provisions of the Article 26 of this Code.

The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall have the supreme legal force and direct effect over the entire territory of the Republic. In case of conflict between provisions of this Code and the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the provisions of the Constitution shall prevail.
In case of conflict between provisions of this Code and the constitutional law of the Republic of Kazakhstan, provisions of the constitutional law shall prevail. In case of conflict between provisions of this Code and other laws, the provisions of this Code shall prevail. International treaties ratified by the Republic of Kazakhstan shall prevail over this Code and shall be applied directly, except to the extent that an international treaty requires an enactment.

 

Культура речи – это совокупность навыков и знаний человека, обеспечивающих целесообразное и незатруднённое применение языка в целях общения. Иными словами, под культурой речи понимается такой выбор и такая организация языковых средств, которые в определённой ситуации общения при соблюдении современных языковых норм и этики общения позволяют обеспечить наибольший эффект в достижении поставленных коммуникативных задач.

Данное определение позволяет выделить 3 аспекта культуры речи: нормативный, этический и коммуникативный.

1) Нормативный аспект предполагает соответствие речи тем требованиям, которые сформировались в данном языковом коллективе в определенный исторический период; он связан с правильностью, образцовостью речи, с соблюдением литературных норм произношения (орфоэпическая норма), ударения (акцентологическая норма), словоупотребления (лексическая норма), формообразования (морфологическая норма), построения словосочетаний и предложений (синтаксическая норма).

2) Коммуникативный аспект связан с отбором уместных и оправданных языковых средств в определенной ситуации общения, с осознанным использованием в речевой практике тех слов, словоформ и оборотов, которые в наибольшей степени соответствуют коммуникативной ситуации и отвечают целям общения. Этот аспект предполагает владение говорящим функциональными разновидностями языка, а также умение ориентироваться на прагматические условия общения.

3) Этический аспект культуры речи определяется знанием правил речевого поведения и умением их применять в конкретных ситуациях общения. Этот аспект культуры речи связан с понятием речевой этикет, под которым понимается разработанная система правил речевого поведения и речевых формул, используемых в определенных коммуникативных ситуациях.

Выделяется два уровня культуры речи:

– базовый уровень, предполагающий владение нормами устного и письменного литературного языка - правилами произношения, ударения, грамматики, словоупотребления;

– высший уровень речевого мастерства, предполагающий овладение умение использовать выразительные средства в разных условиях общения в соответствии с целями и содержанием речи.

Культура речи вместе со стилистикой относится к лингвистическим наукам, занимающимся изучением употребления языка («внешняя лингвистика»). Эти науки следует отличать от наук, занимающихся изучением структуры языка – фонологии, лексикологии, морфологии, словообразования, синтаксиса («внутренняя лингвистика»).

Профессиональное общение юриста обладает рядом особенностей, относящихся ко всем направлениям их деятельности. Среди них:

(1) специфичность поводов для вступления в общение. В большинстве случаев поводом для вступления в общение является совершенное либо готовящееся преступление, правонарушение, асоциальное поведение. Это обстоятельство ограничивает круг участников общения (пострадавшие, свидетели, правонарушители), определяет содержание общения, его цели;

(2) наличие множественности целей в каждом акте общения. Кроме получения информации о конкретном преступлении, правонарушении и личностях участников в каждом акте общения, вне зависимости от того, сотрудниками какой службы проводится общение, должна реализовываться задача воспитания человека, преодоления социально-негативных свойств и качеств личности, предупреждения преступлений и правонарушений со стороны как данного лица, так и его окружения;

(3) конфликтный характер общения. Специфика поводов вступления в общение — преступление или правонарушение — ведет к тому, что цели участников общения либо не совпадают (сотрудники милиции — правонарушители), либо не понимаются в полной мере друг другом (сотрудники милиции — свидетели). Это обуславливает конфликтность общения и, как следствие, необходимость специальной подготовки сотрудников для успешной деятельности в данных условиях;

(4) формализация общения, т.е. регламентация целей, характера и способов общения различными документами (уставами, наставлениями, приказами, инструкциями, УПК). Формализация может быть жесткой, предусматривающей принудительный характер регламентации общения (ситуация допроса), и гибкой (оперативное общение). Цели формализации:

— защита психики лиц, участвующих в правоохранительной деятельности от чрезмерных психологических перегрузок;

— усиление активности участников общения;

(5) специфика психических состояний участников общения. Специфика поводов вступления в общение приводит к тому, что для обеих сторон характерны следующие особенности в психическом состоянии;

— повышенное нервное напряжение в связи с высокой ответственностью за результаты общения;

— доминирование отрицательных эмоциональных состояний;



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