Гражданский кодекс Республики Казахстан от 1 июля 1999 года № 409-I (Особенная часть)



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Гражданский кодекс Республики Казахстан от 1 июля 1999 года № 409-I (Особенная часть)



3. А. Г. Диденко. Гражданское право. Общая часть. Курс лекций. «Нур- пресс» – Алматы, 2006.–722 с

4. Учебник для вузов «Гражданское право», 3 том. Сулейменов М.К., Басин Ю.Г. • 2004


Методические рекомендации по СРС

Цель СРС: формирование у студентов умений и навыков самостоятельного исследования, проявление интереса к познавательной деятельности, а также закреплений знаний у студентов по профессионально-ориентированному иностранному языку. Данный вид работы обеспечивает развитие логического мышления, творческой активности и научного поиска в освоении учебного материала. Основной задачей студента заключается в исследовании понятий, категорий, методов познания действительности и раскрытии взаимосвязи теории с практикой. Гносеологической основой является теория научного познания. Цель заданий заключается в более детальном изучении тематики дисциплины, в отработке навыков и умений изучения и обоснования отдельных тем, имеющих непосредственное значение к программному материалу.

Задачи состоят в следующем:

- Оказание помощи студенту в выборе методов работы, необходимых для усвоения, а впоследствии для закрепления учебного материала;

- В обретении формировании умений и навыков научно-исследовательской работы;

- В развитие творческого и логического мышления в процессе исследования учебного материала;

- В умение преподавателя обеспечивать всесторонность получения информации;

- умение сочетать рациональное и иррациональное, логическое и алогическое (нестандартное), а также творческое мышление в процессе обоснования;

- в активизации познавательной деятельности студентов;

- в способствовании к обеспечению взаимосвязи учебного и научного материала. Изучая соответствующие темы данного курса нужно ознакомиться и исследовать действующее законодательство, отслеживать изменения в действующем законодательстве, обращаясь к официальным изданиям и публикациям нормативных правовых актов в периодической печати. Наряду с ними можно пользоваться сборниками нормативных актов, которые регулярно издаются рядом издательств, а также автоматизированными базами данных по действующему законодательству. Язык изложения законов в этой области сложен и перегружен многочисленными специальными терминами и понятиями. Для их разъяснения необходимо использовать юридическую литературу и словари, а также обращаться за консультацией к преподавателю.

- аналитический обзор;

- устный или письменный коллоквиум;

- составление схем и сравнительных таблиц;

- написание глоссария;

- комментирование нормативных правовых актов;

- эссе; - доклад и др.

ПИСЬМЕННЫЕ ТВОРЧЕСКИЕ РАБОТЫ студентов

Рекомендации

1. Письменные творческие работы позволяют включить студентов в научно-исследовательскую работу, предполагающую выполнение самостоятельного исследования.

2. Навыки, приобретенные в процессе подготовки письменных творческих работ по дисциплинам, помогут студентам при написании курсовых работ по специальным дисциплинам и выпускных квалификационных работ.

3. Письменные творческие работы студентов выполняются в виде:

- рефератов по проблемным вопросам изучаемых дисциплин или различным научным изданиям (статьям, монографиям), отдельным документам, а также в виде рефератов (докладов);

- эссе или научных (проблемных) статей исследовательского, обзорного или аналитического характера для публикации;

- докладов и сообщений на студенческих научно-практических конференциях.

4. Своего рода итогом самостоятельной научно-исследовательской (творческой) работы студента является выпускная квалификационная работа, в которой он демонстрирует не только полученные за время обучения знания и умения в профессиональной сфере, но и степень освоения и овладения принципами, методами, инструментами научно-исследовательской работы и навыками формулирования и изложения мыслей правильным научным языком.

 

  № срс   Содержание заданий Кол. часов Срок Сдачи Форма контроля
1. Subject of system of the course "Right Bases" 2. The main concepts about the state 3. Bases of the theory of the state and right         3 неделя Конспект, Кроссворд, схема принци-пов  
1. Bases of a constitutional law of the Republic of Kazakhstan   2. Legal status of the person and the citizen in RK 3. Constitutional bases of a social order of the Republic of Kazakhstan 4. Electoral system of the Republic of Kazakhstan       6 неделя Реферат, письменный анализ, доклад  
1. Administrative law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2. Civil law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 3. Law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Kazakhstan 4. Bases of the financial right of the Republic of Kazakhstan         8 неделя Схема, Конспект, реферат, таблица
1. Labor law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2. Criminal law of the Republic of Kazakhstan 3. Ecological right of the Republic of Kazakhstan 4. Procedural law of RK     Доклад, схема, кроссворд
  Всего:    

GLOSSARY

The rightis a system of obligatory rules of the behavior (norms) established or authorized by the state by means of which the most important interests of the individual and society are realized.

The lawis the normative legal act possessing the highest validity, accepted by the supreme body of legislature (parlamenkty), or the people (referendum), regulating the most important public relations.

The institute of the rightis a set of rules of law regulating separate, rather independent type of the uniform public relations.

The rule oflaw is an obligatory rule of behavior or authorized by the state, formally fixed in a quality of an obligatory or possible implementer of interest.

Offense -is illegal, public, dangerous and harmful to the subjects of the law is guilty of an act or omission of the right-of capable legal entity.

State -is a special organization of the political (public) power company, with its special device to control the range of general affairs, giving the dictates of their universally binding.

Constitutional lawis the main branch of the national legal system of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Constitutional law regulates relations form the basis of the unit of Kazakhstan's society and state relations connected with the exercise of public authority, and the relationship between the individual and the state.

Administrative law -the branch of law that regulates the social relations arising in the process of government, during the formation of the executive power, to establish their competence, responsibilities, rights and responsibilities of civil servants , as well as in the implementation of public order, life , rights and freedoms of citizens .

Civil law isthe branch of law , which is a set of rules governing the commodity-money and the other based on the equality of participants in the property relations , as well as related to property and personal non-property relations .

Entrepreneurship -this initiative activity of citizens and legal entities , irrespective of ownership, aimed at generating net income by meeting the demand for goods ( works, services) based on private ownership ( private enterprise ) or the right to run state-owned enterprise ( public enterprise ) .

The judiciary -is used in criminal, civil and other forms of statutory authority the court proceedings aimed at the review and resolution of all cases and disputes about the violation of rights.

The financial structure of the state include:the financial system of the state as a set of public money funds, the financial system of the state and financial regulation.

The budget law -a section of the Special Part of the Financial Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which regulates relations arising in the process of organizing the budgetary system, as well as in connection with the formation, distribution and use of the organization of the central and local budgets.

Employment law -is the branch of law that regulates labor relations arising in the implementation of the citizens' constitutional right to freedom of labor between the employer and the employee regarding the implementation of certain parties to work on the basis of individual, collective and other agreements.

Criminal law is the branch of law,which is the body of law established by law, which defines the criminal act and punishable, as well as the grounds of criminal responsibility and exemptions.

Environmental law -is an independent branch of Kazakh law, which is designed to study the activity of the state in the field of legal regulation of natural resources and environmental protection.

The judiciary- is used in criminal, civil and other forms of statutory authority the court proceedings aimed at the review and resolution of all cases and disputes about the violation of rights.

Court. The Court,as a judicial body, administers justice in criminal cases. Any criminal case may be heard only legitimate, independent, competent and impartial panel of judges. The powers of the court as the bearer of the judiciary are determined by law.

Attorney -official exercising within its competence supervision over the legality of investigative activity, inquiry, investigation and court decisions, as well as criminal prosecution at all stages of the criminal process.

Hence the official authorized toconduct the preliminary investigation of the criminal case within its jurisdiction: investigator of internal affairs, national security investigator and investigator of the financial police.

Interrogator -official authorized to carry out pre-trial proceedings in the criminal case within its jurisdiction

Suspect.The suspect is a person in respect of whom the grounds and in the manner established by the Code of Criminal Procedure, a criminal case on suspicion of having committed an offense, as he announced the investigator, investigator, or carried out the detention or restraint applied to the charge.

The accused. The accused is a person in respect of whom the decision to prosecute an accused or a person against whom a court a criminal case of private prosecution, as well as the person against whom drawn up and approved by the head of the body of inquiry report charges.

Defender -a person who performs in accordance with the law protecting the rights and interests of suspects and accused persons and provide them with legal assistance.

The victim. Victims in criminal proceedings is a person in respect of whom there is reason to believe that a crime he directly suffered moral, physical or property damage

Specialist.As an expert to participate in the investigation and legal proceedings may be caused by not having any interest in a person with the necessary expertise to assist in collecting, researching and evaluating the evidence, and in the application of technical means.


Задания на 1 рубежный контроль по дисциплине

Вопросы (коллоквиум):

 

1. The term “law”. The role of law in society.

2. Descriptive and prescriptive law.

3. Law and Custom. Law and Order.

4. Written law and unwritten law.

5. Administrative law.

6. Judicial decision.

7. Regulations of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

8. Anglo-Saxon law and Roman Law.

9. The concept of precedent.

10. The doctrine of stare devises as a bases of Case Law.

11. The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (The summary)

12. Legislative, executive and judicial branches

13. А system of checks and balances.

Задания на 2 рубежный контроль по дисциплине

 

Вопросы (ЭССЕ):

 

1. Civil Law (the summary of Civil code)

2. Family Law (the summary of Civil code)

3. Legal marriageable age.

4. The legal effects of marriage.

5. Right and duties of parents and children.

6. Crime. Types of crimes and punishments.

7. Capital punishment: for and against.

8. Jury system.

9. Barristers and Solicitors in the Great Britain.

10. Legal professions in the United States.

11. Legal Professions in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

12. Written Contracts and oral contracts. Bilateral and unilateral contracts.

13. International treaties


ВОПРОСЫ ДЛЯ ПОДГОТОВКИ К ЭКЗАМЕНУ

Содержание экзаменационных заданий:

1. Письменный перевод со словарем с иностранного языка на русский текста по широкому профилю специальности студента объемом 1300-1500 печатных знаков. Время на подготовку – 60 мин.

2. Перевод с русского языка на английский 5 предложений по юридической тематике. Время на подготовку –10 минут.

3. Изложение на иностранном языке одной из пройденных тем специального характера и ответы на вопросы экзаменатора. Беседа с экзаменатором на иностранном языке о будущей специальности. Время на подготовку не отводится.

Образец экзаменационного билета

Экзаменационный билет № 1

1. Прочитайте и переведите следующий текст на русский язык

The Court Service The Court Service is an executive agency of the Lord Chancellor's Department, which is responsible for all policy decisions regarding criminal courts and the justice system. The Court Service was established to provide support to all the various parts of the legal system in England and Wales, including: the Court of Appeal, the Crown Court, and the High Court, all of which comprise the Supreme Court; and a number of county courts and tribunals. The Court Service is dedicated to making the legal system as efficient and accurate as possible. The basic structure of the legal system within England and Wales consists of the Magistrates' courts, that deal with the majority of minor and petty offences; the Crown Court, which deals with all criminal cases that go to trial; the County Court, which presides over civil or family disputes that require 37 legal judgment; and the High Court, which is the most senior civil court in England and Wales. The Crown Court, High Court and County Courts can all present cases for appeal at the Court of Appeal, and if the case involves some important change in the actual law, then it may go to the House of Lords, the highest court in England and Wales. Civil cases can be defined as cases where one or more individuals wish to prosecute another individual or company to gain recompense for some harm they have suffered, whereas a Criminal case consists of the state (Crown) prosecuting an individual for allegedly committing a crime against society as a whole.

2. Переведите следующие предложения с русского языка на английский 1. Полицейский был награжден за успешную операцию по ликвидации банды наркоторговцев.

2. Я не могу позвать следователя: он опрашивает очевидцев для того, чтобы составить фоторобот преступника.

3. Адвокат имеет право заявить присяжному мотивированный или не- мотивированный отвод.

4. Все, что вы скажете, может быть использовано против вас.

5. Признание обвиняемого не может быть принято в качестве доказательства его вины.

6. Устно изложите тему «The Magna Carta»

 
 

Жетысуский государственный университет им. И. Жансугурова   СМК ЖГУ И/ РУУПД. 09-2015 Издание 3
СИСТЕМА МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА КАЧЕСТВА
Карта учебно-методической обеспеченности дисциплины Ф.4.09-33
33.05.2015 г.

 

Профессионально-ориентированный иностранный язык

 

Шифр Название источника Наличие Примечание
В библиоте   %
Х62(2К)я73 Қ18   Қазақстан Республикасының мемлекеті мен құқығының негіздері: Оқулық / Құраст. К. Баянов.- Алматы, 2009.- 692б. 0,1  
Х0я73 Ж69   Мемлекет және құқық теориясы: Оқулық / Алматы: Нұр- Пресс, 2007.- 296б.   0,1  
Хя73 Б21   Баққұлов С.Д. Құқық негiздерi:Оқулық.-2-шi басыл.-Алматы,2004.-248 б: 0,02  
Х628.11(2К)я73 А23   Ағыбаев А.Н. Қылмыстық құқық. Ерекше бөлім: Оқулық Алматы: Жетi жарғы, 2007.- 584 бет. 0,5  
Х62(2К)я723 С21   Сапарғалиев Ғ. Мемлекет және құқық теориясы: Оқулық- Астана: Фолиант, 2007.- 336 б.- 0,1  
Х 623.013я73 Қ33 Қиздарбекова А.С. Кәсіпкерлік құқық.- Алматы, 2011..- 272 б.  
Х628.10(2К)я73 А23   Ағыбаев А.Н. Қылмыстық құқық. Жалпы бөлiм: Оқулық.- 4-Алматы: Жетi жарғы, 2007.- 360 б.   0,5  
Х0я73 А 22   Ағдарбеков Т. Құқық негіздері: Оқу құр- Алматы: Заң әдебиеті, 2009.- 260 б.    
Х 625(2к)я73 Е 68 Еркінбаева Л.Қ. ҚР Жер құқығы Жалпы және ерекше бөлімі. – Алматы, 2010.- 312 б.  
Х627(2К)я73 Қ 14   Қағазов О. Қазақстан Республикасының еңбек құқығы: Оқу құралы - Тараз: М.Х.Дулати атындағы ТарМУ, 2006.- 165б.   0,12  
Х620.12(2К) Қ 18   Қазақстан Республикасының Конституциясы.- Алматы, 2011- 96б.   0,1  
Хя73 О78   Құқық негіздері: Оқу құралы / Қ.И. Оспанов.- Алматы: Жетi жарғы, 2009.- 296б.   0,6  
         
Х620.12(2К)я73 С21   Сапарғалиев Ғ. Қазақстан Республикасының Конституциялық құқығы: Оқулық - Алматы: Жетi жарғы, 2008.- 480бет.    
Х0я21 З 22   Заң терминдерінің сөздігі.- Алматы: Жетi жарғы, 2007.- 832б.     0,02  
Хя21 С 28   Сәбікенов С. Заң терминдері мен ұғымдарының қазақша-орысша орысша-қазақша сөздігі.- Алматы: Жетi жарғы, 2007.- 688   0,02  
  WWW.zakon.kz      
             

Lecture complex

 

Lecture 1.

Theme 1. What is Law?

The plan:

1. The term “law”.

2. The role of law in society.

3. Descriptive and prescriptive law.

4. Law and Custom.

5. Law and Order.

Keywords: law, legal education

 

Введение в предметную область специальности на профессиональном иностранном языке. Профессиональный язык, его основные лингвистические черты. Функции профессионального языка. Понятие «профессиональная речь». Базисные концепты (свойства) профессиональной речи (на примере текстов по специальности).

 

1. Law is a system of mandatory rules of behavior (norms), established or authorized by the State, which provides implementation of the most important interests of the individual and society. There are standard and broad approaches to define the law. In determining the law from the normative approach perspective following essential features stand out: state-willed, regulatory, formally defined and dictatorial nature of the law. In determining the rights from the broad approach perspective followinf features are essential: the mutual benefit of the mandatory rules of conduct, its justice, the implementation of legal relations, including in the concept of law rules which are not already formally set down, the division of right and law.

2. Law plays an important role in regulating and ordering the social relations. The principles of law are the fundamental origins, which define and express its essence. The basic principles of the law include: equality, unity of rights and responsibilities, humanism, social justice, democracy.

The functions of law are the main directions of law impact on social relations. Functions of law are divided into external and internalnal. The external (common) law functions are: political, economic, social, educational. The internal (legal) include: regulatory and saving or protecting. Due to the regulatory function law establishes rules of conduct and coordinate its implementation. The allowing and binding standards are key elements in the regulatory function of law. Saving function of law is aimed at protecting the most important public relations. The key elements in saving function are mainly forbidding or prohibiting rules of conduct.

Right, alike the state, is a product of society at its certain stage. The occurence of mandatory social norms linked with the need to provide for a social group the possibility to own, use and dispose the objects, which can meet the needs and provide interests raw implemented this social group. The development of right is closely connected with the development of State, as the state, at some stage, provides the most important social norms, making them legal, and serves to establish new rules of law.

Social relations in general, regulated social norm. As the types of social norms can be distinguished following terms: moral norms, corporate norms, customs, law norms and other rules of conduct. Moral norms are the rules of conduct which are formed by society in terms of good and evil, right and wrong, honor, conscience, etc. Corporate standards are the rules of conduct established in the decisions, regulations and other documents adopted by NGOs. Custom is a rule of conduct, which acts as a natural necessity of people’s lives and as a result of frequent repetition becomes a habit for them. The rule of law is distinguished from all other social norms by several aspects: a formal determination in the form of regulations, universally binding on all subjects of social relation which is provided by the coercive force of the state, estimation of behavior from the point of legitimacy or illegitimacy, legality or illegality.

Legal regulation is an efficient legal impact on social relations, carried out through legal means. There are several methods of legal regulation, as techniques and ways which help to control the qualitytively homogeneous social relations. The main methods of legal regulations include: 1) the imperative (authoritarian subordination, power and submission) which works in the following way – on the one hand is the state as authorized entity, on the other hand – all the other subjects of law which are obliged to do state’s will 2) the dispositive (autonomous, coordination, equality), according to which entities on the basis of mutual agreement, independently establish, modify and terminate the mutual rights and obligations.

The sources of law from the material sense perspective are understood as the material conditions of life in society, in the scientific sense it means historical documents containing legal norms. In the formal and legal sense it is the external form of expression of the law. There are following sources of law: legal practice (custom), legal precedent, regulatory agreement, a legal act. Legal custom it is sanctioned and provided by the state custom. Legal precedent means the decision of the authority on a particular issue, which has become a model for future decisions on such matters and recognized as a rule of law. Regulatory agreement means a special type of regulatory (normative) legal act, which due to reaching an agreement of the parties, contains a rule of law. Regulatory legal act is a relevant public authority document, comprising the rule of law. Legal acts are subdivided into legislative and bylaw acts.

The law is a legal act, which has the highest jurisdiction force adopted ​​by the supreme legislative body (Parliament), or community (referendum), which regulates the most important public relations. The legislative acts include the Constitution, the Constitutional law, the Code, the law, presidential decree having the force of law and other regulations, which have supreme legal force and regulating the most important public relations. The by-law acts are regulations supplementing and specifying the legislation to create the conditions for their implementation. For example, presidential decrees, government regulations, orders and directives of ministries and departments. All of them must comply (correspond) with legislative acts, in other words, they should not be interpreted and applied broading or narrowing towards rights and obligations contained in the legislation as a whole, and especially in the Constitution.

All legal norms are closely related to each other, interdependent and form a common system. The system of law is objectively developed internal structure of the law. The law system and the system of legislation should be distinguished as they relate to each other as the origin and form. The system of law consists of the following elements: the Institute of Law (Law Institute) and the branch of law. The sub-sector and cross-sectoral institutions are allocated as an independent elements. Law Institute is a set of rules governing the rights of separate, relatively independent type of homogeneous social relations. For example, in the civil law institution of gift, sale, in constitutional law – the institution of citizenship. The branch of law is the body of law governing the homogeneous social relations, which differ from each other by the subject and the rule of law. The subject of legal regulation is part qualitatively similar public relations. The method of legal regulation is a set of techniques and methods which helps to regulate separate social relations. The material branch of the law contains rules of law governing the right public relations and procedural governing organizational relations. The basic material industries of modern law include: constitutional law, administrative law, financial law, civil law, criminal law, employment law, family law, land law, environmental law, customs law. Procedural industries include: civil procedure law, criminal procedure law, administrative procedure law. All of these standards are the national system of law of a State . International law is emphasized as a special branch of the law, since it is not part of the national law, because its main actors are states and international organizations. The norms of modern international law is both contractual and mandatory, and contained in international treaties, international custom, the resolutions of international organizations.

The rule of law is obligatory rule of conduct established or authorized by the state, formally enshrined as a mandatory or possible means of implementing the interest of the individual. The law and the rule of law relate as whole and a part. The structure of the "rule of law: the hypothesis, the disposition, the sanction. Hypothesis is the circumstances under which this rule comes into force. Disposition is directly rule of behavior. Sanction is a kind of punishment or reward for any failure or performance of a particular disposition.

The legal relationship is public relations regulated by the law, that have a legal relationship between the subjects of the law, which is expressed in one of corresponding with each other rights and obligations. Actors (participants) of the legal relationships can be both physical and legal entities with legal capacity. Legal capacity means the ability to have rights and responsibilities, capacity is the ability to carry them out. Emergence, change and termination of legal relations connected with the legal facts, in other words legally relevant specific circumstances with which the rule of law binds the emergence, change and termination of the rights and obligations of the subjects of law. Legal facts are divided into events (circumstances that do not depend on the people will), an act, in other words action or omission (circumstances depending on the individual will), states (circumstances depending on the state will). The essence of legal relations are subjective rights and legal obligations of the parties. Subjective right is the measure of the possible appearance and behavior of the subjects specified by the law, the subjective legal obligation is a kind of proper behavior and measure the corresponding subjective right of the other side of the relationship.

Legal awareness (consciousness) is a collection of feelings, attitudes, perceptions, opinions, judgments, which express the ratio of the actual and the desired law. There are two main elements in the structure of justice: the legal ideology (legal ideas, principles, goals, objectives, concepts of law) and legal psychology (social and individual interests, motives, feelings, emotions, attitudes toward law). The types of justice divided into: individual, group, public. Levels of justice are ordinary (mass), vocational (specialized), scientific (theoretical). Legal awareness is the basis of the legal culture, which plays an important role in the implementation of the law.

Offense is the right - of capable legal entity’s guilty act or omission which is illegal, public, dangerous and harmful to the subjects of the law. The offense structure: subject, object, objective side, the subjective side, the offense committed by a specific person, and concretized with the relevant rules of specific area of law. There are following types of offenses: crimes and misdemeanors, which are subdivided into civil (property), administrative, disciplinary. There are types of legal liability which are divided depending on the types of offenses and the application to the offender of a certain kind of punishment: criminal, administrative, civil or proprietary, disciplinary. In this regard, the legal responsibility means the obligation to undergo adverse effects for violation of the law. Under current conditions a system of law aimed at regulating social relations developing in a variety of forms of ownership, active initiative promoting entrepreneurship and the free possibility of the realization of political and other human rights is being created in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

3. Descriptive and prescriptive. The English word law means various for forms if behavior. Some laws are descriptive: they simply describe how people, or even natural phenomena phenomena, usually behave. An example is the law of gravity; another how people ought to behave. For example, the speed limits are laws that prescribe how fast we should drive.

In all societies, relations between people are regulated by prescriptive laws. Some of them are rules we accept if we belong to particular social and cultural groups. And some are laws made by nations and enforced against all citizens.

Customs need not be made by governments, and they need not be written down. We learn how we are to behave in society through the instruction of family and teachers, the advice of friends, etc. Sometimes, we can break these rules without any penalty. But if we continually break the rules, other members of society may criticize us, or refuse to have anything to do with us. The ways in which people talk, eat and drink, work, and relax together are usually guided by many such informal rules.

4. In order to get a deeper insight into the nature of custom and law, we may here establish a difference between the two:

(i) Law is a make; custom is a growth. Law is explicitly and deliberately made by the definite power of the state, whereas custom “is a group of procedure that has gradually emerged, without express enactment, without any constituted authority to declare it; to apply it and to safeguard it.” Custom emerges spontaneously without any guide or direction. Law is consciously created and put into force at the moment of its enactment. In other words, law is a make, custom is a growth.

(ii) Law needs a special agency for enforcement, custom does not. Law is applied by a special agency and is sanctioned by organized coercive authority. Custom does not need any special agency for its application it is enforced by spontaneous social action. No physical penalty visits a violator of custom; whereas punishment is meted out to one who violates the law. The state will not punish a child if it does not touch the feet of his parents in the morning.

(iii) Law is specific, customs are not.Law is specific, definite and clear. One can know what the laws of the land are. But as Maine opined, it is only known by a privileged minority. Customs, on the other hand, are not definite or clear. They are not codified in any single book so that it becomes difficult to know all the customs of the land.

(iv) Law is more flexible and adaptable than custom. Law can readily adjust itself to changing condition: whereas customs cannot be readily changed. Customs are relatively fixed and permanent. In times of crisis a law can be immediately enacted to meet the emergency. A sudden change cannot be brought about in custom.

In India when the Central Government employees had gone on strike thus paralysing the life of the community, the Government of India at once met the situation by declaring the strike illegal and enacting a statute banning strikes in essential services.

The more dynamic the society, the less is reliance placed on traditional customary rules and the more it is placed on newly enacted regulations. Roscoe Pound stated, “Law must be stable and yet cannot stand still.” Thus law is more flexible and adaptable than custom. The former can be introduced, amended 01 abolished with relative ease, whereas to reform or adjust the latter is an arduous task.

(v) Customs fade and disappear without formal abolition and without recognition by any authority, but laws disappear only when abolished by a recognized authority. Just as formal enactment of law is necessary for it to come into effect, so its formal abolition is necessary to stop its binding influence.

(vi) Law is more idealistic than custom. Law tends to be more idealistic than customs. It is the offspring of mind and directed to aims which are far above the actual practice of society, custom is the product experience and mainly concerned with the daily routine of life. Law reforms the customs and abolishes those which are out of tune with the changing conditions, for example, the Hindu Code Bill seeks to reform and abolish many of the Hindu customs regarding marriage, divorce and succession.

(vii) Law generally deals with matters which are vital to the life of society: whereas the subject matter of custom is more ordinary and familiar. The customs we observe in addressing persons of authority or taking our meals or celebrating our festivals do not rise above the commonplace; but the laws passed for creating a national academy of Sangeet or Sahitya, establishing a welfare state, abolishing Zamindari system; introducing Three Year Degree course, making the joining of N.C.C. compulsory and nationalising the banks deeply affect the social structure.

 

 

Каждой науке, каждой отрасли знаний присуща собственная терминология, которая отражает характерные особенности и свойства предмета познания и регулирования. Очень часто категории и понятия, которыми пользуются представители той или иной научной сферы, очень сложны, для тех людей, которые не имеют никакого отношения к этой сфере.

Однако и существует такая терминология, которая всё-таки специфична, но востребована повседневно и повсеместно. Если рассматривать в частности, то она является необходимой составной частью юридического мира, который выработал собственный юридический язык и собственную систему юридических понятий.

Язык юристов, хотя и схож своей семантикой, но не является буквальным, полным и оригинальным воспроизведением языка юридического. Чтобы адекватно воспринимался юридический язык - его необходимо профессионально спроецировать носителем языка в нужную социальную сферу.

Правильное воспроизведение юридического языка может иметь место только в среде профессиональных юристов, где язык юристов без проблем воспринимается должным образом. В свою очередь, правильное применение и степень использования языка юристов в профессиональной среде юристов будет свидетельствовать об уровне профессионализма самого оратора, который оперирует юридическим языком. Аналогично язык юристов отображается в юридическом документ о вращении. Использование языка юристов в научно-теоретической среде будет только дополнять общую область языкового научного оборота.

Юридический язык- совокупность грамматических, логических и иных способов передачи и оформления понятийного содержания права. Он, как и любой другой язык определённой профессии, обладает специфическими признаками, которые отличают юридическую работу от другой деятельности и которые характерны только для профессионального юридического языка, среди которых можно выделить, такие признаки как:

·исторически длительный процесс образования, который включает поэтапное формирование юридического языка, с древних времен, по отдельным частям стран (партикулярный уровень), по странам (национальный уровень) по регионам (в частности, язык европейского прав или мусульманского права) и выработку общих правовых понятий мирового сообщества;

·профессионализм, так как юридический язык (как и язык моряков, военных, бухгалтеров, политиков и т.п.) создается в интересах определённого слоя общества, который призван на постоянной основе обслуживать право как общественное явление;

·искусственность, которая связана с привязкой правовых понятий и терминов к целям и задачам правотворчества;

·интернационализм, который был определен в первую очередь римским правовым наследием, а также влиянием тех стран, оказавших большое влияние на становление и закрепление а национальном законодательстве общепринятой юридической терминологии;

·консерватизм, проявляющийся в осторожности в процессах формирования новой юридической терминологии;

·стабильность, которая является гарантом длительного использования постоянных форм юридического языка;

·сложность, требующая выяснение не только истинного содержания правовой нормы, но и различных аспектов ее внешнего оформления.

Язык права действительно является сложным и кажется многим излишне казуистичным. При появлении новых нормативных документов влечет за собой многочисленные комментарии правоведов-ученых. Они поясняют, как будет действовать закон, что означает тот или иной термин, в каком юридическом смысле использовано определенное, понятие.

Так же часто в юридических актах, уже присутствуют понятия и термины, чтобы избежать неверное толкование нормы права при ее реализации.

В праве имеют значение самые незначительные на первый взгляд детали (классический пример: правильная постановка знака препинания «казнить нельзя помиловать»). Терминологическая путаница в законодательных актах, может стать поводом к диспутам на предмет адекватности, но также может вылиться в прямой ущерб для страны.

Текст закона должен выразить непростые, нередко весьма сложные юридические понятия. Вместе с тем законы пишутся для людей. Вот и приходится законодателю, добиваясь максимальной строгости и точности юридических понятий, одновременно стремиться к доходчивости, простоте и ясности изложения.

Законы, иные нормативные акты имеют особый, юридический стиль изложения: они должны быть официально и терминологически строги, в них не должно быть художественной красивости, текст нормативного акта нельзя загружать декларативными положениями, лозунгами, призывами.

Язык закона - общелитературный язык, однако он имеет особенности, что позволяет условно говорить о "юридическом языке". Эти особенности - четкость, сжатость, определенность и точность мысли законодателя, повелительный, императивный характер изложения, специальная терминология.

Все эти особенности, во многом уникальные, свидетельствуют о том, что юридический стиль и юридический язык могут быть отнесены к общекультурным ценностям. Сжатые, повелительные и категорические формулировки призваны отразить и дыхание самой жизни, и сложное, искусное юридическое содержание и в то же время быть доходчивыми и убедительными.

Юридический язык, правовые формулы по самой своей сути преисполнены большой духовной силы, интеллектуальной красоты, и с этой стороны законы не только имеют регулятивно-охранительное значение, но и могут обогатить духовный мир человека, принести ему внутреннее духовное удовлетворение.

 

 

Theme 2. Sources of Law.

The plan:

1. Written law and unwritten law.

2. Administrative law.

3. Judicial decision.

4. Regulations of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Особенности функционирования юридического дискурса. Юридический текст. Логическая организация юридического текста. Орфография и пунктуация в юридических текстах. Грамматические и синтаксические нормы юридического текста.

Keywords: Written, unwritten, sources.

 

1. The Romans divided their law into jus scriptum (written law) and jus non scriptum (unwritten law). By “unwritten law” they meant custom; by “written law” they meant not only the laws derived from legislation but, literally, laws based on any written source.

There were various types of written law, the first of which consisted ofleges (singular lex), or enactments of one of the assemblies of the whole Roman people. Although the wealthier classes, or patricians, dominated these assemblies, the common people, or plebeians, had their own council in which they enacted resolutions called plebiscita. Only after the passage of the Lex Hortensia in 287 bce, however, did plebiscitabecome binding on all classes of citizens; thereafter, plebiscita were generally termed leges along with other enactments. In general, legislation was a source of law only during the republic. When Augustus Caesar established the empire in 31 bce, the assemblies did not at once cease to function, but their assent to any proposal became merely a formal ratification of the emperor’s wishes. The last known lex was passed during the reign of Nerva (96–98 ce).

The earliest and most important legislation, or body of leges, was the Twelve Tables, enacted in 451–450 bce during the struggle of the plebeians for political equality. It represented an effort to obtain a written and public code that patrician magistrates could not alter at will against plebeian litigants. Little is known of the actual content of the Twelve Tables; the text of the code has not survived, and only a few fragments are extant, collected from allusions and quotations in the works of authors such as Cicero. From the fragments it is apparent that numerous matters were treated, among them family law, delict (tort, or offense against the law), and legal procedure.

A second type of written law consisted of the edicta (edicts), or proclamations issued by a superior magistrate (praetor) on judicial matters. The office of praetor was created in 367 bce to take over the expanding legal work involving citizens; later, a separate praetor was created to deal with foreigners. Upon taking office, a praetor issued an edict that was, in effect, the program for his year in office. The curule aediles, who were the magistrates responsible for the care and supervision of the markets, also issued edicts. During the later stages of the republic, these praetorian and magisterial edicts became an instrument of legal reform, and leges ceased to be a major source of private law.

The Roman system of procedure gave the magistrate great powers for providing or refusing judicial remedies, as well as for determining the form that such remedies should take. The result of this magisterial system was the development of the jus honorarium, a new body of rules that existed alongside, and often superseded, the civil law. The edictaremained a source of law until about 131 ce, when the emperor Hadriancommissioned their reorganization and consolidation and declared the resulting set of laws to be unalterable, except by the emperor himself.

A third type of written law was the senatus consulta, or resolutions of the Roman senate. Although these suggestions to various magistrates had nolegislative force during the republic, they could be given force by the magistrates’ edicts. In the early empire, as the power of the assemblies declined and the position of the emperor increased, senatus consulta became resolutions that endorsed the proposals of the emperor. As the approval of the Senate became increasingly automatic, the emperor’s proposals became the true instrument of power. Consequently, emperors ceased referring proposals to the Senate and, not long after the early imperial period, ended the practice of legislating through the Senate.

A fourth type of written law consisted of the constitutiones principum, which were, in effect, expressions of the legislative power of the emperor. By the middle of the 2nd century ce, the emperor was, essentially, the sole creator of the law. The chief forms of imperial legislation were edicts or proclamations; instructions to subordinates, especially provincial governors; written answers to officials or others who consulted the emperor; and decisions of the emperor sitting as a judge.

The last type of written law was the responsa prudentium, or answers to legal questions given by learned lawyers to those who consulted them. Although law, written and unwritten, was originally a rather secretive monopoly of the college of pontiffs, or priests, a recognizable class of legal advisers,juris consulti or prudentes, had developed by the early 3rd century bce. These legal advisers were not professionals as such but men of rank who sought popularity and advancement in their public careers by giving free legal advice. They interpreted statutes and points of law, especially unwritten law, advised the praetor on the content of his edict, and assisted parties and judges in litigation. Augustus empowered certain jurists to give responsa with the emperor’s authority; this increased their prestige, but the practice lapsed as early as 200 ce.

During the early empire, numerous commentaries were written by the great jurists on individual leges, on civil law, on the edict, and on law as a whole. In the 5th century a law was passed stipulating that only the works of certain jurists could be cited. Legal scholarship declined in the postclassical period.

Most laws in America are written. The U.S. Code, the Code of Federal Regulations, and the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure are three examples of written laws that are frequently cited in federal court. Each state has a similar body of written laws. By contrast, unwritten law consists of those customs, traditions, practices, usages, and other maxims of human conduct that the government has recognized and enforced.

Unwritten law is most commonly found in primitive societies where illiteracy is prevalent. Because many residents in such societies cannot read or write, there is little point in publishing written laws to govern their conduct. Instead, societal disputes in primitive societies are resolved informally, through appeal to unwritten maxims of fairness or popularly accepted modes of behavior. Litigants present their claims orally in most primitive societies, and judges announce their decisions in the same fashion. The governing body in primitive societies typically enforces the useful traditions that are widely practiced in the community, while those practices that are novel or harmful fall into disuse or are discouraged. Much of International Law is a form of primitive unwritten law.

For centuries the Rules of War governing hostilities between belligerents consisted of a body of unwritten law. While some of these rules have been codified by international bodies such as the United Nations, many have not. For example, retaliatory reprisals against acts of Terrorism by a foreign governments are still governed by unwritten customs in the international community. Each nation also retains discretion in formulating are spouse to the aggressive acts of a neighboring state.

In the United States, unwritten law takes on a variety of forms. In Constitutional Law the Supreme Court has ruled that the due process clause of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution protects the right to privacy even though the word privacy is not mentioned in the written text of the Constitution. In Commercial Law the Uniform Commercial Code permits merchants to resolve legal disputes by introducing evidence of unwritten customs, practices, and usages that others in the same trade generally follow. The entire body of Common Law, comprising cases decided by judges on matters relating to torts and contracts, among other things, is said to reflect unwritten standards that have evolved over time. In each case, however, once a court, legislature, or other government body formally adopts a standard, principle, or Maxim in writing, it ceases to be an unwritten law.

2. Administrative Law of RK is one of the fundamental branches of the Kazakhstani legal system and is a part of its public law. It is a relatively new development since Kazakhstan's territory was long under the administration of the Russian Empire then the USSR. Thus, all issues of government were decided by the bodies of tsarist and later Soviet state administration.

The most substantial impact for the creation and development of this branch was made throughout the Soviet period. During this time, Administrative Law was formed as a separate branch with its own subject matter and system. Certainly, Administrative Law was influenced by the Soviet legal and political system. It was a branch of law designed around the state authorities and not for individuals or their associations. Its nature was affected by strong ideological influences, administrative centralization, domination of state interests, neglect of individual rights, formal existence of laws and real force of sub-law acts. The modern Administrative law of Kazakhstan continues to reflect the dramatic effects of its Soviet past.



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