Write an essay on one of following themes.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Write an essay on one of following themes.



1. Is “bowling alone” the problem of American society only?

2. What do you think of the impact of the September, 11, 2001 events in the USA on the global understanding of the values of life and principles of democracy?

 

ACHIEVEMENT TEST

I. Give the term to the following definition.

a) a system in which everyone right to vote, make decisions etc.;

b) the principle that people of different races religious and political beliefs can live together peacefully in the same society;

c) a particular large group of people who share laws, organizations, customs etc.

d) a group of people who are related to each other, especially a mother, father, and their children;

e) living or working in a particular place or institution;

f) a group of people who try to persuade a government that a particular law or situation should be changed.

II. Match the synonymous pairs.

11. community a) problem/subject

12. issue b) control

13. power c) people

14. association d) organization

15. institution e) teams

16. league f) establishment

 

III. Choose the most suitable word to complete the sentence.

1. The … of the democratic idea evokes the most profound and moving expressions of human will and intellect.

a) power b) ability c) energy

2. Democracy is a … “of the people, by the people and for the people”.

a) act b) process c) government

3. Both an … and society can’t but influence each other.

a) individual b) man c) person

4. The study of society has developed into the important science of … .

a) psychology b) sociology c) philology

5. Today, thousands of children are members of … where only one of their birth parents lives.

a) communities b) societies c) households

6. Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and all types of disposition are forever forming … .

a) institutions b) leagues c) associations

 

IV. Fill in the blanks with the proper words given below.

1. People feel themselves safer alongside with somebody who … their ideas, traditions, way of life.

2. The decline of solidarity and trust create the society which is more … .

3. The process of urban renewal has destroyed … communities and networks.

4. Declining … participation has made government less responsive.

5. There has been a marked … in the numbers willing to work for a party.

6. Civic engagement, civil society and the mutual trust have long served as a … to the individualism.

Civic, counterweight, fearful, shares, decline, long-established.

V. Give the appropriate translation to the Russian words.

1. Today, thousands of children are members of домашних хозяйств where only one of their pirth parents live.

2. Ни один индивидуум can ever be totally independent of other people.

3. Nowadays, we usually think of обществах as national, and even international сообществах.

4. In a direct democracy, all citizens, without посредников can participate in making public decisions.

5. Around the country законодатель can be chosen from districts that each elect a single representative.

6. The разнообразие of institutions, political parties, organizations and associations is called плюрализм.

 


UNIT II

FREEDOM OF THE INDIVIDUAL

 

If society fits you comfortably enough,

you call it freedom.

Robert Frost

 

Freedom is the main asset in a new civilization. It is not a cure-all, but it gives people a chance, without it there is no chance. Without it, a “power” can be established that may huff and puff but will have neither real might nor dignity. Perhaps no issue is discussed more often, than the rights and freedoms of the individual – how far should the state, decide what is best for us, and how far should we have the right to control our own lives?

Even in the countries where social and political values are very similar, the laws about some of the world’s most controversial issues can be very different.

Let’s discuss what freedom actually is: a reality or a mirage?

To encourage you to speak, start with one-minute talk, choosing any of the points below:

- What I know about freedom.

- The level of freedom in the country.

- Complete freedom implies...

 

BASIC VOCABULARY TERMS

 

amendment (n) a minor change or addition to a document etc.;
censorship (n) the action or policy of examining books, films, plays, letters etc. and removing parts which are considered offensive, politically unacceptable or (esp. in war) a threat to security;
euthanasia (n) painless killing of people who are very old or terminally ill;
freedom (n) the power or right to act, speak, think etc. as one wants (chooses) without anyone stopping one;
hospice (n) a hospital for people who are dying;
interference (n) trying to change what somebody else is doing;
redrafting (n) writing something in a better form;
reservation (n) a reason for not agreeing to (a plan), accepting (an idea)
right (n) a just, proper or legal claim; a thing that one is entitled to do or have by law;
violation (n) breaking a rule, principle, law; rights

 

 

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

Task 1. Study the following words, add missing words of the same family.

 

Word-Form Chart

Noun Verb Adjective
freedom   free
  to restrict  
    choosy
adoption    
  to justify  
  to inform  
meaning    
    interfering
    restrained; restraining

Task 2.

a) Give synonyms to the following words.

teenager to reduce

weird to comply with

offence to participate

illness lack of smth.

 

b) Give antonyms to the following words.

similar to suffer

safe hopefulness

to be allowed rights

voluntary decent

Task 3. Match the words with their definitions.

1. insight a) the act of limiting something and reducing it;

2. caring b) a sudden but clear understanding of a complicated problem or situation;

3. neglect c) general rule, instruction or advice;

4. restriction d) not giving or not receiving enough care or attention;

5. alleviate e) king and giving emotional support to others;

6. liberty f) make something less severe;

7. submit g) without reservation;

8. completely h) the right to do as one chooses;

9. guideline i) present something for consideration.

 

Task 4. Finish the statements using the verbs from the box below:

1. Rights can (should) be … 3. Rights shouldn’t be …

2. Restraints can be… 4. Restraints shouldn’t…

to abuse, to enforce, to exercise, to infringe on, to impinge on, to compose, to distribute equally, to respect, to interfere with, to violate, to provide, to impose, to recognize, to protect, to place, to promote

Task 5. Fill in the blanks, choosing the appropriate word from the following list.

No longer, the right, prosecuted, repeatedly, law, unlike, terminally, court, defend, guidelines.

 

In the Netherlands, the (1) … allows doctor to help (2) … ill patients to die if they state. (3)… that this is their wish. The doctor must follow very strict (4)…, and must be prepared to (5) … the decision (6)… in However (7) in most other countries, he cannot be (8) … if he has followed the guidelines correctly. Elsewhere in the world “Voluntary Euthanasia’ groups continue to campaign for (9) … to decide if you (10) … wish to live.

 

Task 6. Translate from Russian into English.

1. В большинстве стран мира служба в армии все еще является обязательной для молодых людей. Но срок службы в разных странах разный. В таких странах как Польша, Италия, Германия это год или полтора. В Израиле в армии должны служить как мужчины, так и женщины.

2. Степень свободы зависти в основном от типа общества. Фактически существуют две крайности: с одной стороны – тоталитарное общество, где очень мало или нет вообще свободы личности, и с другой – демократическое общество, где уважаются все основные свободы.

 

READING PRACTICE

 

T E X T 1

Pre-reading Activity

 

Before you read the text about freedom try to define this notion.

What is freedom?

To be free- what does it mean for you?

What associations do you have when reading the phrase “a free society”?

 

Reading Activity

(!) Read the text and

a) state its topic and main idea;

b) name the key-words of the text.

 

KINDS OF FREEDOM

Freedom is the ability to make choices and carry them out. The words freedom and liberty mean much the same thing. For people to have complete freedom, there must be no restrictions on how they think, speak or act. They must be aware of what their choices are, and they must have the power to decide among those choices. They must also have the means and opportunity to think, speak and act without being controlled by anyone else. However, no organized society can actually provide all these conditions at all times.

From a legal point of view, people are free if society imposes no unjust, unnecessary or unreasonable limits on them. Society must also protect their rights - that is, their basic liberties and privileges. A free society tries to distribute the conditions of freedom equally among the people.

Most legal freedoms can be divided into three main groups: (1) political freedom, (2) social freedom and (3) economic freedom.

Political freedom includes theright to vote, to choose between rival candidates for public office, and to run for office oneself. It includes the right to criticize government policies, which is part of free speech. People who are politically free can form and join political parties and organizations. This right is part of the freedom of assembly.

In the past, many people considered political freedom the most important freedom. They believed that men and women who were politically free could vote all other freedoms for themselves. But most people now realize that political liberty means little unless economic and social freedom support it. For example, the right to vote does not have much value if people lack the information to vote in their own best interests.

Social freedom

Freedom of speech is the right of people to say what they believe. Political liberty depends on this right. People need to hold free discussions and to exchange ideas so they can make an informed decision on political issues.

Freedom of the press is the right to publish facts, ideas and opinions without interference. This right extends to radio, television and films as well as to printed material. It may be considered a special type of freedom of speech.

Freedom of religion means the right to believe in and practice the faith of one’s choice. It also includes the right to have no religion at all.

Freedom of assembly is the right to meet together and to form groups with others of similar interests. It also means that people may associate with anyone they wish. On the other hand, no one may be forced to join an association against one’s will.

Academic freedom is the group of freedoms claimed* by teachers and students. It includes the right to teach, discuss, research, write and publish without interference. It promotes* the exchange of ideas and the spread of knowledge.

Due process of law* is a group of legal requirements that must be met before a person accused of crime is punished. It includes people’s right to know the charges against them. The law also guarantees the right to obtain a legal order called a writ* of habeas corpus, which orders the police to free a prisoner if no legal charge can be made against them. It protects people from being imprisoned unjustly.

Economic freedom enables people to make their own economic decisions. This freedom includes the right to own property, to use it and to profit from it. Workers are free to choose and change jobs. People have the freedom to save money and to invest it as they wish. Such freedoms form the basis of the economic system called capitalism

Notes:

Claimed (here):believed to be their right

promotes: helps to improve

due process of law: the correct procedure to be fallowed in law

writ:document from a court, ordering smb. to do smth

Post-reading Activity

 



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