Fill in the words from the list, then make sentences using the completed phrases.



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Fill in the words from the list, then make sentences using the completed phrases.



Deeper therapeutic hemostasis molecular deeper significant tangible

1. … benefits; 2. … biology; 3. … procedures; 4. … understanding; 5. … disorders; 6. … advances; 7. … knowledge.

 

Fill in the prepositions, then make sentences using the completed phrases.

From for of to to in in

1. to benefit … sth.; 2. … the long term.; 3. to lead … sth.; 4. predisposition … illnesses; 5. to be … the initial stages; 6 deeper understanding … sth.; 7. data … the project

 

Read the text again and take notes under these headings. Then, look at your notes and talk about HGP Benefits.

· Avenues and Results

· Benefits For Biology and Medicine

· Evolution Studies

· ELSI

 

 

Text 4

Lead-in

1. Match the words and their definitions:

a. nucleus; b. particle; c. collision; d. to predict; e. fiction f. to halt

 

1. to foretell, to prophesy;

2. non-factual literature, esp. novels;

3. to stop (usu. temporary);

4. central core of an atom;

5. violent impact of a moving body with another or with a fixed object;

6. minute portion of matter.

 

2. Answer the questions:

1) What do you know of the Large Hadron Collider?

2) How did you learn about it?

3) How can the mass popularity of the highly scientific project be explained?

 

3. Read the text and say what the words in bold mean:

 

Large Hadron Collider

 

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) over a ten year period from 1998 to 2008, with the aim of allowing physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics and high-energy physics, and particularly for the existence of the hypothesized Higgs boson and of the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetry. The LHC is expected to address some of the most fundamental questions of physics, advancing the understanding of the deepest laws of nature. It contains six detectors each designed for specific kinds of exploration.

The LHC lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres in circumference, as deep as 175 metres beneath the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. Its synchrotron is designed to collide opposing particle beams of either protons at up to 7 teraelectronvolts per nucleon, or lead nuclei at an energy of 574 TeV per nucleus. It was built in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries, as well as hundreds of universities and laboratories.

On 10 September 2008, the proton beams were successfully circulated in the main ring of the LHC for the first time, but 9 days later operations were halted due to a magnet quench incident resulting from an electrical fault. The following helium gas explosion damaged over 50 superconducting magnets and their mountings, and contaminated the vacuum pipe. On 20 November 2009 they were successfully circulated again, with the first recorded proton–proton collisions occurring 3 days later. On 30 March 2010, the first collisions took place between two 3.5 TeV beams, setting the current world record for the highest-energy man-made particle collisions, and the LHC began its planned research program.

The LHC will continue to operate at 3.5 TeV per beam, half of its planned capability, until the end of 2012. It will then be shut down for a year for upgrades to allow full energy operation (7 TeV per beam), with reopening planned for 2014.

The Large Hadron Collider gained a considerable amount of attention from outside the scientific community and its progress is followed by most popular science media. The LHC has also sparked the imaginations of authors of works of fiction, such as novels, TV series, and video games, although descriptions of what it is, how it works, and projected outcomes of the experiments are often only vaguely accurate, occasionally causing concern among the general public.

 

Tasks:

1. Answer the questions:

1. What was the basic aim of constructing the LHC?

2. Where is the LHC situated?

3. What is the highest power the LHC is capable of?

4. Was the first circulation of the LHC a success? Why?

5. When did the first particle collisions take place?

6. What are the further plans for LHC?

7. Whose attention was drawn to the LHC outside the scientific community?

Fill in the words from the list, then make sentences using the completed phrases.

fundamental superconducting proton scientific current particle electrical

1. … world record; 2. … community; 3. … accelerator; 4. … questions; 5. … beams; 6. … magnets; 7. … fault.

 

Fill in the prepositions, then make sentences using the completed phrases.

over at from among to in for

a. to work … high energy.; 2. to result … sth.; 3. to set the world record… sth.; 4. to build sth. …collaboration with smb; 5 … a ten year period from 1998 to 2008; 6. to be planned … 2014.; 7. to cause concern … the public.

 

Read the text again and take notes under these headings. Then, look at your notes and talk about the Large Hadron Collider .

· Aims of LHC’s Construction

· Location and Power

· Operations Chronology

· Future Plans

· Public Attention

Text 5

 

Lead-in

1. Fill in the gaps with the words in the list:

treaty facilities inhabit launch constraints artificial

1. The vehicle … into space is to be postponed.

2. We can’t finance this project because of the budget ….

3. The war ended after signing the peace … by both countries.

4. … Earth satellites circle the low orbit of our planet.

5. Many birds … the forest.

6. One can find many mechanical … in the territory of our plant.

 

2. Answer the questions:

1) What space vehicles in the Earth orbit do you know?

2) What are the tasks of such vehicles?

 

3. Read the text and say what the words in bold mean:

International Space Station

a. The International Space Station (ISS) is a habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. It follows the Salyut, Almaz, Skylab and Mir stations as the ninth space station to be inhabited. The ISS is a modular structure whose first component was launched in 1998, other modular space station projects include Mir, OPSEK, Tiangong 3 and the Chinese space station. Like many artificial satellites, the station can be seen from Earth with the naked eye.

b. The ISS consists of pressurised modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other elements. ISS components have been launched by American Space Shuttles as well as Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets. Budget constraints led to the merger of three space station projects with the Japanese Kibō module and Canadian robotics. In 1993 the Soviet/Russian Mir-2, the American Freedom, and the European Columbus, merged into a single multi-national programme. Some elements of the ISS are expected to be separated to form the planned Russian OPSEK facility before the remainder is deorbited.

c. The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and other fields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars.

d. The station has been continuously occupied for 11 years and 75 days having exceeded the previous record of almost 10 years (or 3,644 days) held by Mir, in 2010. The station is serviced by Soyuz spacecraft, Progress spacecraft, the Automated Transfer Vehicle and the H-II Transfer Vehicle, and has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different nations.

e. The ISS programme is a joint project between five participating space agencies, the American NASA, the Russian RKA, the Japanese JAXA, the European ESA, and the Canadian CSA. The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The station is divided into two sections, the Russian orbital segment (ROS) and the United States orbital segment (USOS), which is shared by many nations. The ISS is maintained at an orbital altitude of between 330 km (205 mi) and 410 km (255 mi). It completes 15.7 orbits per day. The ISS is expected to remain in operation until at least 2020, and potentially to 2028.

Tasks:

1. Match the paragraphs (a, b, c, d, e) to their titles:

1. The ISS Applications.

2. ISS as a Joint Project.

3. What Is ISS.

4. ISS Components and Multi-National Programme.

5. Mission Life and Management.



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