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Semantic classes of adverbial modifiers
The adverbial of place
§ 100. This adverbial expresses:
a) Place proper.
John was born in Australia, but lives in England.
b) Direction or destination.
He moved to Australia in 1975.
He lives far from his parents.
The identifying questions are where? for place proper, where to? where from? - for direction, where? how far? - for distance.
The adverbial of time
§ 101. The adverbial of time has four variations:
a) The adverbial of time proper denotes the time of some event. It may be expressed in almost all the ways enumerated in § 97.
We shall meet tomorrow.
Ten days later she returned.
When angry count a hundred.
b) The adverbial of frequency indicates how often the event denoted by the predicate takes place. It is mostly placed before the notional part of the predicate (if it is expressed by an adverb).
I am always careful.
We often see each other.
Does he ever visit museums? - Once in a blue moon.
He calls me from time to time.
We have a get-together every year.
Adverbials of frequency are expressed by adverbs and adverbial phrases.
c) The adverbial of duration indicates the period of time during which some event takes place. They are often expressed by prepositional phrases with prepositions for, during, since, till, until. The preposition since denotes the starting point and the preposition till/until - the final point of some period.
Have you been there long? - A couple of hours.
They want to rest (for) a day or two.
The sun gives us light during the day.
We are to wait till the end of the exam.
This has been going on since our arrival.
He lived to be ninety.
The preposition for isoptional after the verbs ofduration.
d) The adverbial of time relationship presents the idea of time as related to some other event in time. This adverbial is expressed by such adverbs as still, yet, already, at last, before, after, by a noun, a gerund, or a prepositional phrase with the prepositions by, before, after.
Thus the sentence It was still raining implies that it had been raining for some time before.
He hasn’t given his consent yet means that up to now we do not know anything about his consent.
The train has left already means that it has left by this time.
He graduated at last suggests after a long time or delay.
Here are some other examples of adverbial of time relationship:
Promise to come back by the end of the week.
We’ll see about it after classes.
Before answering the Boss stepped back to the chair and sank into it.
The same relationship can be seen in sentences with participial phrases, as in:
Arthur, having read the letter twice, put it in an envelope. (After he had read the letter twice...)
The adverbial of manner
§ 102. The adverbial of manner characterizes the action of the verb by indicating the way it is performed or by what means it is achieved. The identifying questions are how? in what way? by what means?
Adverbials of manner are mainly expressed by adverbs or prepositional phrases (including gerundial phrases) introduced by the prepositions with, without, by, by means of, or with the help of, the latter three suggesting means.
Hooper danced badly, but energetically.
She walked with short quick steps.
You begin learning a language by listening to the new sounds.
Thoughts are expressed by means of (with the help of) words.
Adverbials of manner may also be expressed by participial phrases and absolute constructions.
I looked up again and saw that coming from the door behind Palmer, she had entered the room.
She said the last words with a voice lowered.
Some adverbials of manner border on the instrumental object in cases like the following:
He opened the tin with a knife.
The identifying questions are either How did he open the tin? or What did he open the tin with?
The adverbial of cause (reason)
§ 103. The identifying questions, of this adverbial are why? for what reason? because of what? due to what? Adverbials of reason are expressed by prepositional nominal phrases, participial and infinitive phrases, sometimes by absolute constructions.
Most prepositions of reason are composite and the causal meaning of the phrase, and thus of the adverbial modifier, is due to the meaning of the preposition, for example, because of, due to, owing to, on account of, for the reason of, thanks to and some others.
You mean you’ve failed because of me?
The accident happened owing to bad driving.
Thanks to my parents I got a decent education.
A number of polysemantic prepositions acquire causal meaning when combined with nouns denoting a psychological or physical state.
She couldn’t speak for happiness (anger, fear, joy).
She cried out of fear (anger).
She did it out of pity (spite).
Many people have come here from curiosity.
He was trembling with hatred.
Participial phrases and nominative absolute constructions are freely used as adverbials of reason, most often with the verb to be and verbs of feeling, wish, or mental perception.
I was happy just being with him.
Wanting a cigarette, I took out my case.
There being nothing else to do, we went home.
The adverbial of purpose
§ 104. This adverbial answers the identifying questions what for? for what purpose? It is most frequently expressed by an infinitive, an infinitive phrase or complex.
Jane has come to help us.
I’ve repeated my words for you to remember them.
The meaning of purpose may be emphasized by the composite prepositions in order or so as, which are never used before an infinitive complex.
We must go early in order not to be late.
We hurried so as not to be late.
The adverbial of purpose may also be expressed by a noun, a prepositional phrase, nominal or gerundial, introduced by the preposition for.
We reserved this table for lunch.
We use the thermometer for measuring temperature.
After the imperative of the verbs to go and to come another imperative is preferable to the infinitive, as in:
Go and help him. (Not Go to help him.)
Come and wash up. (Not Come to wash up.)
The use is optional for the verb to see.
Come to see me, or Come and see me.
Go to see him, or Go and see him.
The adverbial of result (consequence)
§ 105. The adverbial of result has no identifying questions. It refers to an adjective, a noun with qualitative meaning, or an adverb accompanied by an adverb of degree, such as too, enough, sufficiently, so... (as). The adverbial of result is expressed by an infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or complex.
It istoo cold to go out.
The lecturer spoke slowlyenough for us to take down everything he said.
He was foolenough to believe it.
John wasso fortunate as to get the first prize.
He felt he wasenough of a citizen of the world not to mind it.
The adverbial of degree too signals a negative result, enough suggests the necessary amount of quality to perform the action. The correlative phrase so... as implies a realized action, unlike the phrase so as before adverbials of purpose suggesting a hypothetical event. Compare these sentences:
John wasso fortunateas to get the first prize (and he got it) - result.
John trained hoursso as to get the first prize for boating (we do not know whether he has got it or not) –
The adverbial of condition
§ 106. The identifying questions are in what case? or on what condition? The adverbial of condition is generally expressed by a noun or a pronoun, or by a prepositional phrase (nominal or sometimes gerundial) with the prepositions but for, except for, without.
But for you I wouldn’t be here at all.
Except for the sound of his breathing I wouldn’t have known he was there.
Without faith there can be no cure.
This adverbial is sometimes expressed by a participle or an adjective with the conjunctions if or unless.
Jane won’t sing unless asked to.
We’ll come earlier if necessary.
Less frequently it is an infinitive or a participle.
I would have done better to have followed my first thought.
Skilfully managed, conversation with him might prove amusing.
The adverbial of concession
§ 107. This adverbial expresses some idea that contradicts what is stated in the modified part of the sentence. Thus in its meaning it is opposite to the adverbial of reason. The identifying question is in spite of what?
The adverbial of concession is expressed by a prepositional phrase introduced by in spite of, despite, for all, with all and phrases introduced by the conjunction though.
In spite of his anger John listened to me attentively.
Cleary, for all his reputation, was already out of date.
With all his faults, I like him.
Though a bad painter, he had a delicate feeling for art.
The conjunction if introduces concessive adverbials in cases like the following:
Your remark is witty, if rather cruel (...хотя и несколько жестокое).
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