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Emphatic (or cleft) sentences
§ 180. These sentences in their turn fall into three patterns, in allofwhich the form of the complex sentence is used to emphasize some part of the sentence.
In the first pattern the emphasized part is placed in the position of the predicative, which is followed by a clause. The main clause is patterned on the model of the it-clause and the subordinate clause may be patterned as an attributive, temporal, local or nominal clause.
It is my friend who told me this.
The role of the main clause is purely emphatic, as the information which is divided between the main and the subordinate clause can be expressed in a simple sentence.
It ismy friend who told me this ——> My friend told me this.
It isthe examination that you and I are concerned with ——-> You and I are concerned with the
If isnot that she loved him ——> She did not love him.
It wasthe idea they were buying, not the project ——> They were buying the idea, not the project.
The emphatic position may be occupied by a whole clause.
It waswhat she said that spoiled the impression.
Was itbecause dusk was gathering that you failed to see anything?
In the last two sentences the content of the predicative clause is emphasized.
The position of the predicative serves for placing greater emphasis on the part occupying this position. Semantically the emphasized part may fulfil different roles.
It wasnot till this very moment that I recollected him ——> did not recollect him till this very moment.
(The emphasized part is adverbial modifier of time.)
It isnot that I hate you ——> I don’t hate you. (Negation is emphasized.)
The cleft sentences and the simple ones given above are similar in meaning as they describe the same situation. The difference lies in a special accentuation of the bold-faced words.
The subordinate clause may be joined asyndetically: It isnot you I hate.
Pseudo-complex sentences of this type may be interrogative.
What is it that happened to you?
What was it he disliked so much ?
A sentence can be transformed into different cleft sentences depending on what element is to be emphasized. For example:
The second pattern of cleft sentences is used to emphasize the predicate, which is split into the operator in the subordinate subject clause and the infinitive in the main clause.
What Johnliked wasto read books at home.
What hedisliked so much wasto be addressed by passers-by.
The particleto is often omitted.
What hehas done isspoil the whole thing.
The third pattern of pseudo-complex emphatic sentences begins with the conjunction if, which does not introduce a conditional clause.
If I feel sorryfor anyone it’sNorman ——> I really feel sorry for Normal.
Appended clauses (повторы с уточнением)
§ 181. There are several varieties of appended clauses, modelled on the pattern of the main clause. These are used to intensify or reinforce a statement in the previous clause. The most common type of appended clauses are tag questions (tags). You are tired, aren't you? You are not ill, are you?
In non-formal style there is another form of appended clause, which is elliptical.
He is always very gloomy, is that John of yours.
She is a clever girl, is your friend.
In such sentences the link-verb to be is generally repeated, or a form of the verb to do is used.
He never told me anything, did your brother.
The appended part may consist only of a nominal group.
He is a clever boy, your brother John.
Such cases should not be confused with appended clauses.
Absolute (or indendent) subordinate clauses
§ 182. Subordinate clauses may be used absolutely as independent exclamatory sentences. They may have the form of a conditional or comparative clause.
If only I knew his address!
As though you didn’t know!
That he should be so late!
Parenthetical clauses (parentheses)
§ 183. A parenthetical clause (parenthesis) interrupts another sentence with which it is either not connected syntactically or is only loosely connected with separate parts of the sentence.
Parenthetical clauses are often called comment clauses, because they do not simply add to the information given in the sentence, but comment on its truth, the manner of saying it, or express the attitude of the speaker toward it. In some cases it is direct address to the listener or reader.
He waited (which was his normal occupation) and thought, like other citizens, of the cost of living...
(Some information is added.)
...there is, as it were, a transparent barrier between myself and strong emotions. (The figurative meaning
of the utterance is indicated.)
My parents, you know, were peasants. (Direct address to the listener.)
Parenthetical clauses may occur in front, mid- and end position, but the end position is mainly restricted to informal style. They are usually marked off from the rest of the sentence by commas, dashes, or parentheses (brackets) in written English and by a separate tone unit in speech.
Parenthetical clauses may be patterned like independent sentences, coordinate, main, or subordinate clauses. In all cases the mechanism of turning a sentence or clause into a parenthesis is the same - the inverting of their usual sequence or placing the parenthetical clause in an unusual position, which changes their communicative value. The embedded (включенное) structure acquires a secondary status, informing the reader of the author's opinion of the utterance, or containing some comment on the content of the embedding (включающее) sentence, or else addressing the reader directly. The embedding structure is primary in importance and structurally independent. The following sentences may be taken as examples:
Although the evening was still light - we dined early - the lamps were on. (a parenthetical clause
patterned like an independent sentence)
She cooked - and she was a good cook - and marketed and chatted with the delivery boys. (a parenthetical
clause patterned like a coordinate clause)
As you put it, it sounds convincing, (a parenthetical clause patterned like an adverbial clause of manner)
Does your objection to tea (which I do frightfully want) mean that we’re unlikely to be alone? (a
parenthetical clause patterned like an attributive clause)
Mr. Ford - if this was now to be his name - walked slowly up to the counter, (a parenthetical clause
patterned like an adverbial clause of condition)
Parenthetical clauses may be patterned like different communicative types of sentences or clauses - statements, questions, imperative or exclamatory sentences or clauses.
It was - why hadn’t he noticed it before? - beginning to be an effort for her to hold her back straight, (a
parenthetical clause patterned like a why-question)
I felt - such curious shapes egoism fakes! - that they had come because of me. (a parenthetical clause
patterned like an exclamatory sentence)
Clauses patterned like main clauses with verbs of saying and those denoting mental activity (he thought, the author said, etc.) may have an inverted order (thought he, said the author).
Quite a number of parenthetical clauses are stereotyped conversation formulas, used to attract the listener’s attention or to show the reaction of the speaker (you know, you see, I see, etc.).
§ 184. Indirect speech does not reproduce the exact words of the speaker, but only reports them. The grammatical form in which the speaker's words are reported is a subordinate object clause (for statements and questions) or an infinitive object (for orders and requests) dependent on a verb of saying or a verb or expression implying the idea of saying. The most frequent verbs of saying are the verbs to say and to tell for reported statements, to ask for reported questions, to tell and to ask for reported orders and requests. The subordinate clauses are joined to their principal ones by means of conjunctions, conjunctive pronouns or adverbs, or asyndetically.
The word order in these clauses is always direct, irrespective of the communicative type of the sentence in direct speech, that is, whether it is a declarative or an interrogative sentence (imperative sentences are reported by means of an infinitive object).
He says he has all the proof.
He asks what you are going to do.
The chief told me to do it at once.
When direct speech is replaced by indirect speech, the forms of personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns may be changed or not, depending on the general sense, that is, on their actual correlation with the participants of the act of speaking and the situation described in that particular unit of speech, in the same way as in Russian.
The tense form of the predicate of the object clause with reported speech is predetermined by the general rules of sequence of tenses.
If the predicate of the object clause in which direct speech is reported is to be changed into one of the past tenses, the change may affect the use of certain adverbs and demonstrative pronouns. That is, depending on the actual correlation between the place and time of the act of speaking and those of the content of the direct speech, there may arise the necessity to replace the adverbs and demonstrative pronouns implying near reference in time or space by those denoting distant reference. In such cases the following changes take place:
this → that
these → those
here → there
now → then, at that time
today → that day
tonight → that night
tomorrow → the following day, (the) next day
yesterday → the day before, the previous day
ago → before
last week (month, year) → the previous week (month, year)
§ 185. If the sentence in direct speech is declarative, the object clause reporting it in indirect speech is joined to the principal clause by means of the conjunction that or asyndetically. The predicate of the principal clause is usually expressed by the verbs to say or to tell; to say is used when the person to whom the direct speech is addressed is not mentioned in the sentence with indirect speech, whereas to tell is used when the person is mentioned.
§ 186. If the direct speech is a pronominal question, the object clause reporting it in indirect speech is joined to the principal clause by the same pronominal word (pronoun or adverb) as used in direct speech. In this case it is treated as a conjunctive word. The word order in the object clause becomes direct. The predicate of the principal clause is the verb to ask or one of its synonyms to want to know, to wonder, etc.
The person to whom the direct speech is addressed is usually mentioned either in the sentence itself, or in a broader context, or else is understood from the situation. In indirect speech it is expressed in the object to the verb introducing indirect speech.
§ 187. If the direct speech is a general question, the object clause reporting it in indirect speech is joined to the principal clause by means of the conjunctions if or whether. The word order in the object clause is direct. The predicate of the principal clause is the verb to ask or one of its synonyms.
§ 188. If direct speech is an imperative sentence, the following changes take place when reporting it in indirect speech: the predicate of the sentence takes the form of the infinitive and becomes an object to the verb introducing indirect speech; one more object, a noun or a pronoun denoting the person to whom the order or request is addressed, is supplied. Note that this object is an obligatory component of the sentence structure. If the person to whom the order or request is addressed is not indicated in direct speech, it is to be supplied from the previous context or from the speech situation.
Orders, requests, etc., in indirect speech are introduced by the verbs of inducement to tell, to order, to ask, to beg, etc.
If the predicate of the imperative sentence is negative, the negation not is placed before the infinitive in indirect speech.
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