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Subjective predicative constructions with non-verbal (nominal) second parts
These constructions structurally belong to the same type of subjective predicative constructions, but semantically they are different from those with verbal parts, because the second part of the predicate being a noun or an adjective denotes anew quality or state acquired as a result of the action or denote judgement, opinion of the quality. Because of its meaning the nominal part is sometimes called a subjective predicative.
The door was paintedgreen.
Suddenlythe door was flungopen.
Some verbs require the second part of the predicate with the preposition as.
The plan was declaredas ridiculous and absurd.
The list of verbs used in these constructions partly coincides with verbs mentioned above as preceding the infinitive. Their number is limited.
The following verbs are used in the passive voice:
1.Verbs of mental perception (to accept, to believe, to think, to consider, to expect, to presume, to estimate, to regard, to suppose, etc.); also verbs ofsaying andreporting (to declare, to describe, to call, to say, to report).
Heis believed as honest as anyone here.
The girlwas thought clever.
The planis considered impractical.
Hewas called ‘rising’, ‘promising’ before.
2.Verbs implying that the result of the action will be a new quality, state, orreaction. These verbs are rather numerous and fall into several subclasses:
A. Verbs withcausative meaning (to make, to render)
The roomwas made comfortable for the child.
He was made a knight.
The audiencewere rendered speechless by these words.
B.Verbs denoting an action resulting in the change of colour
(to paint, to tinge, to dye, to stain, to dust, etc.).
The wallswere painted light pink.
Her hairwas dyed red.
After staying on the beach an hour his skinwas tinged pink.
His carhad been dusted grey by the journey over bad roads.
С.Verbs denoting actions resulting in the change of social rank, status, function of, or giving identification to, a person (to appoint, to call, to christen, to elect, to raise, to select) to mark, etc.); also to train, to bring up, which acquire the meaning of “the change of social status” only in this construction.
He was appointed secretary of the state.
The childwas christened Fernando.
The road to the estatewas marked private.
The boyhad been brought up as a Catholic.
D.Verbs implying movement to a different position or state (to bring, to fling, to set, to tear, etc.).
All the windowswere flung open.
The little birdwas set free.
The envelopewas torn open.
The objective predicative constructions*
* This construction is often called the complex object.
§ 124. The objective predicative construction functions asa complex object. It consists of a nominal part and a part which stands in subject-predicate relations to the first part. The nominal part is a noun or a noun-pronoun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case. The second element of the construction is a verbal (an infinitive, participle I, participle II) or non-verbal (an adjective or a noun). Accordingly the following objective construction can be distinguished:
I. The objective with the infinitive construction:
I sawNick take your book.
We hatehim to go away.
II. The objective with participle I (or participle II) construction:
They heardsomebody knocking at the door.
We foundhim murdered in his own house.
III. The objective with a non-verbal part construction:
I never thoughther clever.
The objective with the infinitive construction
§ 125. This construction is the most recurrent as it may be used after a wider range of verbs, both taking a direct (I didn’t wanthim to see me here) and an indirect non-recipient object (We were relyingon him to put things right); in the latter case the objective construction is introduced by the preposition generally used with this particular verb.
The objective predicative construction of this type is used after the following verbs:
1.Verbs of wish and intention (to wish, to want, to desire, to choose, to prefer, should/would like, to intend, to mean). Owing to the meaning of these verbs, the infinitive in the construction can be only non-perfect, as it denotes an unfulfilled action.
Hewould like you to see him in his office.
Idid not mean it to be told to her.
2. Verbs ofemotion and attitude (to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot/could not bear). Those too can be followed only by non-perfect forms of the infinitive.
I can’t bear people to be unhappy or upset.
Ihate you to go away.
3.Verbs of mental activity (to think, to suppose, to consider, to believe, to know, to find, to expect, to imagine, to understand, to assume, to acknowledge, to feel, to trust, etc.). After these verbs the infinitive may be used in any form, depending on the time relation between the two actions:
Hebelieved Jennie to be playing in the garden.
Isupposed him to have been married to her years ago.
If the action of the infinitive refers to the person denoted by the subject, the corresponding reflexive pronoun is used.
Iknow myself to be rather slow.
4.Verbs of declaring (to declare, to report, to pronounce). With these all forms of the infinitive are possible.
Theyreported the plane to have been lost.
5.Causative verbs (to make, to have) take a complex object with a bare infinitive, usually it is a non-perfect infinitive, as the action is the result of inducement. The verb to gel takes a complex object with a to-infinitive.
With other verbs ofinducement (to order, to command, to ask, to allow, etc.) the objective with the infinitive construction can have only the passive infinitive.
Shewould not allow the life of thechild to be risked.
If the infinitive attached to such verbs is active, it does not form a complex with the preceding nominal part; both the elements should be treated as different parts of the sentence, the first as an indirect recipient object, the second as a direct object:
Heordered him to come. (Whom did he order come? What did he order him?)
6.Verbs of perception (to see, to watch, to hear, to feel, to observe, to notice). After these verbs a bare non-perfect active infinitive is used.
We saw planes zoom into the air.
Theyfelt the earth shake under their feet.
After these verbs structures with the link verb to be are not used. Where the need arises, a subordinate clause is used.
I saw that she was pretty. (---/---> I saw her to be pretty.)
§ 126. As was mentioned in § 125 the objective with the infinitive construction may be used with a few verbs as their indirect non-recipient object. These verbs are to wait (for), to rely (on), to listen (to), to look (for), to count (upon). All of them except the verb to listen take the infinitive with the particle to. With the verb to listen a bare infinitive is used.
Can I reallycount upon him to undertake the job?
Iwas relying on him to put things right.
Ilistened to them talk about me.
The objective with participle I construction
This construction comprises a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case and participle I, which is in subject-predicate relation to the nominal part. In comparison with the infinitive in this position participle I shows more clearly the durative character of the action. The construction functions as a complex object.
§ 127. The objective with participle I construction can be used with verbs of three semantic groups, although with two of them it occurs very seldom. In all cases only non-perfect forms of participle I can be used. These groups are as follows:
1.Verbs of sense perception (see, hear, feel).
There wesaw the crocodiles swimming about.
Over his shoulder he couldhear them snuffing.
Ifelt tears running down my chieks.
2.Verbs of wish. These verbs combine with the construction only occasionally.
Nobodywanted him going there alone.
3. Thecausative verbs to have and to get.
Hegot them running his errands every day.
We’llhave them trembling with fear.
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