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Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Food and drink based on milk
Kumis/kumys: Mare's milk fermented in a smoke-cured leather bag - a surprisingly refreshing, thirst-quenching drink.
Ayran: Kefir or a type of salt lassi made from skimmed or full-fat cow’s, sheep’s, goat’s or mare’s milk.
Katyk: Sour milk heated in the oven.
Shubat: Camel's milk with a high fat content, fermented in a leather bag. Shubat is used to treat tuberculosis and intestinal pain.
Irkit: A well-shaken mix consisting of freshly boiled, cooled and soured milk. Koyirtpak: A cocktail, rich in calories, of fresh milk, ayran, katyk, kumis and shubat.
Ashygan Kozhe: Boiled and soured groats from wheat, millet or rice, mixed with wheat flour and usually with milk, ayran or sour cream.
Chay po-kazakhskiy: “Kazakh tea” - black tea prepared in a special way. Heated milk is poured into a kese (tea bowl) and tea is added to it. People take special care not to fill up the bowl to its edge to prevent guests from burning their fingers. It is served with dried fruits, sweets and baursaki.
Kurt: Small dried balls from soured cow, sheep or goat's milk.
Balkaymak: Honey cream, made from boiled cream, mixed with sugar, honey and flour and added to tea.
Irimshik: Dried raw milk quark (low-fat soft cheese).
Saryssu: Dried small flans made from boiled and cooled whey.
Suzbe: Strained and salted quark made from ayran.
Dishes from cereals
Zhent: Also called Kazakh chocolate. Millet and irimshik are mixed in a mortar with sugar, butter and raisins. The mixture is stiffened by cooling and cut into small slices.
Zhanyshpa: Soft dessert from ground millet, sugar, butter and sour cream.
Millet with kurt: Millet poured into pounded kurt, softened in hot water.
Talkan: Roasted millet, wheat and maize pounded in a mortar, with butter, sour cream, stock or raw eggs then added.
Sut Kozhe and Kurniyas: Millet soup with milk, sometimes thickened with flour.
Cold first courses
Kazy: Usually lean horse rib, well seasoned, and dried in horse intestines, then hot-smoked and cooked. It is cut into slices and served on large plates as a starter. Shuzhuk: Like kazy, with the same ingredients, but with half fat and half lean horsemeat.
Zhaya: Salted, dried and subsequently smoked and cooked meat from a horse's hip, served in slices.
Zhal: The long strip of fat under a horse's mane is cut 0ff with a thin layer of flesh and prepared in the same way as zhaya.
Sur-Yet: Tender horsemeat with tendons and gristle removed is first salted and dried, and then served cooked.
Fish platter "Assorti": Noble fish (sturgeon, salmon, carp) served on a large platter with caviar and bread. Take care in restaurants, where this “assorti” can turn out to be particularly expensive.
Shalgam salad: Spicy salad from finely sliced radish and paprika.
Korean salad, carrots Korean-style: Spicy salad from finely sliced carrots.
Hot first courses
Shorpa: A nourishing meat broth with mutton, sometimes with rice, sometimes with baursaki. Shorpa Kozhe is thickened with cooked millet.
Kespe: Another meat broth with mutton, less often with poultry, with thin pasta noodles.
Salma: Meat broth with mutton or beef, with large square noodles.
Myaso po-kazakhskiy (meat Kazakh-style): The classic Kazakh dish - a sumptuous meat repast of mutton, beef or horsemeat, with onions, herbs, large square noodles and in some cases potatoes, cooked into a stew and served on a platter. It is also called besparmak or beshparmak - meaning Five Fingers. This is because traditionally it is eaten with your hands: pick up a noodle, wrap a piece of meat in it and put it into your mouth, smacking your lips loudly to express your appreciation.
Ryba po-kazakhskiy (fish Kazakh-style): A rich fish dish, prepared in a similar way to meat beshparmak.
Kuyrdak: Also an original Kazakh dish, with internal organs such as liver, kidneys and part, fried in mutton fat, seasoned with salt, onions and pepper, and served with bread.
Meat Kuyrdak: Mutton, beef, horsemeat or game fried in fat and then braised and covered with sour cream, served with potatoes and vegetables. Can also be prepared with rabbit or chicken.
Basturma: Marinated sausages of mutton, tomato and onion pieces, grilled, and served with fresh vegetables.
Tostik: Breast of mutton grilled on skewers, cut into pieces and served with sauerkraut and tomatoes.
Beydene: Fried back of mutton sliced and served with rice, tomatoes, cucumbers and vegetables.
Zhambas: Leg of mutton, larded with mutton fat, braised with carrots, and served with potatoes, pickled cucumbers and tomatoes.
Stuffed zhauryn baglana: Roasted shoulder of mutton stuffed with vegetables (carrots, radish, pumpkin, onions) and minced meat.
Manty: Large, steamed pieces of pasta filled with soft, coarsely minced beef or mutton, onions and kumis thinly sliced pumpkin.
Shashlyk: Skewers of juicy mutton, sometimes supplemented with liver, barbecued over saksaul wood or coal.
Pelmeni: A dish of Siberian or Chinese origin, but also very popular in Kazakhstan. Small pieces of pasta are filled with mutton or beef with onions, boiled in salted water, and served with sour cream or brown butter. Fish, mushroom or potato can also be used for the filling.
Orama: Steamed rolls of pasta filled with coarsely minced mutton and onions.
Zhuta: Large, boiled rolls of pasta filled with thinly cut carrot or pumpkin, butter and a little sugar.
Lagman: A delicious Uygur dish consisting of boiled noodles which can be very long indeed, over which a sauce of thin pieces of fried meat and vegetables (garlic, potato, tomato, carrot, radish and cabbage) is poured.
Kazakh plov: Pieces of mutton fried with onion rings and slices of carrot, then topped with rice and broth and simmered. There is a rich variety of plov, with all kinds of things added: boiled eggs, peas, raisins, diced dried fruit or pomegranate seeds. The richest variety is called festival plov. There is also a vegetarian sweet plov with dried fruits and almonds.
Bread and pasta
Taba nan (wheat bread): A round flat loaf made from yeast sourdough and baked in a closed pan on glowing coals.
Damdy nan, tandyr nan: A flat loaf from yeast sourdough baked in a stove pipe or in a special oven (tandyr).
Kazanzhappay: Thin bread from yeast sourdough baked in a pot (kazan).
Salma nan: Pieces of pasta in a kind of noodle dough, cooked in boiling water or broth.
Baursaki: Dough rolls from a heavy yeast dough baked in sizzling fat. There is also a variety called ay baursaki, in which yeast is replaced by soda dough and a larger number of eggs are added. Domalak baursaki uses quark as the raising agent. When they are prepared with sheep's tail fat and made into rings, they are called jespe baursaki.
Zhelpek: Rectangular pieces of yeast sourdough based on ayran and/or kefir, fried in boiling fat.
Kuymak: Pancakes of runny dough with or without yeast, fried in a pan.
Samsa: Half-moon shaped plain flour dough packets fried in fat and filled with minced mutton or beef and cooked rice. Sometimes the filling consists of lung, heart and liver.
Belyashi: A yeast sourdough roll fried in fat and filled with minced mutton or beef.
Chebureki: A plain flour dough roll baked in fat and filled
with minced mutton. Pirogiy with meat or fish: A large round and tasty pastry made from yeast dough, filled with meat or fish and rice, and baked in a pan in the oven.
Orekbi s sakharom (nuts with sugar): Caramelized sugar with a variety of nuts.
Chak-chak: A roll from very heavy dough baked in melted butter and then drenched in honey.
Khvorost: A pastry made from curved strips of dough, fried in vegetable oil.
Sourdough pirogiy: Small yeast rolls filled with meat, cabbage, potato or egg and baked in the oven.
Honey cakes: A biscuit sprinkled with poppy seed and made of spicy, heavy honey dough.
Kauynkak: Dried melon.
Khalva: A sweet dish made of sugar with vanilla, dissolved in melted butter, and saturated with roasted flour.
Meals in Britain (1)
Since the 1970's eating habits in Britain have undergone a change. People have been encouraged by doctors, health experts and government advertisements to eat less fat and more fibre. Fat is believed to be one of the major causes of
obesity and heart disease. Forty per cent of adults in Britain are overweight and Britain has one of the highest death rates due to cardiovascular disease in the world. Britons have also become more aware of calories, the energy value of food. Some people count the number of calories they eat every day, so that they can try to take in fewer calories and lose weight. Food manufactures have started to help the general public to make more informed choices about what they eat. So the traditional British breakfast is bacon, eggs or sausages, preceded by fruit and followed by toasts. Britons may eat this breakfast at weekends or on special occasions but prefer a smaller and healthier meal to start a day. Lunch is a light meal and is eaten at school or work. Lunch takes 30-40 minutes. Dinner is usually the main meal of the day and consists of two courses. In recent years, foreign foods have become a regular part of the British diet. Indian and Chinese dishes are particularly popular for evening meals. Take-aways became extremely popular in the 1980's.
The traditional British take-away is fish and chips eaten with salt and vinegar and served in an old newspaper. The British are famous for their love of sweet things and afternoon tea with sandwiches; scones, jam and several kinds of cake, was once a traditional custom. Most working people don't have tea as an afternoon "meal", but they do have a short break in the middle of the afternoon for a cup of tea.Tea is often also drink with lunch and dinner.
1. Eating habits in Britain have undergone a change, haven't they?
2. Why do some of people count the number of calories they eat?
3. What is the traditional British breakfast?
4. What do the British have for the main meal of the day?
5. What are Britons famous for?
fat — жир
fibre — грубая пища
obesity — ожирение
cardiovascular disease — сердечно-сосудистое заболевание
to be aware of — быть осведомленным
vinegar — уксус
scone — лепешка
Meals in Britain (2)
Traditionally English people have three meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner. Breakfast is served in the morning. It used to be a large meal with cereal, eggs and bacon, sausages, tomatoes. But such a large breakfast takes a long time to prepare and is not very healthy. Nowadays, Britain's most popular breakfast consists of cereal, toast with marmalade, juice and yogurt with a cup of tea or coffee. Lunch is a light meal. Most people have no time to go back home for lunch so they eat at school, cafes, pubs orrestaurants. The main meal is dinner, which is usually between 6 and 7 p.m. A typical evening meal is a meat dish with vegetables and dessert. The most important meal of the week is the Sunday dinner, which is usually eaten at 1 p.m. The traditional Sunday dish used to be roast beef, but nowadays pork, chicken or lamb are more common. On Sunday evenings people have supper or high tea. The famous British afternoon tea is becoming rare, except at weekends.
1. How many meals a day do English people have?
2. What did they use to eat for breakfast?
3. What do they usually eat nowadays?
4. Is lunch a large meal?
5. Where do English people eat lunch?
6. What dishes are served for dinner?
7. What is the most important meal of the week?
8. Is British afternoon tea still popular?
Some people criticize English food. They say it’s unimaginable, boring, tasteless, it's chips with everything and totally overcooked vegetables. The basic ingredients, when fresh, are so full of flavour that British haven't had to invent sauces to disguise their natural taste. What can compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled and served with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, when with just one or two herbs it is absolutely delicious?
If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will probably say “Fish and chips” then stop. It is disappointing, but true that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because the food doesn't lend itself
to such preparation. English cooking is found at home. So it is difficult to find a good English restaurant with a reasonable prices. In most cities in Britain you'll find Indian, Chinese, French and Italian restaurants. In London you'll also find Indonesian, Mexican, Greek... Cynics will say that this is because English have no "cuisine" themselves, but this is not quite the true.
1. What do foreigners say wnen they criticize English food?
2. Do English people use a lot of sauces?
3. From a foreigner's point of view, what are typically English dishes?
4. Do all English eat in restaurants?
5. What kind of restaurants can you find in Britain?
6. Is it the true that English have no cuisine?
to criticize — критиковать
tasteless — безвкусный
overcooked — переваренный
ingredient — ингредиент, составная часть
to invent — изобретать
sauces — соус
to disguise — скрыть
spice — специя, пряность
herb — трава
delicious — очень вкусный
disappointing — обидно
to lend — одалживать
cuisine — кухня
Spirits in Ireland
The most popular spirits in Ireland are Guinness and Whiskey. Ireland has its own whiskey. The Irish learned to make whiskey from monks. They came to Ireland from the continent of Europe in the fifth and sixth centuries. They knew a lot about the way to make spirits. Irish whiskey is made differently from Scotch whisky. It is also usually spelled differently - Scotch whisky has no “e”. Irish whiskey tastes lighter and smoother than Scotch whisky. Just now more people in the world drink Scotch whiskey. But some people like Scotch whisky and some like Irish whiskey. In the American Civil War someone said to President Lincoln that General Grant was drinking too much Irish whiskey. Lincoln knew that Grant was a good general, and he knew that Irish whiskey was a good drink. So Lincoln’s answer was: “Find out the make of General Grant's whiskey. Then give it to the other generals”. Another popular spirit is Guinness. It's a kind of beer. Guinness is made from barley, hops, yeast and water. Everything in it is quite natural; there are no chemicals.
The Irish have made or “brewed” it in Dublin since 1759. The Guinness brewery in Dublin is bigger than any other brewery in Europe. Today there are also Guinness breweries in Britain, Nigeria, and Malaysia. People drink more than seven million glasses of Guinness every day around the world. Irish coffee is another interesting drink. This is how to make it. First you put very hot coffee in a glass, with some sugar. Then you add whiskey. Then very carefully you add some cream, which stays on top of the whiskey and coffee. It is a very good way to drink whiskey!
1. What are the most popular drinks in Ireland?
2. From whom did the Irish learn to make whiskey?
3. What ingredients does Guinness consist of?
4. When did the Irish start to make Guinness?
5. What is another interesting Irish drink?
monk — монах
barley — ячмень
hops — хмель
yeast — дрожжи
brewery — пивоварня
to add — добавлять
Traditional American Food
Americans eat a lot. They have three meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner.
Most of Americans don’t eat home but prefer to go to restaurants. They can choose from many kind of restaurants. There is a great number of ethnic restaurants in the United States. Italian, Chinese and Mexican food is very popular. An American institution is the fast food restaurant, which is very convenient but not very healthy. However there are some principles of American cuisine (if we may call it so). Americans drink a lot of juices and soda, eat a lot of meat, fruits and vegetables, not much bread. In the morning Americans have cereal or scrambled eggs, milk or orange juice.
Chicken or fish, fried potatoes, vegetable salads, and desert: this is the most common menu for lunch. Dinner is probably the most important meal of the day, some people have family dinner, when all members of family have to be there. For dinner Americans usually have meat, fried or baked potatoes with ketchup or sour cream, corn, peas, sometimes macaroni and cheese or spaghetti; ice-cream, fruit or cake may be for dessert.
Turkey, ham and apple pie are traditional for Christmas and Thanksgiving Day dinners.
1. How many times a day do Americans eat?
2. Do Americans like to eat at home?
3. What kind of restaurants is popular in the US?
4. What do Americans eat for breakfast?
5. What is the most important meal of the day?
6. What is a family dinner?
7. What dishes are traditional for Christmas and Thanksgiving Day dinners?
ethnic — этнический
healthy — здоровый, полезный
juice — сок
cereal — кукурузные хлопья
potatoes — картофель
salad — салат
ketchup — кетчуп
ice-cream — мороженое
apple pie — яблочный пирог
Christmas — Рождество
The Story of “McDonald's” and “Coca-Cola”
In 1937 the McDonnald brothers, Dick and Mark, opened little restaurant in California. They served hot dogs and milk shakes. In 1945 they have 20 waiters. All the teenagers in town ate hamburgers there. When the 1948 year came they got paper boxes and bags for the hamburgers. They put the price down from 30 to 15 cents. There were no more waiters - it was self-service. So it was cheaper and faster. In 1960s the McDonald's company opened hundreds of McDonald's restaurants all over the States. In 1971 they opened restaurants in Japan, Germany and Australia. Now the McDonald's company opens a new restaurant every 8 hours. There are more than 14,000 restaurants in over 70 countries. The Coca-Cola story began in Atlanta in 1886. John Pemberton invented a new drink. Two of the ingredients were the South American coca leaf and the African cola nut. Pemberton couldn't think of a good name for the drink. Finally, Dr. Pemberton's partner Frank Robinson suggested the name Coca-Cola. Thirty years later the famous Coca-Cola bottle design first appeared. For many years only Coca-Cola was made. They only introduced new drinks -Fanta, Sprite in the 1960s. The recipe of Coca-Cola is a secret. Today they sell Coca-Cola in 195countries. Hundreds of millions of people from Boston to Beijing drink it every day. It has the most famous trademark
in the world.
1. When did McDonald brothers open first restaurant?
2. What did they serve there?
3. When did the Coca-Cola story begin?
4. Who invented this drink?
5. When did they introduce Fanta and Sprite?
shake — коктейль
self-service — самообслуживание
coca leaf — лист коки
cola nut — орех кола
trademark — торговая марка
Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-18; Нарушение авторского права страницы
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