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Глава 2. Advertising Techniques
Стр 1 из 10Следующая ⇒
МИР РЕКЛАМЫ – I
по дисциплине: Иностранный язык: английский
для специальности: 42.02.01 Реклама
Разработала: Л.П. Крикова
Рассмотрено на заседании
Протокол № 9 от 10.04.2015г.
Председатель ________ О.Г.Кольцова
Глава 1. What Is What?
1.1. Advertising: Terms and Definitions…………………………………...5
1.2. Words Frequently Confused………………………………………….. 6
1.3. What Is Advertising? …………………………………………………10
1.4. What Is Marketing? ………………………………………………….15
1.5. The Magical Power of Marketing……………………………………..19
1.6. What Is Brand? ……………………………………………………….22
Глава 2. Advertising Techniques
2.1. Advertisings through Commercials ……….……………………... ….26
2.2. Propaganda Techniques…. ………………………………………. ….28
2.3. Persuasive Advertising …………………………………………….. . 33
Глава 3. Advertising In Our Life
3.1. Advertisers Perform a Useful Service To The Community………...…34
3.2. Campaign………………………………………………………… ….. 35
3.3. Advertising in the USA………………………………………………..36
3.4. Advertising as a Career in the USA……………………………… …..37
3.5. Potato Peelers…………………………………………………….. …..42
Глава 4. Advertising Influence
4.1. Are You Influenced by Advertising? ............................................... .. ..45
4.2. Do You like Advertising? ............................................................... ….45
4.3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Advertising………………………..47
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся на III курсе по специальности 42.02.01 Реклама и представляет собой первую часть комплекса пособий по английскому языку.
Цель пособия: развитие навыков изучающего и просмотрового чтения учебных текстов и аутентичных статей по специальности, овладение лексикой и терминологией специальности.
Содержание текстов является профессионально ориентированным и представляет интерес для студентов данной специальности. Тексты знакомят с основными понятиями и терминами по рекламе, принятыми в англоязычном мире, видами и технологиями рекламы, раскрывают особенности маркетинговых принципов и брендинга на конкретных примерах известных мировых компаний.
В структуру пособия входят тексты, упражнения, к текстам прилагаются новые слова и термины. В приложение входят словарь-глоссарий, экзаменационные темы и тесты для контроля знания терминов, а также ответы к упражнениям.
Глава I. What Is What?
Doing business without advertising
is like winking at a girl in the dark.
You know what you are doing, but
nobody else does.
Advertising: Terms and Definitions
(from Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)
advertising/ ’ædvətaiziŋ / n the activity or business of advertising things on television, in newspapers etc:
eg. advertising aimed at 18-25 years old;
a career in advertising.
advertise/ ’ædvətaiz / v 1. to tell people publicly about a product or service in order to persuade them to buy it:
eg. Have you tried that new shampoo they’ve been advertising on TV?
2.to make an announcement, for example in a newspaper or on a poster, that a job is available, an event is going to happen etc:
eg. a big poster advertising a U2 concert;
[+for] I see they’re advertising for a new Sales Director
3.to show or tell something about yourself that it would be better to keep secret:
eg. Don’t advertise the fact that you’re looking for another job.
advertisement/ æd’vз:tismənt / n 1.a picture, set of words, a film etc that is used to advertise a product or service:
eg. an advertisement for a free day of skiing in Vermont
2.a statement in a newspaper that a job is available, an event is going to happen etc
3. to be an advertisement for to show the advantages of something:
eg. He’s not a very good advertisement for private education.
advertising agencya company that designs and makes advertisement for other companies.
advertising/n the attracting of public attention to a product, service, etc (New Webster's Dictionary)
advertising /n the business of encouraging people to buy goods ... (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)
Words Frequently Confused
Task 1. Read and translate the article, write out all the unknown words.
What picture does the word "advertising" present to your mind? Smiling girls on TV persuading us to buy a new toothpaste with the flavour of chocolate? Or a merry voice on the radio that speaks about new credits in affiliates of an African bank which has recently opened its doors in your country? Or lots of useless colourful paper in your mailbox? Is that all? I think the imagination of the majority of people is limited to these. Nevertheless, there are different types of "ads" we face every day. Let us examine each of them.
Advertisementis an announcement informing people about an event, a service or a product on TV, radio, Internet or in a newspaper that aims at persuading us to buy it. Plus, we have a person who advertises - he/she is called an advertiser.Sometimes the word "advertisement" can be shortened to advert or ad.
Do not mix up advertisement with advertising.The latter is the business of making advertisements. The classified adsare small advertisements in a newspaper or a magazine, often placed by individuals rather than by large companies. A more informal word for classified ads is the small ads.If you open a section in a newspaper or a magazine where people advertise that they want to meet someone to have a relationship, know it is the personal ads.
We also have commercials,which are advertisements on TV or the radio. A short interruption in a television or a radio program when advertisements are broadcast is called a commercial break.
Billboardis a large outdoor sign used for advertising. It is usually placed in a busy area. Posteris a piece of paper, a big one, often with a picture on it, that illustrates an advertisement. In the street we usually get flyers advertising a product, service or event. They also make us clean our mailboxes as often as we can. To catch our attention advertisements use a short sentence - a slogan.
A good campaign,i.e. a planned series of posters, advertisements and events used for advertising something, aims at getting us interested in a product or a company and making us buy something.
Now you know everything about the terms and can become professional agents. Have you ever had this idea? How do you think an agent advertising a product should behave to persuade us to buy a product? What personal qualities are necessary to become a good agent'? Should this be a young or "not-so-young" man? What education does he need? Does he really need any, or is it a natural ability that makes millions of people head to the shops for a pretty doll or a toothpaste? Would you like to make ads? Do you feel able to influence people's mind? Have you ever dreamt of opening your own advertising agency? What products/services/events would you never advertise and why? What do you know about tricks used in advertisements? Are there any laws prohibiting advertisements of some products? Do you think it is fair to prohibit them or not? What advertisements should children never watch? What do you think about children's participation in commercials? What influence does it have on our minds?
Go on, try to think about these questions and write us as soon as you have any idea. We are sure you have got something interesting to share with us!
By Alevtina Kozina, English, 4/2005
Task 2. Fill in the blanks using the text:
Task 3. Learn these terms for a quiz, and the definitions by heart.
What Is Advertising?
Advertising is a message to promote a product, a service, or an idea. The purpose of most advertising is to sell products or services. Advertising plays a key role in the competition among businesses for the consumer's money. In many businesses, the volume of sales depends largely on the amount of advertising done.Manufacturersadvertise to persuade people to buy their products. Large firms also use advertising to create a favourableimage of their company. The company can advertise in many ways depending on how much it wishes to spend, and the size and type of the target audience. If the company wants to enter the market or launch a new product, it often starts an advertising campaign.
Such campaigns are usually very successful because people learn about new products or services.
When South African Brewery (SAB) started producing beer "Zolotaya bochka" in Russia, it invested lots of money not only in production, but in advertising the product. The advertising campaign was aggressive, and as a result this brand of beer is among the most popular ones.
There are different ways of advertising:
• direct mail
• outdoor signs
• other ways (transit advertisements, window
Television is the chief medium used by advertisers. In the USA 100 largest advertisers spend on average 75 per cent of their advertising budgets on television. Food companies spend about 80 per cent on television, and candy, snack, and soft drink companies spend about 85 per cent.
Advertising on TV is often criticised. People don't like it when programmes are interrupted every fifteen minutes. We know that the Duma passed a bill that would forbid running of commercials during television and radio programmes. In Russia TV advertising generates $300 million a year. Of course, advertising revenues are important, but there are international norms which recommend ad breaks every 45 minutes. These days outdoor advertising is popular in Moscow. Many people think it makes the city more beautiful. It is especially widely used by car manufacturers, clothing and telecommunications companies. Such advertising attracts wide audience and is cost-effective.
Task 7. What about you?
1) Do you think advertising is really important?
2) Do you agree that advertising doesn't cost, it pays?
3) What is the most cost-effective way of advertising?
4) Do you think transit advertisements are important? Why?
What Is Marketing?
Marketing can be defined as human activity which is directed at satisfying needs and wants by creating and exchanging goods or services. The marketing concept has replaced the selling concept. The "selling concept" means that consumers have to be persuaded by selling techniques to buy non-essential goods and services. The "marketing concept", on the contrary, means that the producer should produce the products which the customers need.
Marketing can be approached in terms of marketing mix. Its components are four Ps — product, price, place, promotion, that is selling the right product, at the right price, through the right channels, with the right support and communication.
Let's consider the case of the company "Harley-Davidson", the company in the USA which produced bikes. For a number of years the company had serious problems. Its profits decreased, and the company was facing a possibility of bankruptcy. In its operation the company was orienting to a rather narrow market, that is young people in "black leather jackets".
In order to survive, the company had to use the main principles of marketing. 1. Determine the customer groups or segments. 2. Determine their needs. 3. Position the product in a proper way.While the company was trying to determine a new group of customers, it identified a numerous group of baby-boomers, born after World War II. At that time they were in their forties. The second stage of this work was determination if these rather grown-up and conservative people could become buyers of bikes. The company studied this group and the features of its buying behavior and came to a conclusion that it was possible. These people were experiencing the crisis typical for people of their age, and they had to get new opportunities, new experience and relaxation.
The company decided to launch a new model and position it in such a way it could meet the needs of the target group. The new model was meant for top-end, or upmarket (Am. upscale) instead of mid-range market. The motorcycle was made large and reliable. The company realized that new buyers would not repair the motorcycle themselves, so it used a new motor "V-twin". A lot was done to improve the image of the motorcycle. A shift was made from "hard metal" to a softer variant. Such famous personalities as Kurt Russell and Elizabeth Tailor were advertising the new model. The company was successful. Its sales have risen, and its profit margins have grown more than three times. Now the company is looking for new markets at home and internationally. It didn't suffer from foreign competition, as many automobile and electronic companies did. The company survived and began to prosper as it followed the principles of marketing.
Marketing has become a key factor in the success of western business. In the 20th century, marketing has played an increasingly larger role in determining company policy, influencing product development, pricing, methods of distribution, advertising and promotion techniques.
Task 3. Retell the text.
What Is The Brand?
A brand is a special trade mark, sign, symbol, design of the product that distinguishesit from other products. Products can have sub-brands. People have some beliefs and perceptions about a particular product that is they have the brandimage.
Consumers get used to some brands, and prefer to buy them. Some people drink only Nescafe; prefer mayonnaise produced by Moscow fat-producing plant (MZHK) and chocolate of Krasny Oktyabr factory and so on. In this case we can speak about brandloyalty that is commitmentto a particular brand, which people regularly buy. Some brands have names of people. Tea brand Dilmah is composed of the parts of names Dilhan and Malik, sons of the tea producer.
Some brands have mistakes in their names. Brand of vegetable oil is called "Zolotaya semechka", but according to the rules of the Russian language, it should be called "Zolotoye semechko".
It takes up to ten years to create a brand in the West. In Russia it can only take two years. It is known that 80 to 90% of new brands fail within their first six months.
If a company gives the name of the brand to its other products it's called brand-stretching.By putting their familiar trademarks on attractive and fashionable new products, companies can both generate additional revenue and increase brand-awareness.So there is Pepsi Maxwear, Camel watches and Cadberry jewellery. Brand-stretching is not always successful.
A brand like Coca-Cola has been around a long time, and dominates the fizzy drinkmarket in almost every country, outsellinglocal brands. One of the exceptions is Scotland, and their marketing specialists are trying to find out why this is.
One of the possible solutions is that people in Scotland are more conservative and keep to their traditions.
One of the most successful brands in the world is Barbie. Created in 1959, it targeted girls who wanted to have dolls which were like young women. Its unique selling propositionis that Barbie looks like a young woman, not a baby. Barbie has had seventy five careers — from astronaut to presidential candidate. In 1961 Ken, the man in Barbie's life was introduced. She has got little sisters and friends from different ethnic groups. Now there are 15,000 different itemsfor Barbie. Costume variations and in and-stretching have been the key to her continued popularity. Her life cycle never ends. One Barbie is bought every two seconds.
to distinguish— отличать, проводить различие
brand image— имидж торговой марки
brand loyalty— лояльное отношение к торговой марке
brand-stretching— «расширение» торговой марки
brand awareness—информированность о торговой марке
fizzy drink— шипучий напиток
to outsell— продаваться больше / лучше
unique selling proposition(USP) — уникальное торговое предложение
item— здесь: вид товара, товар, изделие
Advertising is persuasive communication, it is used to persuade people to be for or against something. This is done by using different kinds of propaganda techniques.
Propaganda is the spreading of ideas, information, or rumors for the purpose of influencing people to be in favour or against something or someone. Much of the advertising is propaganda, for its major purpose is to influence you to buy something. What are these kinds of techniques?
To The Community
Advertisements are all around us, not just on TV, radio and in the press, but also at sports grounds, in shop windows, and оn posters, carrier bags, badges, T-shirts, buses, hot air balloons. Whether we like it or not, advertising is a powerful force, and countries have rules about what is acceptable advertising.
In parts of Europe, naked women are common in advertisements, but not in Britain and the USA. In some countries of Islam, it is illegal to use photos of women - different ways. The campaign for Impulse Body Perfume showed a man who bought flowers for a woman he had never met before because she was wearing Impulse. In France, the woman was naked on beach; in Britain, a romantic relationship was suggested; in Japan, the meeting was respectable and restrained; in the Arab countries, no version was acceptable and the advertising campaign was dropped.
Britain, like many countries, has strict rules controlling advertisements for alcohol. For example, people shown drinking must clearly be 25 or over, and the ads must not suggest that a particular drink offers the key to success in personal relationships, or that it will make you more attractive or popular. Spirits cannot be advertised on TV in Britain; in other countries, such as Norway, alcohol cannot be advertised at all.
Advertisements are supposed to be truthful, so advertisers avoid saying their product is the best; they usually say it is “better”. So the slogan for British Airways promises “We’ll take more care of you”, and Polaroid encourages you to use their camera and film to “Make your life colorful”. The message behind most advertisements is this product will change you life - by making you richer, healthier, happier, more attractive, more popular, more efficient, and more successful. Do you believe the message? Has a product ever changed your life?
Advertising in the USA
Whether it's in print or on television, radio, or billboards, advertising profoundly influences our lives. The ads we see, hear, and smell (in the case of open-and-sniff perfume inserts in magazines) affect how we feel and what we think about a wide range of products. Companies pay a lot of money (up to $1 million for a 30-second Super Bowl spot) to persuade us that their products are the best.
Advertising has a long history in North America As early as the 1600s ads were used to attract English settlers to the Colonies. According to historian Daniel Boorstin, these brochures contained "hopeful overstatements, half-truths, and downright lies ..." Nonetheless, the sales campaign was effective; people came. In the 1700s famous figures were involved in the advertising business, among them Benjamin Franklin, who ran ads in his publications, and Paul Revere, who advertised his handmade false teeth. But it wasn't until the late 1800s, with the boom in mass-circulation magazines, that advertising became the powerful force it is today. Television arrived in the 1940s and created a new, action-packed .advertising medium.
Creating a good ad isn't as easy as it might seem. One key is to find the right spokesperson. An effective approach is to have the company president speak. In the 1980s Chrysler's Lee Lacocca urged viewers, "If you can find a better car, buy it." Another is to hire an athlete, such as superstar Michael Jordan (McDonald’s, Gatorade, and Nike). Still another option is to create unforgettable characters
A memorable slogan is helpful as well: "I can't believe I ate the whole thing", "Where's the beef?"; "You deserve a break today": "It's finger-lickin1 good"; "Just, do it"; "See the USA in your Chevrolet"; "We try harder"; "When its absolutely, positively has to be there overnight.
Реклама как карьера в США
Рекламапредставляет собой любую оплачиваемую форму представления и продвижения продукции, услуг или идей каким-либо конкретным человеком или организацией. Она процветает в основном в странах со свободной экономикой, ориентированной на получение прибыли. Это один из главных факторов ускорения сбыта товаров, способствующий подъему жизненного уровня. Реклама не может превратить плохой товар или услугу в хороший. Однако то, что она может сделать - и делает - это сообщает о старых и новых товарах и услугах. Поэтому три основные задачи рекламы -это (1) дать информацию о товаре или услуге; (2) создать для них приоритет: (3) стимулировать мысли и действия потребителя на них приобретение.
Работа в рекламе включает выполнение заказов рекламодателей, работу в средствах массовой информации, рекламных агентствах, снабжения или особых видах обслуживания. По мнению американских специалистов, эффективные образовательные программы в области рекламы имеют только 35 колледжей и университетов США, и менее 10 из них могут предложить после окончания действительно солидную работу. Однако в рекламе могут работать и работают люди самых различных специальностей.
Рекламодатели. В большинстве фирм, активно занимающихся рекламой, есть менеджеры по рекламе, или брэнд-менеджеры. Так как эти люди помогают координировать рекламную программу фирмы с ее торговой программой, а также с программой рекламного агентства этой фирмы, они должны обладать навыками как рекламного агентства. так и менеджера.
Средства массовой информации. Всем средствам массовой информации нужны агенты для продажи рекламного пространства в газете или эфирного времени. Эти люди должны обладать определенными познаниями в бизнесе и навыками торгового работника
Рекламные агентства. Рекламному агентству требуются самые различные специалисты, так как оно разрабатывает рекламные программы, готовит рекламу и размещает её в средствах массовой информации Люди: занятые рекламными исследованиями и сбором фактов, должны знать статистику и психологию потребителя. Для работы в средствах массовой информации должен уметь планировать и проводить сравнительную оценку того или иного средства. Покупатель средств массовой информации должен уметь идентифицировать и определить наиболее эффективное из них для размещения рекламных сообщений и покупки места или времени.
Подготовка текстов рекламы требует творческих писательских навыков и способности визуализировать идеи. Такой специалист является разработчиком рекламных идей и сообщений.
Знание вёрстки, типографии и основ визуализации необходимы тем, кто занимается печатной рекламой и подготовкой коммерческих программ на телевидении. Специалисты по печатной продукции должны знать основы печати, уметь делать фотоклише и выполнять типографические работы.
Опыты работы в «шоу-бизнесе» и смежных областях актёрское мастерство, фотография, музыка, драматургия были бы неоценимым подспорьем для телевизионного продюсера
Кроме того, любому агентству необходимы финансовые работники с бухгалтерским образованием и навыками менеджера как посредники между рекламодателем и агентством.
Снабжение и особые виды обслуживания. Другие виды деятельности, близкие к рекламе (организация маркетинговых исследований, производство теле- и радиопередач, фильмов, студии искусств, фотография, производство фотоклише материалов со шрифтовыми выделениями, типография, дизайн товаров и упаковки) также предполагают наличие подобных должностей.
Перспективы для работы.Более 0,1% населения США занято в рекламе, и ожидается, что их число будет быстро расти Возможности для быстрого служебного роста в рекламе обычно выше, чем в большинстве других отраслей промышленности. Быстрота продвижения по служебной лестнице зависит здесь в основном от собственных усилий человека, а не от возраста и стажа работы. Часто женщины делают себе карьеру в рекламе (по крайней мере, в агентствах и розничной торговле) быстрее, чем в сферах делового предпринимательства.
В целом ставки оплаты в рекламе сравнимы со ставками ответственных работников в бизнесе, а также специалистов, как, например, врачей и юристов, работающих в одном и том же обществе.
Task 2. Learn the terms.
Careers in advertising
Bob Martin's big opportunity had arrived. For years Bob had been employed in the marketing department of CUT-MORE CUTLERY and for the past year had held the position of sales-manager. The cutlery business needed especially ambitious, hardworking people with new ideas for raising the sales of household cutlery. Bob was ideally suited for a position like that. As sales department manager he had worked energetically and had succeeded. During their yearly meeting the firm's directors discussed the question of how to make more profit. When it was Bob's turn to speak he surprised the others with an extraordinary idea "Gentlemen, have you ever wondered why our sales of potato peelers have been more or less constant year after year while the sales of other items of cutlery have either risen or fallen? Our statistics show that our company together with other competitors sells enough potato peelers in two years in this country to supply one to every household. A potato peeler is an item of cutlery that neither breaks nor wears out. One would think they would last a lifetime. Yet they don't. What happens to the potato peelers?" At this point there was a general murmur, as his colleagues asked themselves the same question.
"The question interested me," continued Bob, "And so I employed an opinion-poll firm to find out about it. The results show that most potato peelers are thrown away with the potato peelings. Now, my suggestion is that we paint our potato peelers the same colour as the potato peelings in order to make them more difficult to see among the peelings.
This time the murmuring had the sound of mild approval; the listeners seemed to agree. One person, however, put in: "But how can that colour catch the customer's eye on the sales counter?"
"A very important aspect of marketing," replied Bob. "I've already talked with a colour expert from a leading advertising agency and have come to this solution: we display the dull-coloured peeler on a bright red card. The housewife will wrap the potato peelings in newspaper and once she lays the peeler down on the peelings, the chances that it will be thrown away with the wrapped peelings are excellent. If you accept my suggestion I promise that next year we can double our sales." Again there was a positive reaction, and one of the directors was heard commenting: "A brilliant idea. We need bright fellows like you; we'd like you to become a member of the board of directors."
Read the following sentences and fill in the missing expressions. Don't repeat any expressions, please. Use expressions below:
The sales-man Bob Martin was a (n) ______________________ (1) man. Working at CAT-MORE CATLERY’S meant to raise _____________________ (2) in order to succeed. Being _______________________________ (3) Bob had done well. In this business ___________________________ (4) ideas were needed, because other ________________________ (5) had also been successful. A (n) ________________________ (6) had found out potato peelers ______________________ (7) with the peelings. Potato peelers shouldn’t _________________________ (8) eyes, but following an important ____________________ (9) they should be displayed attractively. The ________________ (10) was to put them on red cards.
VIEWS AND ATTITUDES
A big department store wants to know what makes" people buy things in their store.
Write 6 different questions, please!
Do You Like Advertising?
This question is asked very often. The most popular answer is "no". Why? - I ask myself. Advertising can annoy, it's a fact. But what would our life be like without it?
Just try to imagine that there is no advertising at all. Neither on TV nor in the press, nor on the radio, etc. What to do? How to choose? Where to get information about new products?
The only way is to ask the shop assistants for help or a piece of advice and try every item recommended. What a horror, I must say. I'm absolutely sure that living with advertising is much easier.
We are shown the majority of new goods. We are given information about them. The only problem is making the right choice. But I think that each person should resolve this problem for himself. No one ever forces us to buy this or that thing. Simply, we ought to use our brains and to be sensible.
I agree that advertising isn't completely true in most cases. I mean that sometimes the benefits of some goods are exaggerated. But from another point of view, how to sell successfully the same goods for months and years? How to be competitive?
Here comes advertising. In this business, there are professional psychologists who constantly research the conditions of the market and the demands of consumers. When we see a foolish advertising of beer, for example, we should know that the majority of the population wants to see exactly this and that they really like it. So the advertising is demanded.
I suppose that it is also appropriate to cite a saying that people see and hear what they want to see and to hear; that people believe what they want to believe. We all need sweet lies from time to time, and we get it in large amount. We need to be surprised; advertising helps us with this. Why not regard it as an ordinary activity, which aim is the satisfaction of common demands?
One more example. Let's compare advertising in different places. On the one hand, we have the advertising on a common TV channel; on the other hand the advertising on the pages of Vogue magazine. The difference is obvious. The expensive magazine needs the advertising of expensive goods; the TV advertising is for everyone. All who watch TV cannot be smart, well educated and rich.
We also shouldn't forget that we don't pay for watching ordinary TV channels. It has to work somehow, so advertising is necessary for it. He who does not agree can pay money and watch the channels without advertisements. But is it really needed?
In my opinion, it's much better to watch it, to make different conclusions, to laugh at it sometimes, and to use it for your own aims.
By Maria Yaylenko
Do you like Advertising?
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1. Рекламные термины. Advertising Terms
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