Physiology of the nervous system 

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Physiology of the nervous system

Home Assignments 1

Task 1 Memorize:

1 Suffixes -ize, -ise, -yse, -yze are used to form the verbs: summarize – підсумовувати, analyse – аналізувати.

2 Suffixes -ancy, -ency form the nouns: infancy – дитинство, insufficiency – недостатність.

3 Suffixes -ant, -ent are the suffixes of the adjectives: constant – сталий; постійний; significant – значний, важливий, багатозначний.

4 Suffix -ness is used to form the nouns from the adjectives: weak – weakness.


Task 2 Read and translate the following words:

realize, recognize, criticize, generalize, specialize;

sufficiency, urgency, persistency, emergency, deficiency, dependency, efficiency;

distant, present, absent, important, dependent, different;

badness, readiness, coldness, whiteness, redness.


Task 3 Study the following grammar items:



to have been written


Present Past Future

have been had been written will have been written


has been


Task 4 Find the predicates in the sentences, determine the tense form of each predicate:

1 The direction of the nerve fibers has already been established experimentally.

2 Several new medical schools have been founded in our country recently.

3 The exact amount of the blood in the experimental animal has just been estimated.


Task 5 Find the sentences with the predicates in Passive Voice and translate them:

1 The doctor has treated the patient with pneumonia.

2 I have been treated at this clinic.

3 The professor has just delivered the lecture on the exchange of gases in the lungs.

4 The lecture on the exchange of gases in the lungs has been delivered today.


Task 6 Memorize: the construction “ it is (was) … that” is used to emphasize the part of the sentence.

Read the following sentences, compare their translation:

I. M. Sechenov investigated blood gases in 1858. – І. М. Сеченов досліджував гази крові у 1858 році.

It was Sechenov who investigated blood gases in 1858. – Саме Сеченов досліджував гази крові у 1858-му.

It was blood gases that Sechenov investigated in 1858. – Саме гази крові Сеченов досліджував у 1858-му.

It was not until 1858 that Sechenov investigated blood gases. – Саме (тільки) у 1858 році Сеченов досліджував гази крові.


Task 7 Translate the following sentences:

1 It is in the alveoli that the respiratory metabolism takes place.

2 It is hemoglobin that carries oxygen to different tissues of the human body.

3 It was not until 1628 that blood circulation was described by William Harvey.

Task 8 Read and translate the following words:

mechanism, cortex, communication, stimuli, summarize, analyze, constant, hypothalamus.


Task 9 Learn the following words and word combinations:

complicate – ускладнювати

complicated – складний

directly – безпосередньо; напряму

ear – вухо

sense – відчуття, сенс, значення

pain – біль

smell – запах

feeling – почуття

order – порядок; наказ; замовляти (ліки)

in order to – для того щоб

move – рухати(ся), переставляти

area – простір; область

control – перевірка; контролювати; усувати (біль, хворобу)

vision – бачення

almost – майже; ледве не


Task 10 Read the text. Find and translate the sentences containing a) emphasizing construction; b) Present Perfect Passive. Find the English equivalents of the following word combinations and memorize them:

органи відчуття, з приводу болю, багато іншого, рухомий відділ кори головного мозку.

The Brain

Scientists consider that our brain is the most complicated mechanism which has ever been constructed.

The weight of the human brain is from one to two kilograms. It has a volume of about 3.21 litres and consists of about 12 billion cells. It has been determined by the scientists that each cell is connected to the other directly or indirectly by nerve fibers.

The brain is the centre of a wide system of communication. It has been found out that a constant flow of stimuli comes into the brain through the spinal cord. The stimuli come to the brain from our eyes, ears, and other sense organs for pain, temperature, smell and other feelings. When all the received stimuli have been summarized and analyzed the brain sends orders through the nerve fibers in the spinal cord to different parts of the human body. It is due to these orders that one eats, moves, hears, sees and does many other things.

To estimate the functions of different areas of the brain many experiments have been carried out by the investigators. It is due to such experiments that the investigators have been able to determine those areas of the brain which control vision, hearing, physical movements and even emotions.

Due to experimental studies it has been determined that the motor cortex controlling many body movements of the human being becomes tired rapidly. But the hypothalamus which controls such functions as blood pressure is almost never tired.

Task 11 Make up the plan of the text.

Task 12 Say the following sentences in the Past and Future Perfect Passive:

1 The work has been completed.

2 The important findings have been proved.

3 The number of leucocytes has been counted.

4 A female patient has been transferred to the hospital.


Task 13 Make the following sentences negative and interrogative:

1 The new methods of research had been included into my work.

2 The course of treatment has been prolonged.

3 The structure of the pancreas will have been described in the new book.


Task 14 Use the construction “it is (was) … that” to emphasize the parts of the sentence in bold type:

1 The motor cortex controls many movements of the human being.

2 During the systole both ventricles of the heart contract.

3 On deep respiration the vital capacity of the lungs may become 6 litres.

4 In 1538 Andreas Vesalius published his six-volume work “Tabulae Anatomicae”.


Task 15 Translate into Ukrainian:

1) constant communications between sense organs; 2) a complicated case; 3) in the heart area; 4) the feeling of pain; 5) to control a disease; 6) to examine hearing; 7) to analyze the disfunction of movements.


Task 16 Choose the nouns that can be used with the given verbs:

to control, to move, to send;

findings, head, disease, pain, hands, movements, patient, respiration, letter, heartbeat, order, vision, legs.


Task 17 Choose the verbs that can be used with the given nouns:

– the pain can (be discharged, be estimated, be controlled);

– the area can (be extended, be published, be pumped);

– the smell can (be covered, be entered, be felt);

– the vision can (be breathed in, be investigated, be complicated);


Task 18 Read the passage and say what interesting things you have learned:

If the human being has a bad headache he often feels pain within the skull. But really the nerves through which pain stimuli pass exist mainly in the blood vessels and nervous system, but not in the proper substance of the brain. So the brain itself does not feel pain.


Task 19 Memorize the words. Translate the sentences:

feed – годувати

feeding – харчування

The mother feeds her infant. Milk is the main feeding of an infant.

obtain – отримувати

During our life we obtain much experience.

develop – розвивати(ся), виявляти(ся), утворювати

The patient developed a bad pain in the stomach.

supply – забезпечувати; живлення

Blood supply may become decreased in some heart disease.

response – відповідь; реакція

The response to the treatment was rapid.


Task 20 Translate the words with the same root:

condition, conditioned, unconditioned; protect, protective, protection; production, productive, produce; add, addition, additional, additionally; developed, developing, development.


Task 21 Read, translate, and name the suffixes in the following words:

general, generalize; dependent, dependency; weak, weakness; insufficiency, insufficient; analysis, analyze; red, redness; infant, infancy.


Task 22 Read the text. Translate it. State the difference between conditioned and unconditioned reflexes.

Conditioned Reflexes

All the visceral and somatic reflexes including the protective, feeding and others are formed by various internal and external stimuli. These stimuli produce reactions not depending on surrounding conditions. The great physiologist Pavlov called them unconditioned reflexes.

In human being the nervous system has the additional ability to form cortical associations which increase the range of reactions. This function is obtained by all the human beings and formed upon signalization, i.e. the process in which an ineffective reflex stimulus forms the same reactions as the stimulus with which it has become associated. Pavlov called these individually obtained reflexes conditioned, because they are developed only in connection with some other reflexes.

It is through constant contacts of life that men develop many conditioned reflexes. They begin to develop already in infancy. During human development their number is much increased through training and education.

In experimental conditions it was determined by Pavlov that many new conditioned reflexes to stimuli not supplied by Nature could be established in dogs. But such stimuli had to be associated with those which formed an unconditioned response. Pavlov determined that in higher animals it was in the cortex that conditioned reflexes were formed.


Home Assignments 2

Task 1 Memorize the facts given below:

Do you know that:

Тhe vision centres are located in the occipital areas of the cortex.

Тhe nervous system of the human being has about ten times more nervous cells than the number of all people in the world.

Тhe stimuli pass into the brain through the spinal cord very rapidly – about 100 m per second.

Task 2 Choose the proper ending to complete the sentence:

1 The ear is the sense organ of (vision, hearing).

2 The human being smells with (the nose, the eye).

3 The motor cortex controlling many body movements (becomes tired rapidly, is almost never tired).

4 The stimuli from different parts of the human body come to the brain through (the blood vessels, the nerve fibers in the spinal cord).

Task 3 Find the infinitives:

1 He may examine the patient.

2 He may be examining the patient.

3 He may have examined the patient already.

4 He may be examined by Doctor Kovalenko.

5 He may have been examined by 11 a.m.

Task 4 Read the sentences, pay attention to the translation of the modals and infinitives following them:

1 He cannot do it. – Він не в змозі цього зробити.

He cannot have done it. – Не може бути, щоб він це зробив.

Can he have done it? – Невже він це зробив?

2 He may perform an operation on the heart. – Можливо, він робить операцію на серці.

He may have performed an operation on the heart. – Можливо, він зробив операцію на серці.

You must deliver a lecture. – Ви повинні читати лекцію.

You must have delivered a lecture. – Напевно ви прочитали лекцію.

Task 5 Translate the following sentences:

1 Can the patient have developed such a bad pain in the stomach after taking the medicine?

2 The infant is quiet now. Mother must have fed it.

3 The blood pressure may have decreased after the administration of this drug.

4 Can the investigator have drawn such a conclusion after a number of experiments?


Task 6 Learn the following words and word combinations:

delicate – слабкий, хрумкий

inhibit – уповільнювати

allow – дозволяти

provide with – забезпечувати

provide for – передбачати

provided – за умов, що

smooth – гладенький, рівний

purpose – мета

fall – падати, знижуватися

fall asleep – засинати

fall ill with – захворіти

significance – значення, важливість

quiet – спокійний, тихий

drop – ронити, капати

though – хоча

spread – поширювати(ся)

Task 7 Translate the words with the same root:

act, action, activity, react, reaction, reactive; significance, significant, insignificance, insignificant, insignificantly; to tire, tired, tiredness; inhibit, inhibition, inhibitory, inhibitor; quiet, quietly, quietness.

Task 8 Learn the following word combinations paying attention to the prepositions:

to provide with, to provide for, to fall ill with, to drop into, for some purpose, to be of some significance, to react to smth, to spread over / to smth.

Task 9 Translate the following word combinations:

– слабке здоров’я, крихкі клітини, делікатна операція, гладенькі м’язи, рівна бічна поверхня, тихий відпочинок, спокійний сон, міцне здоров’я, глибокий сон;

– падати, я впав, хворий заснув, я впустив термометр, закапати ліки в очі, він захворів на пневмонію, дозволити хворому пересуватися, хворому дозволили сісти, лікар не дозволяє мені втомлюватися, забезпечити, наша бібліотека забезпечує нас книгами, це було передбачено заздалегідь, ми виконали багато дослідів задля цієї мети, сон має велике значення для життєдіяльності людини, біль поширилася по руці.

Task 10 Translate the words given in parentheses and then translate the sentences:

1 When the man feels (втомленим) he (засинає).

2 The external surface of the liver is (гладенька).

3 Sleep is of a great protective (значення) to the human being.

4 Please be (тихо), the patient has just fallen asleep.

5 When the doctor was examining the patient he determined that the heartbeat was (уповільнений).

Task 11 Read the text. Entitle it. Find the sentences with the word “one” used as a subject. Translate these sentences. Write down the equivalents of the following word combinations:

1) задля цієї мети; 2) цілковитий спокій; 3) поширюється по корі головного мозку; 4) має велике значення для; 5) глибокий спокійний сон; 6) життєдіяльність.

The nervous cells of the cortex are the most delicate of all the cells of the human body.

It is at the moment of tiredness of the cortical nervous cells that the process of inhibition begins to act. The process does not allow new stimuli to pass to the tired areas of the brain. To provide the smooth work of the brain the nervous cells must be well supplied with oxygen and feeding substances. And for this purpose any human being must have regular complete rest, i.e. sleep.

When the process of inhibition extends over a great number of cells, spreads widely over the cortex and even over the subcortical areas of the brain one falls asleep.

When one sleeps the vital activity of the nervous system is restored. So sleep is of a great protective significance to the human being.

The man sleeps about one third of his life. Numerous investigations and experiments have shown that sleep is more necessary for the human being than food. One can live longer without food than without sleep.

During a sound quiet sleep the whole activity of the human organism changes, the body metabolism decreases, the respiratory and pulse rates become slower, the body temperature drops. Though the stimuli continue to come into the brain, the inhibited cortical cells do not react to them.


Home Assignments 3

Task 1 Read the following words:

few, quip, rule, most, quinsy, tissue, quite, delute, old, lunar, told, quiet, grew, question, exclude, true, cold, new, post.

Task 2 Read the following words, translate them and state the part of speech:

estimate, separate, dislike, perform, decrease, infancy, significant, extensible, considerable, discover, abnormal, summarize, efficiency, weakness, academician, clinician, complete, exchange, organize, constant, cleanness.


Task 3 Make up Infinitive Perfect Passive Constructions from the following verbs using the table given below:

observe, find out, prove, accomplish, count, prolong.

Forms of Infinitive


Infinitive Active Passive
  Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous   to determine to be determining to have determined to have been determining   to be determined - to have been determined -  


Task 4 Put up questions to the words in bold type (in writing):

1 The treatment has been prolonged as the patient is still complaining of a general weakness.

2 The patient will have been sent to the X-ray examination by the end of the week.

3 The number of red blood cells had been counted before the surgeon began the blood transfusion.


Task 5 Read the sentences and say what construction is used to emphasize the part of the sentence. Translate the sentences:

1 It was not until 1911 that a first really successful theory of atomic structure was developed by Rutherford.

2 It is on the large surface of the alveoli that oxygen passes from the air into the blood vessels.

3 It is per minute that the human being breathes in 300-330 ml of oxygen and breathes out 225 – 250 ml of carbon dioxide.

4 It was not until Roentgen discovered X-rays that scientists were able to examine many inner organs.

Task 6 Translate the second part of the sentence using the rules of sequence of tenses:

1) The scientists determined that … a) рівень білка в крові становить у середньому 5 – 8%; b) плазма є рідинною частиною крові.

2) Our professor of Physiology said that … a) капіляри було винайдено у 1661 Марчелло Мальпігі, професором медицини з Болонії; b) першою людиною, яка спостерігала течію крові крізь капіляри за допомогою мікроскопа, був голландський вчений Антоній Ван Левенгук.

3) The doctor thought that … a) температура знизиться після курсу відповідного лікування; b) ці ліки заспокоять біль.


Task 7 Read and translate the following sentences:

1 The air we breathe in enters the lungs through the trachea.

2 The investigations the scientists have carried out show that the process of inhibition can be produced by sleep.

3 We were told the patient had slept soundly the night before.

4 The most interesting lecture the professor delivered last week was that on conditioned reflexes.

5 The food the children receive for their proper development must contain many vitamins.

Task 8 Translate the following sentences into English in writing:

1 Відомо, що за одну хвилину вся кров у тілі людини проходить крізь легені та всмоктує 1/3 літра кисню.

2 Коли видихають, зовнішні міжреберні м’язи та м’язи діафрагми розслаблюються.

3 Відомо, що швидкий сон триває менш ніж півгодини.

4 Встановлено, що еритроцити виявляються найчисленнішими клітинними елементами крові.

5 Необхідно виявляти перший серцевий тон на поверхні шлуночків або клапанів.

6 При глибокому вдихові вдихаються 1,5 – 2 літри повітря.

Task 9 Get ready to deliver a lecture on Physiology of the nervous system. Touch upon such items in it as a) the structure of the brain; b) the functions of cortex; c) the importance of sleep for the human being; d) conditioned and unconditioned reflexes.


Task 10 Get ready to ask the lecturer 5 – 6 questions on the Physiology of the nervous system.



Task 1 Learn the following words and word combinations:

immunity – імунітет

Man has natural immunity to some diseases.

exhibit – виявляти, показувати

Certain individuals exposed to an infectious agent may fail to contract the disease or to exhibit as severe the case as others.

inherited – успадкований

Certain types of resistance are inherited by the individuals possessing them.

inborn resistance – вроджений опір

Various types of inborn, inherent resistance may be termed natural immunity.

miscellaneous – змішаний, різноманітний

Antigens may also come from animals, plants, foods, and miscellaneous materials.


Task 2 Form the new words adding the prefixes un- or non-. Translate the words.

Model: armed – unarmed – неозброєний

natural – unnatural – неприродний

infective – noninfective – неінфекційний

affected, altered, anesthetized, broken, complicated, conditioned, conscious, contaminated, cured, delivered, cooled, crystallized, infected, absorbed, immune.

Task 3 Analyze the structure of the following terms:

immunization, antiserum, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid, rickettsial, attenuation, fertile, disintegration, agglutinate, neutralize.


Task 4 Match the following English word combinations with the Ukrainian ones:

1 harmless toxoid a) рідкісний виняток

2 rare exception b) токсична дія

3 toxic effect c) активна імунізація

4 active immunization d) алергічна реакція

5 allergic reaction e) нешкідливий токсоїд


Task 5 Find substitutes for the following word combinations:

1 A specific substance produced in the organism as a reaction to the presence of an antigen.

2 Counteracting anemia.

3 Altered toxin.

4 Useful in curing or preventing the action of harmful bacteria.

5 Therapeutic application of low temperature.

a) toxoid; b) antibody; c) antibacterial; d) refrigeration; e) antianemic.


Task 6 Put in the missing words from those given below:

1 Some medical preparations are kept under ….

2 Vaccines are injected or ingested for the production of active….

3 Toxins may be … and made inert.

4 One molecule of … combines with one molecule of antibody.

5 Acquired immunity may come about through natural processes which may follow … to the infectious agent.

a) neutralized; b) antigen; c) exposure; d) immunity; e) refrigeration.


Task 7 Form new words by adding the prefixes. Define the part of speech and translate them:

a) dis: coloration, continue, like, appear;

b) un: natural, cured, cooled, conscious, treated;

c) over: use, strain, work, eating, dosage;

d) intra: venous, muscular, cellular, vascular/


Task 8 Skim through the text and define its main subject.

Man is susceptible to infection only by certain microorganisms present in the world and has a specific immunity to others that attack animals and other forms of life. Some races of men are less susceptible to certain specific infectious agents than others. For example, Caucasians exposed to tuberculosis for many centuries, are appreciably more resistant to the disease than Afro-Americans and American Indians. This is an example of partial racial immunity. In addition, certain individuals exposed to an infectious agent even in an epidemic or endemic, may fail to contract the disease or to exhibit as severe a case as others. Thus, there is an individual immunity to many diseases affecting man. These various types of inherent, inborn resistance may be termed natural immunity. They are inherited by the individuals possessing them. When natural immunity is present the tissues and circulating blood of the host or the intended host are not conductive to successful invasion by the infectious agent, or to the same degree as those of another host.

In addition to any natural resistance to specific diseases which individuals may possess, they may acquire partial or complete protection against certain infectious disease. Such acquired immunity may come about through natural processes which may follow exposure to the infectious agent, whether overt disease accompanies the exposure or not. As a result of the subclinical or overt disease, substances may be produced within the body that can repel or moderate a subsequent attempted invasion by the same organism. Some of these substances may remain upon or within the wall of certain cells, and others may circulate in the tissue fluids and plasma.

They can be demonstrated in the serum after clotting separation of the serum from the contracted clot. They are known as antibodies, materials which are usually highly specific against invading organisms or their products. Antibodies are proteins made by certain cells of the host in response to the presence of foreign substances known as antigens. The latter may be the invading agents of infectious disease or chemicals derived from them. Antigens may also come from animals, plants, foods, and miscellaneous materials.

The antibodies against infectious agents produced by some individuals or by animals may be concentrated and administered to patients for combatting an infection. The use of antibodies constitutes passive immunization wherein the protective material, specific for a given infectious agent or group of closely related agents, is produced in another individual or animal and given thus “ready-made” to the patient.

Antiserum. The protective antibodies explained above in most cases are present in the serum of the animal or person who has produced them. Animals are repeatedly given small or increasing amounts of the particular antigen or infectious agent whereupon they may develop considerable quantities of antibodies, usually antitoxins. Administration of these antibodies in antisera provides immediate passive immunity in various diseases. They may abruptly improve the course of the disease process. They may also cause undesirable reactions such as allergic responses, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reactions, and serum sickness. In most cases the antibodies administered in antisera do not reside indefinitely in the recipient, or even for a year in some.


1 Comprehesive Russian-English Medical Dictionary – Moscow: Russo, 2001. – 695 p.

2 Glendinning E. H., Howard R. Professional English in Use / Eric H. Glendinning, Ron Howard – Cambridge University Press, 2007. – 175 p.

3 Gurska A. I., Novosyadla Y. J. English for Advaced Medical Students / A. I. Gurska, Y. J. Novosyadla. – Lviv: Svit, 2003. – 250 p.

4 Hole J. W. Human Anatomy and Physiology / John W. Hole. – Boston: WCB/McGraw-Hill, 1990. – 950 p.

5 Maslova A. M, Weinstein Z. I. Essential English for Medical Students / A. M. Maslova, Z. I. Weinstein. – Moscow: List New, 2003. – 320 p.

6 Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. – AS Hornby Oxford University Press, 2002. – 1540 p.

7 Venkel’ T. V., Val’ O. D. Brush up Yours Every Day English / T. V. Venkel’, O. D. Val’ – Tchernivtsi: Books – XXI Century, 2003. – 295 p.

8 Zakharchuk I. English Health / Ivanna Zakharchuk. – Kyiv: Madicine, 2006. – 175 p.

Навчальне видання




для самостійної роботи

з дисципліни «Англійська мова»

для студентів спеціальності 7.110101 «Лікувальна справа»

денної форми навчання

(Англійською мовою)


Відповідальний за випуск Г. І. Литвиненко

Редактор М. В. Буката

Комп’ютерне верстання С. М. Кириченко


Підписано до друку 26.03.2012 р, поз.

Формат 60х84/16. Ум. друк. арк.. Обл.-вид. арк.. Тираж 40 пр. Зам. №

Собівартість видання грн к.


Видавець і виготовлювач

Сумський державний університет,

вул.. Римського-Корсакова, 2, м. Суми, 40007

Свідоцтво суб’єкта видавничої справи ДК № 3062 від 17. 12. 2007.


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