Atherosclerosis and Its Treatment



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Atherosclerosis and Its Treatment



Atherosclerosis is one of the diseases of the cardiovascular system which is due to many causes. There is a number of factors which may determine its development.

Atherosclerosis of the blood vessels results from metabolic disturbances and particularly from disturbances of cholesterol exchange. These disturbances begin long before there is any external evidence of the disease. Therefore the doctor must prevent its appearance beginning preventive measures and treatment as early as possible.

Prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis consist mainly of a certain regimen for the patient, which he must strictly follow. The patient must get up, eat, work, and go to bed at exactly the same time every day.

Sound sleep is very important since it enables the nerve cells to rest. The patient with the signs of atherosclerosis must sleep not less than 7 – 8 hours and walk before going to bed. Mental and physical overstrain must be excluded.

The incidence of atherosclerosis is high in professional groups with insufficient physical activities. So, physical exercises must be part of the prescribed regimen for such persons.

Smoking affects unfavorably the walls of the blood vessels and can result in their spasm that is why patients suffering from atherosclerosis must not smoke.

The diet of the patients with atherosclerosis must contain sufficient amount of proteins, but fats and carbohydrates must be taken in very limited doses.

Vitamins are widely used in the treatment of atherosclerosis because some of them improve the metabolic processes and others dilate the vessels, particularly the peripheral ones.

Other drugs administered in treating atherosclerosis are the so-called lipotropic substances, which prevent fat from accumulating in the organism.

Since the nervous system affects the metabolic processes in the human body the patients with atherosclerosis are prescribed such drugs as bromide and valerian to improve its general condition.

 

Task 7 Speak about the course of treatment of the patient with atherosclerosis.

 

DISEASES OF THE ALIMENTARY TRACT

Home Assignments 1

Task 1 Complex Subject.

a) Read the following sentences and compare their translation:

He is said to live here. – Кажуть, що він тут мешкає.

The patient is thought to suffer from pneumonia. – Вважають, що хворий страждає на пневмонію.

Leucocytosis is known to develop in inflammation. – Відомо, що лейкоцитоз виникає при запаленні.

 

b) Read the following sentences and pay attention to the voice of the predicate:

They seem to study Biochemistry. – Здається, вони вивчають біохімію.

He appears to suffer from tuberculosis. – Виявляється, він страждає на туберкульоз.

The pain proved to be sharp on physical exertion. – Доведено, що біль був гострим при фізичному навантаженні.

 

c) Read and translate the following sentences:

He is supposed to discharge the patient from the hospital.

He is supposed to have discharged the patient from the hospital.

He is supposed to be discharged from the hospital.

He is supposed to have been discharged from the hospital.

 

Task 2 Find the Complex Subject and translate the sentences:

1 On physical exertion the liver was considered to be enlarged.

2 The damage to the blood supply was supposed to have been present before the operation.

3 Both mental and physical overstrain have been eliminated to affect the normal function of the heart in the most unfavorable way.

 

Task 3 Remember the reading of the following terms, match them with their meaning:

ulcer, neurogenous, spastic, trophic, erosion, remission, pathogenesis

спазматичний (судомний), трофічний, ерозія, виразка, патогенез, неврогенний, ослаблення хвороби, послаблення хворобливих ознак.

 

Task 4 Learn the following words:

influence – вплив

majority – більшість

contribute – сприяти

nausea – нудота

perforate (into, through) – проникати

perforated ulcer – перфорована виразка

intermittent – переривчастий

rare– рідкий, розріджений

Task 5 Translate the following word combinations and find the sentences with them in the text:

in the majority of cases; contribute to the onset of ulcer; perforating ulcer; vomiting and haemorrhage; under the influence; followed by erosion; intermittent in occurrence; with remission.

 

Task 6 Read the text. Find the sentences with Complex Subject. Write down the equivalents of the following word combinations:

у поєднанні з, у більшості випадків, у ранньому віці, під впливом зовнішніх та внутрішніх подразників, сприяти початку появи виразки, жодних характерних клінічних проявів.

Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers

The famous scientists N. Burdenko, L. Koreisha, A. Speransky and B. Mogilnitsky proved the existence of an association between a lesion of the central and peripheral nervous systems and the development of ulcer.

The neurogenous theory of the pathogenesis of ulcer was developed further into the corticovisceral theory by K. Bykov and I. Kusisin. According to this theory gastric and duodenal ulcers were found to result from disturbances in the central nervous system, i.e. the brain cortex.

The brain cortex under the influence of external and internal stimuli sends impulses to the stomach and the duodenum, which cause a spastic contraction of vessels. Such a spastic contraction results in local trophic disturbances followed by erosion of the affected area by the gastric juice.

In the majority of cases ulcer is observed to develop in particularly nervous persons, often after emotional overstrain. But an irregular diet in combination with an emotional overstrain is often observed to contribute to the onset of ulcer development.

Gastric and duodenal ulcers are found to develop more frequently in men than in women, mainly at ages of 25 to 40 years. This disease is characterized by pains, hemorrhages, nausea, vomiting, etc. At the onset of the disease pain is usually dull in character. In gastric ulcers pain is found to grow worse after meals. Acute pain in the stomach is known to occur periodically and be intermittent in occurrence.

The course of ulcer has proved to vary with age and sex, location of ulcers, etc. At a young age its course has no characteristic clinical manifestations. In old persons the incidence of ulcers is known to be rare. But they are often complicated by considerable hemorrhage resulting from sclerotic changes in the stomach.

Ulcers are known to have a chronic, cyclic course, with remissions from 6 to 12 months. Exacerbation (загострення) of ulcers, particularly that of duodenal ulcers, has been found to occur in spring and autumn.

 

Task 7 Do you know that:

The movement of food in the intestines of a healthy person may last from 12 to 72 hours.

Milk products contain about 100 substances useful for men.

Salt consists of two poisons, which are combined chemically in such a way that we can eat it.

The amount of gastric juice secreted in the stomach within 24 hours is 1.5 – 2 litres.

 

Home Assignments 2

Task 1 Read and translate the following terms:

cancer, carcinoma, aetiology, tumour, epigastric, anaemia.

 

Task 2 Learn the following terms:

malignant – злоякісний

hot– гарячий

suggest– пропонувати

support – підтримувати

hereditary – спадковий

node– вузол

digestion– травлення

bleeding– кровотеча

remain– залишатися

empty– порожній

 

Task 3 Group the terms due to a) name of the disease; b) name of pathologic symptom:

angina pectoris, perspiration, murmur, intermittent fever, benign and malignant tumours, occlusion, dullness, crepitation, fatigue, ulcer, hemorrhage, epigastric pain, carcinoma, loss of appetite and weight, pleuricy, anaemia, fibrillation, vomiting, nausea.

 

Task 4 Write the terms with close meaning:

1) disturbance; 2) to radiate; 3) to result in; 4) a damage; 5) continuous; 6) influence; 7) fever; 8) constant; 9) mild; 10) acute; 11) internal; 12) adequate; 13) onset; 14) to diminish; 15) ache; 16) to rise; 17) to involve; 18) carcinoma; 19) to nourish; 20) state; 21) bleeding; 22) to extend.

 

Task 5 Write the terms with opposite meaning:

1) gradually; 2) to increase; 3) to diminish; 4) mild; 5) internal; 6) to be due to; 7) to follow; 8) onset; 9) base; 10) to accomplish; 11) to be admitted; 12) adult; 13) to decrease; 14) to disappear; 15) to divide; 16) dry; 17) exertion; 18) to rise; 19) to improve; 20) physical; 21) cold; 22) benign; 23) to leave; 24) to doubt.

 

Task 6 Find the sentences with Complex Object and with Complex Subject. Translate them:

1 Academician A.N. Bakulev is considered to be the founder of a new branch of surgery – cardiosurgery.

2 The cardiologist expected the patient to undergo the heart operation if the therapeutic measures proved to be ineffective.

3 Hypothermia is known to be employed in cardiosurgery to enable the surgeon to correct small congenital or developed heart defects.

4 The evidence of gastric ulcer seemed to be confirmed by nausea and vomiting, though such a sign as intermittent fever was not characteristic of the disease.

5 The physician observed the patient’s appetite have been gradually improving since the administration of the adequate preparation.

 

Task 7 Translate the following sentences using Complex Subject. Do it in writing.

1 Здається, метастази у печінці хворого є наслідком раку шлунка.

2 У нього було виявлено виразку шлунку.

3 Як виявилося, хворий був надто слабим для такої операції.

 

Task 8 Read the text. Find the sentences with Complex Subject and translate them. Give the main idea of the sixth paragraph in one sentence. Put up five questions to the second paragraph of the text.

Cancer of the Stomach

Gastric carcinoma is a frequent form of cancer causing about 35 – 40% of all deaths from malignant tumors.

The disease is more common in men than in women. The highest incidence is noted at ages of 50 to 60. Gastric carcinoma is known to have a more malignant course in young persons than in old age. The duration of gastric cancer from the appearance of its first manifestations to death is not longer than 1 – 2 years.

The aetiology of cancer is unknown. But such pathologic conditions as benign tumors, ulcer of the stomach, gastritis and stomach polyps have been determined to contribute considerably to its development.

According to certain data the use of too hot or too cold food, smoking and alcohol are considered to be responsible for the development of stomach carcinoma.

In the past few years a virus theory of cancer has been suggested. Though this theory is supported by many it has not yet been proved. For a long time many scientists have been discussing the importance of hereditary factors in the development of cancer. The hereditary theory has not been confirmed either.

The clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma vary with the stage of its development, location and spread through the lymphatic nodes and other inner organs. The main symptoms of gastric carcinoma are known to be disturbance in gastric digestion, epigastric pains, loss of weight and sometimes vomiting of blood. A prolonged, usually external, profuse bleeding results in severe anaemia. The appetite is usually reduced.

 

Home Assignments 3

 

Task 1 Give the terms for the following definitions:

1) the decrease of the red blood cell count;

2) a physician who treats the heart diseases;

3) the causes that produce the development of a certain disease;

4) the mechanism of the development of a disease;

5) the inflammation of the internal serous coat of the abdominal cavity;

6) artificial cooling of the body;

7) the state of the organism when a person is neither well nor ill; 8) irregular contractions of atria and ventricles;

9) an increase of the white blood cell count.

 

Task 2 Choose the right answer:

1 What appetite has the patient suffering from gastric carcinoma? – a) It is increased. b) It is reduced.

2 What do the clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma vary with? – a) They vary with the stage of the development of the disease. b) They vary with the age and sex of the patient.

3 At what age is the highest incidence of gastric carcinoma observed? – a) It is observed at the age from twenty to thirty. b) It is observed at the age from fifty to sixty.

 

Task 3 Change the sentences using Participle Construction instead of the subordinate clause:

1 After the patient had suffered profuse external bleeding he developed severe anaemia.

2 While the surgeon was performing the operation he revealed the ulcer on the anterior wall of the stomach.

3 The dullness which was revealed on percussion was associated with the pathologic changes in the left lung.

 

Task 4 Translate the text. Retell it:

Intestinal Tumors

Many forms of tumors are known to occur in the intestines, but we shall limit our attention to the commonest, which is cancer. It generally leads to chronic intestinal obstruction and its accompanying symptoms. In addition there are usual symptoms of cancerous invasion – loss of weight and strength, progressive anaemia and pain of varying degree depending on the part affected. Any portion of the intestines is likely to be affected by carcinoma, but the usual areas are the upper part of the colon, the sigmoid and the rectum. In the latter situation the obstruction may be felt on rectal examination. In cancer of the colon and sigmoid a tumor is usually well palpable, the esophagus above the tumor is often thickened and spastic and peristaltic waves may be seen passing in the direction of the obstruction.

Home Assignments 4

Task 1 Find Absolute Participle Construction. Translate the sentences:

1 The abdominal incision having been made and the stomach opened, the ulcer was found to involve the posterior wall of the stomach.

2 There being profuse external haemorrhage, the patient was immediately taken to the hospital.

3 The digestion being considerably impaired, the patient constantly complained of epigastric pains.

 

Task 2 Say what is omitted in Absolute Participle Constructions. Translate the sentences:

1 The patient’s condition better, he was allowed to sit up.

2 The procedure over, the nurse left the ward.

3 The surgeon out, I could not talk to him.

4 The retention of stool noted, the patient was administered a light diet.

 

Task 3 Determine the form of Participle in Absolute Participle Construction and the tense form of the predicate. Translate the sentences:

1 The patient being admitted to the hospital, the doctor on duty examined him in the reception ward.

2 The female having been hospitalized, the generalized abdominal pain was controlled in three hours.

3 Generalized abdominal pain having increased, the doctor asked the nurse to give the patient another injection.

Task 4 Find Absolute Participle Construction. Determine the word used as a subject in it:

1 The majority of the patients with hepatitis were between the ages of 41 and 55 years, the highest incidence of the disease being between 46 and 50 years.

2 On the total number of the patients forty-eight have been relieved of digestive symptoms, four having died of other pathologic conditions.

3 Three patients have had symptoms of recurrence, one having died of a gastro-intestinal bleeding.

 

Task 5 Remember the reading of the following terms. Match them with their meaning:

hepatitis, viral, infective;

інфекційний, гепатит, вірусний.

 

Task 6 Learn the following words:

hepatic– печінковий

bile – жовч

duct– протока

jaundice– жовтяниця

advance– просувати(ся)

effort– зусилля

elderly– похилий

survive – виживати

source – джерело

entire – цілий

subsequent– наступний

simultaneous – одночасний

 

Task 7 Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

1 Jaundice: severe jaundice, to suffer from severe jaundice, jaundice was clearly marked

2 Survive: to survive an injury, the patient survived the operation well, some viruses survive at a high temperature

3 Source: a source of infection, a source of knowledge, the source of virus is a sick person

4 Inadequately: inadequate, the patient was given an inadequate dose of medicine, inadequately treated

5 Subsequently: subsequent, subsequent examination, to invade other organs subsequently.

6 Simultaneously: simultaneous, simultaneous impairment, to be impaired simultaneously.

 

Task 8 Read the text. Find the sentences with a) Absolute Participle construction; b) Participle construction; c) construction “it is … that”. Translate the text.

Botkin’s Disease

Botkin’s disease, or the so-called epidemic or infectious hepatitis, is an acute viral disease affecting hepatic cells and bile ducts.

The prominent German scientist Virchow believing it to be due to obstruction of the common bile duct with mucus during inflammatory processes in the duodenum, the disease was called catarrhal jaundice.

But in 1880 the prominent Russian scientist S. Botkin having advanced the idea of an infectious origin of this disease, proved his suggestions by such facts as the involvement in this pathologic process not only of the liver but also of the nervous system, the kidneys, the enlargement of the spleen, etc.

But it was not before 1940 that the term “Botkin’s disease” was introduced into medicine due to the efforts of the well-known physician M. Konchalovsky.

Botkin’s disease occurs in epidemic form. This disease more commonly affects children, adults as well as elderly persons suffering from it frequently too.

Botkin’s disease is known to be due to a filterable virus present in the blood, liver and found in stool and urine. The virus is infective only for man. As this virus cannot be seen under a usual microscope, it is revealed only by an electronic one. Being highly virulent the virus survives in water, food, and on hands for days and weeks.

 

Home Assignments 5

Task 1 Write down five word combinations with the term “blood” and five word combinations with the term “heart”.

 

Task 2Substitute the words in bold type by the terms of close meaning:

1 In our country prophylactic vaccination is carried out against a number of infectious diseases (preventive, supportive).

2 Before making a blood transfusion the blood group is to be determined (to be obtained, to be established).

3 Jaundice may result from the impairment of the common bile duct (to be due to, to result in).

4 The pain was stated to radiate to the left arm and shoulder (to spread to, to lead to).

5 The temperature was known to have risen suddenly at the onset of the attack (to have decreased, to have elevated).

6 The incidence of this disease variesin different age groups (changes, exchanges).

 

Task 3 Make up a sentence of two parts with the corresponding tense form of the predicate:

1 The infection will not appear. (if) The instruments … adequately (to remove, to sterilize, to eliminate).

2 Certain viruses will be destroyed. (as soon as) The temperature of the substance … to 100 0C (to elevate, to exclude, to support).

3 Bile will enter the lymph flow. (after) The degeneration of the hepatic cells and damage to the bile ducts … (to diminish, to support, to occur).

 

Task 4 Translate the following sentences using Absolute Participle Construction (in writing):

1 Оскільки був перший тиждень гепатиту, то інфекція була особливо заразною.

2 Коли була проведена термінова операція з приводу гангренозного апендициту, у пацієнта зникли всі симптоми хвороби.

3 Коли надмірну шлункову кровотечу було зупинено, зникла загроза життю хворого.

 

Task 5 Memorize the following terms. Match them with the corresponding Ukrainian equivalents:

cholecystitis, intrahepatic, extrahepatic, hypochondrium, umbilical, peritoneum, chemotherapy;

черевина, холецистит, запалення жовчного міхура, хіміотерапія, внутрішньопечінковий, пупковий, підреберна область, позапечінковий, лікувальна терапія.

 

Task 6 Learn the following words:

constipation – запор

irritation– подразнення

approximately – приблизно

emergency – невідкладність, терміновість

 

Task 7 Read the text. Find the sentences a) with Absolute Participle Construction; b) with Complex Subject and translate them. Write down the terms with the suffixes ‘-ity’, ‘-ize’, ‘-ness’, ‘-ency’. Name all the symptoms of acute cholecystitis. Find the English equivalents of the following word combinations:

сильний біль, біль підсилюється, у повноцінно здорових людей, важкий перебіг хвороби, надзвичайна небезпека для життя.

Acute Cholecystitis

Among inflammatory diseases of bile ducts the most frequent is cholecystitis or the inflammation of the gallbladder. Cholecystitis is known to occur rarely in isolated condition, inflammatory processes both in the intrahepatic and extrahepatic ducts, sometimes with the involvement of the liver being associated with it. The main forms of cholecystitis are the following: catarrhal, purulent and gangrenous.

The patient with cholecystitis is known to complain of intense pain, it being localized in the right hypochondrium and in the umbilical area. An attack of pain is usually preceded by physical and mental overstrain, sharp physical movements or abnormalities in diet, fatty food and alcohol being responsible for the onset of pain. But sometimes pain is observed to appear suddenly in quite healthy persons. Pain may radiate to the right shoulder, right arm, sternum, and lumbar area, its intensity depending on the form of cholecystitis and the patient’s sensitivity. The pain grows much worse when the patient is lying on his right side.

Dryness in the mouth, vomiting, nausea, and constipation are the characteristic clinical manifestations of the disease.

During the attack of pain the face is moist with cold perspiration, the skin is pale, the tongue and lips are dry. Even a slight palpation reveals severe tenderness, it being due to irritation of the peritoneum. Approximately in 40 – 50% of cases there is slight jaundice of sclerae. The biochemical blood analysis is known to reveal some changes, they resulting from the effect of toxic substances in the liver.

Purulent form of cholecystitis is highly dangerous to life and requires an emergency operation. And even more severe course is observed in gangrenous cholecystitis. Recovery is achieved by surgical treatment, it being followed by prolonged antibiotic therapy and chemotherapy.

 

Home Assignments 6

Task 1 Form the verbs using the suffixes and translate them:

-ize: general, local, sterile, character;

-en: thick, wide, deep, strength.

 

Task 2 Define the conjunction that is omitted. Translate the sentences:

1 When the urinalysis was ready the physician received all the findings he had insisted on.

2 The surgeon considered the appendix had to be removed immediately because its rupture might cause peritonitis.

3 Almost everything the physician had determined by physical methods of examination was confirmed by laboratory findings.

4 In all the patients except the one the cardiologist has not yet examined the diagnosis of cardiac insufficiency was made.

 

Task 3 Choose the proper form of the participle in Absolute Participle Construction:

1 The abdominal pain … by nausea and vomiting of 20 hours’ duration, the patient was hospitalized for an emergency surgery.

a) accompanied; b) being accompanied;

c) having accompanied; d) having been accompanied.

2 There … permanent dryness in the mouth, nausea, and constipation, the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis may be suggested.

a) being; b) been; c) having been.

3 The severity of jaundice …, a considerably elevated amount of bilirubin was found in the blood on the following analysis.

a) increasing; b) being increased; c) having increased;

d) having been increased.

 

4 The postoperative course was smooth for a week, no recurrence of bleeding … .

a) observed; b) being observed; c) having observed;

d) having been observed

 

Task 4 Translate the following sentences into English using the Absolute Participle Construction:

1 Коли лікар пальпував печінку, болісність відмічалася на три пальці нижче реберного краю.

2 Іноді жовчнокамяна хвороба супроводжується ускладненнями, при цьому поява холіциститу є найчастішою.

 

Task 5 Read the text. Say what diseases are typically accompanied by jaundice. Write the English equivalents of the following word combinations:

стають жовтуватими, сильний свербіж, важкий випадок, типове ускладнення.

Jaundice

Jaundice is a symptom common to many disturbances and diseases of the liver, such as obstruction of the bile ducts, cancer, etc. In jaundice the skin and the sclerae take on a yellowish color which may vary in its intensity. Even the serum of the blood is bile colored. Jaundice is frequently accompanied by severe itching. The pulse is usually slow, and there is a tendency to haemorrhage. In advanced cases nervous symptoms may develop. Jaundice being caused by obstruction, the bile cannot pass to the intestines and the stools are of a white color. The urine is deeply colored. In toxic jaundice the stools may be of normal color or deeply colored.

Infectious jaundice in adults has been found to be due to a virus. It is characterized by fever, vomiting, jaundice and haemorrhage from the nose, intestines, etc. Jaundice is not a rare complication in case of severe intoxication.

Task 6 Get ready to speak about infectious hepatitis.

 

 



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