Sechenov and His Works on the Blood Gases

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Sechenov and His Works on the Blood Gases

I. M. Sechenov was a prominent Russian scientist, the founder of Russian physiology and scientific psychology.

The range of Sechenov’s scientific interests and the number of his research works are really great. 106 scientific works were written by him. In these works he included the findings which he had observed and determined before.

Some of his research works were connected with the investigation of the blood gases and their role in the respiratory process.

I. M. Sechenov isolated the blood gases and found out that most of the blood gases were combined with erythrocytes. No physiologist had been able to do it before Sechenov. On the basis of his observations I. M. Sechenov came to the conclusion that hemoglobin was that substance of the blood which accomplished the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the respiratory process. Physiologists of many countries who had worked on this problem before Sechenov could not estimate the role of hemoglobin in the act of respiration. So the accomplishment of the respiratory process is due to hemoglobin.

I. M. Sechenov investigated the process of absorption of carbon dioxide by the solutions of salts. When he had completed his investigations, he proved that only 2/3 of carbon dioxide were dissolved in plasma. The rest of carbon dioxide was combined with red blood cells. The transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs was due to the law of diffusion of gas from fluid into the air. When Sechenov had investigated this phenomenon, he was able to answer the question why oxygen passed into the blood from atmospheric gases during the act of respiration.

Home Assignments 2


Task 1 Read the sentence and answer the questions:

The man you see in the classroom teaches us Physiology.

1 Знайдіть підмет та присудок у реченні.

2 Скільки в ньому речень?

3 Яка залежність між цими реченнями?

4 Чого не вжито між цими реченнями?

5 Перекладіть речення.

Task 2 Read and compare the following sentences:

1 I know my friend is not ill.

2 My friend you know well is not ill.

1 Визначте типи підрядних речень в 1) та 2) та яким чином вони узгоджуються з головним реченням.

2 Як перекладаються такi речення українською мовою?


Task 3 Determine the types of subordinate clauses and translate them:

1 We know well Servet was the first anatomist to describe the pulmonary circulation in the first half of the 16th century (1536-1538).

2 The phenomenon of the transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs Sechenov investigated is due to the law of diffusion of gas from the fluid into the air.

3 The vital capacity of the lungs many physiologists have studied changes in some cardiac and pulmonary diseases.

4 The great English anatomist W. Harvey found out that the heart changed its color during the contractions.


Task 4 Learn the following words and word combinations:

associate– з’єднувати(ся); тісно пов’язаний

passage– прохід

breathe – дихати

flow – течія, стікання; текти, литися

decrease – зменшуватися

depth– глибина

fat – товстий, гладкий

amount – кількість


Task 5 Translate the words with the same root:

associate, associated, associative, association; particular, particularly, particularity; change, changed, changing, changeable, exchange; connection, connective, connected; deep, deeply, depth

Task 6 Fill in the blanks with the suitable words. Put the verbs in the proper tense (in writing):

1 On physical exertion the patient’s … became deep.

2 When the temperature is high a patient usually … deeply.

3 When one … the lungs dilate.

4 When one … the lungs contract.

breathe, breathe out, breath, breathe in


Task 7 Read the text. Find Indefinite personal sentences and translate them. Find Present Participle and state its function in the sentence. Put up 5 questions to the text. Give the English equivalents of the following word combinations:

має особливе значення для, який відбувається у легенях, брати участь у відпрацюванні.

The Physiology of the Lungs

The physiology of the lungs is associated with their structure. There are over 700,000,000 alveoli in the lungs. The total surface of the alveoli is about 90 sq. m (square metres). The lungs have many capillaries with the total surface of about 80 sq. m. This particular structure of the lungs enables the exchange of gases between the alveolar air and the blood.

Elastic fibers of connective tissue composing the walls of the alveoli, alveolar passages and the visceral pleura enable the lungs to dilate. When one breathes normally not all the alveoli and capillaries of the lungs are opened. When respiration becomes deep, the number of the opened alveoli and capillaries increase. The flow of blood into the lungs increases when one breathes in and it decreases when one breathes out.

The regulation of the vital capacity of the lungs is of particular importance to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide taking place in the lungs. It is considered that in the adult the vital capacity may be 6 litres and even more.

The lungs take part in the production of physiologically active substances, in the regulation of blood coagulation, in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.



Home Assignments 1

Task 1 Study the following grammar items:

Perfect Continuous Tenses


to have been + Ving


Ex: I have been examining the patient for half an hour. – Я

оглядаю цього хворого вже півгодини.

I had been examining the patient for half an hour when you came. – Я вже півгодини як оглядав хворого, коли ви прийшли.


Task 2 Find the predicates and explain the way they are formed.

Translate the sentences:

1 The patient has been making a slow recovery for a month.

2 We shall have been investigating this case for three weeks by the end of the year.

3 The patient had been coughing for a month by the time he was admitted to the hospital.


Task 3 Rewrite the pairs of sentences, underline the predicates and define the difference between them. Translate the sentences:

А 1 I am waiting for the findings of my blood analysis.

2 I have been waiting for the findings of my blood analysis for

an hour.

В 1 Dry răles are disappearing slowly.

2 Dry răles have been disappearing during this week.

C 1 The nurse is giving the injections.

2 The nurse has been giving the injections for two hours.


Task 4 Write down the questions to the words in bold type:

1 My mother has been suffering from a bad pain in the substernal area for three hours.

2 The patient had been complaining of a considerable muscular pain before he was admitted to the hospital.

3 By three o’clock the professor will have been delivering the lecture for half an hour.


Task 5 Remember the reading of the words given below. Find the corresponding terms:

lobular, focus, foci, cyanosis, bronchiole, crepitation, diffuse, differentiate, pleurisy.


Task 6 Learn the following terms:

gradually– поступово

improve– покращуватися

accompany– супроводжувати

occlusion– закупорка

purulent– гнійний

sputum – мокротиння

accelerate – прискорювати(ся)

reduce – знижувати, послабляти

dullness– приглушення

spleen – селезінка

enlarge – збільшувати(ся), розростатися

sign– ознака, симптом

intensity– напруженість, сила, щільність

shadow– тінь, затемняти

severe– різкий, сильний

unit – одиниця виміру, відділення


Task 7 Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

1 Оcclusion: the occlusion of the artery, the occlusion of the small intestine, to reveal the intestine occlusion.

2 Sputum: purulent sputum, thick sputum, the analysis of the sputum failed to reveal cellular elements.

3 Sign: abnormal signs, the signs of the disease, these signs indicated the presence of inflammation.

4 Severe: a severe form of the disease, a severe inflammation, to suffer from a severe cardiovascular disease, to suffer a severe form of the grippe.


Task 8 Translate the words with the same root:

appear, appearing, appeared, disappear, disappearance; reduce, reduced, reducing, reduction; large, enlarge, enlarged, enlarging, enlargement; improve, improving, improved, improvement; intensity, intensive, intensively, intensify.


Task 9 Choose the right ending to complete the sentence:

1 The spleen is the organ …

a) located in the left side of the abdominal cavity behind the stomach;

b) located in the right side of the thoracic cavity behind the lung.

2 Purulent sputum …

a) never contains any microorganisms;

b) always contains some microorganisms.

3 The patient with severe form of pneumonia …

a) was allowed to attend the treatment at the polyclinic;

b) was admitted to the in-patient therapeutic department of the hospital.


Task 10 Read the text. Find the sentences with Perfect Continuous tense and translate them. Make up the plan of the text. Get ready to answer the questions to the text. Give corresponding equivalents to the following terms:

у межах, при глибокому вдиханні, потрапити до лікарні, по всій легені, важка форма пневмонії

Lobular Pneumonia

Patient Ivanenko, aged 48, was admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of lobular pneumonia. He had been developing lobular pneumonia gradually. A week before the admission to the hospital he had bronchitis after which his condition did not improve.

Fever had an irregular course and the temperature changes were caused by the appearance of the new foci of inflammation in the pulmonary tissue. Fever had been persisting for two weeks and had been decreasing gradually.

The patient’s breathing was rapid with 30 – 40 respirations per minute. There was breathlessness and cyanosis of the face associated with the accompanying bronchitis, decrease in the respiratory surface and occlusion of numerous bronchioles and alveoli.

The patient complained of the pain in the chest, particularly on deep breathing in, and cough with purulent sputum. The pulse rate was accelerated and arterial pressure was reduced.

On physical examination dullness in the left lung, abnormal respiration, numerous răles and crepitation were revealed. Dry răles caused by diffuse bronchitis were heard all over the lungs. The liver and spleen were not enlarged. The examination of the organs of the alimentary tract failed to reveal any abnormal signs but the tongue was coated.

The blood analysis revealed leucocytosis in the range of 12,000 to 15,000 per cu mm of blood and an accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).

The urine contained a small amount of protein and erythrocytes. The X-ray examination of the lungs revealed numerous foci of inflammation of various size, irregular form and different intensity. Shadowing was particularly marked at the root of the left lung due to the enlargement of the lymphatic gland.

It was a severe form of lobular pneumonia which was difficult to differentiate from pulmonary tuberculosis and pleurisy. Yet the physician made a correct diagnosis.

Home Assignments 2

Task 1 Translate the following sentences in writing:

1 Саме зараз кардіолог обстежує цього хворого.

2 Кардіолог обстежує хворого вже півгодини.

3 Наразі мій брат у стаціонарі.

4 Мій брат уже місяць як у стаціонарі.

5 Коли медсестра увійшла до палати, хворий спав.

6 Вчора хворий добре спав протягом декількох годин після того, як прийняв ліки.


Task 2 Find in which sentences the word “for” has the meaning a)задля”, “протягом”, “тому, що”; b) the word “since” has the meaning “з”, “тому, що”, “з того часу, як”:

а) 1 The patient stated that he had been suffering from a bad cough with purulent sputum for about a month.

2 The patient was administered a diet for the physical examination of the liver had revealed its considerable enlargement.

3 The change of the patient’s body temperature to abnormal was quite unexpected for the physician.

b) 1 Poorly developed bones and teeth, slow growth and even the general impairment of health occurred in some children since their food contained little phosphorus.

2 I have been waiting for the nurse since 8 o’clock.

Task 3 Define what part of speech the following terms are. Translate the terms:

dullness, enlargement, intensity, improvement, clearly, moisture, poisonous, smoothly, thinnish, useless, preventive, severely, indication


Task 4 Learn the following words and word combinations:

affect– вражати (хворобою)

causative agent – збудник

stage – ступінь

malaise – нездужання

fatigue – втома

loss – втрата

pus – гній

involve – вплутувати, втягати

profuse – рясний, багатий, щедрий

permanent – постійний, беззмінний

benign – доброякісний

elevation – підняття

perspiration – піт, потіння, випоти

evidence – доказ, свідчення, очевидність, ознака

Task 5 Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

1 Malaise: general malaise, to complain of a general malaise, a general malaise is one of the symptoms of tuberculosis.

2 Fatigue: a considerable fatigue, a marked fatigue, to suffer from a slight fatigue.

3 Pus: thick pus, the discharge containing much pus, much pus was found in the sputum.

4 Benign: a benign disease, a benign tumor was revealed in the lungs, benign growth of the kidney.


Task 6 Read the text. Write down the symptoms typical for tuberculosis. Translate the paragraph in which the body temperature at tuberculosis is described. Put up 10 questions to the text.

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