THE PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION



ЗБІРНИК ВПРАВ ТА ЗАВДАНЬ

для самостійної роботи

з дисципліни “Англійська мова”

для студентів спеціальності 7.110101 “Лікувальна справа”

денної форми навчання

 

 

Суми

Сумський державний університет

Збірник вправ та завдань для самостійної роботи з дисципліни “Англійська мова” / укладачі: І. М. Терлецька, Н. Г. Горобченко. – Суми : Сумський державний університет, 2012. – 63 с.

 

Кафедра іноземних мов

 

CONTENTS

1 The Physiology of Respiration. 4

2 Diseases of the Respiratory Tract 9

3 Diseases of the Cardiovascular System.. 19

4 Diseases of the Alimentary Tract 31

5 Physiology of the Nervous System.. 46

6 Immune System.. 58

References. 62

 

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION

Home Assignments 1

Task 1 Read the following words:

a) few, news, tissue, newspaper, hue, dew, stew, flew, grew, Tuesday, drew, true, clue, due;

b) June, revolution, solution, conclusion, truly, truth, delusion, delude, juice.

 

Task 2 Read and translate the following words:

a) Ukrainian, Indian, Siberian;

b) musician, politician, academician;

c) discontinue, disorganize, discover, discovery, disconnect, disconnection;

d) absorption, become, complete, conclusion, exchange, perform, explain, prevent, decrease, depend, amount.

 

Task 3 Memorize the following terms:

psychology, process, absorption, diffusion, phenomenon, phenomena.

 

Task 4 Learn the following words and word combinations:

observe– спостерігати; вивчати, слідкувати, стежити

investigate – досліджувати

isolate– відділяти

combine – об’єднувати

able– здатний

conclusion – висновок

draw a conclusion – робити висновки

accomplish – виконувати, закінчувати

exchange – обмін; обмінюватися

due – обумовлений

due to – завдяки

solution – розчин

salt– сіль

prove – доводити

transfer– передавати

enable – надавати можливість

 

Task 5 Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

1 Prove: to prove facts, to prove to smb that, he proved that he was right, he was able to prove that.

2 Conclusion: a right conclusion, in conclusion, to come to the conclusion that …, to draw a conclusion.

3 Accomplish: accomplishment, to accomplish the observation, the accomplishment of the respiratory process.

4 Due to: due to his illness, due to a high temperature, in due time, his bad condition was due to a high blood pressure.

5 Investigate: investigation, to accomplish the investigation, the investigation of the blood cells.

 

Task 6 Translate the following sentences, define the tense forms of the predicates:

1 The patient had restored his health by the end of September.

2 He had slept well before the surgeon came.

3 The male patient had had the grippe before he was admitted to the clinic.

4 The doctor had observed an unusual case of a mitral valve disease before he reported on it at the conference.

 

Task 7 Read the sentences paying attention to the translation of the object clauses. Compare the tense forms of the predicate in the main clause and subordinate clause:

he livedin Kyiv. мешкає у Києві.

He said he had lived in Kyiv. Він казав, що мешкав у Києві.

(that) he would live in Kyiv. мешкатиме у Києві.

 

Task 8 Choose the sentences in which the actions in the main and subordinate clauses take place simultaneously. Translate these sentences:

1 The scientists determined that the rate of heartbeat increased because of different emotions.

2 The doctor said that he had examined the patient a day before.

3 The surgeon considered that the operation would be successful.

4 It was estimated that blood was a fluid tissue.

 

Task 9 Form the nouns from the verbs using the suffixes a) -ion

(-ation), b) -ment and translate the nouns in writing:

a) investigate, observe, combine, complete, isolate, found, conclude

b) accomplish, achieve, measure, establish, state, appoint

 

Task 10 Learn the following word combinations:

to be due to, to come to the conclusion, to prove to, in conclusion, due to, to report on smth, on the basis of smth, to work on the problem.

 

Task 11 Read the text. Find the international words and translate the sentences with them. Find the sentences in the Past Perfect Active and translate them. Say what you have learned from the fourth and fifth paragraphs.

Sechenov and His Works on the Blood Gases

I. M. Sechenov was a prominent Russian scientist, the founder of Russian physiology and scientific psychology.

The range of Sechenov’s scientific interests and the number of his research works are really great. 106 scientific works were written by him. In these works he included the findings which he had observed and determined before.

Some of his research works were connected with the investigation of the blood gases and their role in the respiratory process.

I. M. Sechenov isolated the blood gases and found out that most of the blood gases were combined with erythrocytes. No physiologist had been able to do it before Sechenov. On the basis of his observations I. M. Sechenov came to the conclusion that hemoglobin was that substance of the blood which accomplished the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the respiratory process. Physiologists of many countries who had worked on this problem before Sechenov could not estimate the role of hemoglobin in the act of respiration. So the accomplishment of the respiratory process is due to hemoglobin.

I. M. Sechenov investigated the process of absorption of carbon dioxide by the solutions of salts. When he had completed his investigations, he proved that only 2/3 of carbon dioxide were dissolved in plasma. The rest of carbon dioxide was combined with red blood cells. The transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs was due to the law of diffusion of gas from fluid into the air. When Sechenov had investigated this phenomenon, he was able to answer the question why oxygen passed into the blood from atmospheric gases during the act of respiration.

Home Assignments 2

 

Task 1 Read the sentence and answer the questions:

The man you see in the classroom teaches us Physiology.

1 Знайдіть підмет та присудок у реченні.

2 Скільки в ньому речень?

3 Яка залежність між цими реченнями?

4 Чого не вжито між цими реченнями?

5 Перекладіть речення.

Task 2 Read and compare the following sentences:

1 I know my friend is not ill.

2 My friend you know well is not ill.

1 Визначте типи підрядних речень в 1) та 2) та яким чином вони узгоджуються з головним реченням.

2 Як перекладаються такi речення українською мовою?

 

Task 3 Determine the types of subordinate clauses and translate them:

1 We know well Servet was the first anatomist to describe the pulmonary circulation in the first half of the 16th century (1536-1538).

2 The phenomenon of the transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs Sechenov investigated is due to the law of diffusion of gas from the fluid into the air.

3 The vital capacity of the lungs many physiologists have studied changes in some cardiac and pulmonary diseases.

4 The great English anatomist W. Harvey found out that the heart changed its color during the contractions.

 

Task 4 Learn the following words and word combinations:

associate– з’єднувати(ся); тісно пов’язаний

passage– прохід

breathe – дихати

flow – течія, стікання; текти, литися

decrease – зменшуватися

depth– глибина

fat – товстий, гладкий

amount – кількість

 

Task 5 Translate the words with the same root:

associate, associated, associative, association; particular, particularly, particularity; change, changed, changing, changeable, exchange; connection, connective, connected; deep, deeply, depth

Task 6 Fill in the blanks with the suitable words. Put the verbs in the proper tense (in writing):

1 On physical exertion the patient’s … became deep.

2 When the temperature is high a patient usually … deeply.

3 When one … the lungs dilate.

4 When one … the lungs contract.

breathe, breathe out, breath, breathe in

 

Task 7 Read the text. Find Indefinite personal sentences and translate them. Find Present Participle and state its function in the sentence. Put up 5 questions to the text. Give the English equivalents of the following word combinations:

має особливе значення для, який відбувається у легенях, брати участь у відпрацюванні.

The Physiology of the Lungs

The physiology of the lungs is associated with their structure. There are over 700,000,000 alveoli in the lungs. The total surface of the alveoli is about 90 sq. m (square metres). The lungs have many capillaries with the total surface of about 80 sq. m. This particular structure of the lungs enables the exchange of gases between the alveolar air and the blood.

Elastic fibers of connective tissue composing the walls of the alveoli, alveolar passages and the visceral pleura enable the lungs to dilate. When one breathes normally not all the alveoli and capillaries of the lungs are opened. When respiration becomes deep, the number of the opened alveoli and capillaries increase. The flow of blood into the lungs increases when one breathes in and it decreases when one breathes out.

The regulation of the vital capacity of the lungs is of particular importance to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide taking place in the lungs. It is considered that in the adult the vital capacity may be 6 litres and even more.

The lungs take part in the production of physiologically active substances, in the regulation of blood coagulation, in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

 

Home Assignments 1

Task 1 Study the following grammar items:

Perfect Continuous Tenses

|

to have been + Ving

 

Ex: I have been examining the patient for half an hour. – Я

оглядаю цього хворого вже півгодини.

I had been examining the patient for half an hour when you came. – Я вже півгодини як оглядав хворого, коли ви прийшли.

 

Task 2 Find the predicates and explain the way they are formed.

Translate the sentences:

1 The patient has been making a slow recovery for a month.

2 We shall have been investigating this case for three weeks by the end of the year.

3 The patient had been coughing for a month by the time he was admitted to the hospital.

 

Task 3 Rewrite the pairs of sentences, underline the predicates and define the difference between them. Translate the sentences:

А 1 I am waiting for the findings of my blood analysis.

2 I have been waiting for the findings of my blood analysis for

an hour.

В 1 Dry răles are disappearing slowly.

2 Dry răles have been disappearing during this week.

C 1 The nurse is giving the injections.

2 The nurse has been giving the injections for two hours.

 

Task 4 Write down the questions to the words in bold type:

1 My mother has been suffering from a bad pain in the substernal area for three hours.

2 The patient had been complaining of a considerable muscular pain before he was admitted to the hospital.

3 By three o’clock the professor will have been delivering the lecture for half an hour.

 

Task 5 Remember the reading of the words given below. Find the corresponding terms:

lobular, focus, foci, cyanosis, bronchiole, crepitation, diffuse, differentiate, pleurisy.

 

Task 6 Learn the following terms:

gradually– поступово

improve– покращуватися

accompany– супроводжувати

occlusion– закупорка

purulent– гнійний

sputum – мокротиння

accelerate – прискорювати(ся)

reduce – знижувати, послабляти

dullness– приглушення

spleen – селезінка

enlarge – збільшувати(ся), розростатися

sign– ознака, симптом

intensity– напруженість, сила, щільність

shadow– тінь, затемняти

severe– різкий, сильний

unit – одиниця виміру, відділення

 

Task 7 Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

1 Оcclusion: the occlusion of the artery, the occlusion of the small intestine, to reveal the intestine occlusion.

2 Sputum: purulent sputum, thick sputum, the analysis of the sputum failed to reveal cellular elements.

3 Sign: abnormal signs, the signs of the disease, these signs indicated the presence of inflammation.

4 Severe: a severe form of the disease, a severe inflammation, to suffer from a severe cardiovascular disease, to suffer a severe form of the grippe.

 

Task 8 Translate the words with the same root:

appear, appearing, appeared, disappear, disappearance; reduce, reduced, reducing, reduction; large, enlarge, enlarged, enlarging, enlargement; improve, improving, improved, improvement; intensity, intensive, intensively, intensify.

 

Task 9 Choose the right ending to complete the sentence:

1 The spleen is the organ …

a) located in the left side of the abdominal cavity behind the stomach;

b) located in the right side of the thoracic cavity behind the lung.

2 Purulent sputum …

a) never contains any microorganisms;

b) always contains some microorganisms.

3 The patient with severe form of pneumonia …

a) was allowed to attend the treatment at the polyclinic;

b) was admitted to the in-patient therapeutic department of the hospital.

 

Task 10 Read the text. Find the sentences with Perfect Continuous tense and translate them. Make up the plan of the text. Get ready to answer the questions to the text. Give corresponding equivalents to the following terms:

у межах, при глибокому вдиханні, потрапити до лікарні, по всій легені, важка форма пневмонії

Lobular Pneumonia

Patient Ivanenko, aged 48, was admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of lobular pneumonia. He had been developing lobular pneumonia gradually. A week before the admission to the hospital he had bronchitis after which his condition did not improve.

Fever had an irregular course and the temperature changes were caused by the appearance of the new foci of inflammation in the pulmonary tissue. Fever had been persisting for two weeks and had been decreasing gradually.

The patient’s breathing was rapid with 30 – 40 respirations per minute. There was breathlessness and cyanosis of the face associated with the accompanying bronchitis, decrease in the respiratory surface and occlusion of numerous bronchioles and alveoli.

The patient complained of the pain in the chest, particularly on deep breathing in, and cough with purulent sputum. The pulse rate was accelerated and arterial pressure was reduced.

On physical examination dullness in the left lung, abnormal respiration, numerous răles and crepitation were revealed. Dry răles caused by diffuse bronchitis were heard all over the lungs. The liver and spleen were not enlarged. The examination of the organs of the alimentary tract failed to reveal any abnormal signs but the tongue was coated.

The blood analysis revealed leucocytosis in the range of 12,000 to 15,000 per cu mm of blood and an accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).

The urine contained a small amount of protein and erythrocytes. The X-ray examination of the lungs revealed numerous foci of inflammation of various size, irregular form and different intensity. Shadowing was particularly marked at the root of the left lung due to the enlargement of the lymphatic gland.

It was a severe form of lobular pneumonia which was difficult to differentiate from pulmonary tuberculosis and pleurisy. Yet the physician made a correct diagnosis.

Home Assignments 2

Task 1 Translate the following sentences in writing:

1 Саме зараз кардіолог обстежує цього хворого.

2 Кардіолог обстежує хворого вже півгодини.

3 Наразі мій брат у стаціонарі.

4 Мій брат уже місяць як у стаціонарі.

5 Коли медсестра увійшла до палати, хворий спав.

6 Вчора хворий добре спав протягом декількох годин після того, як прийняв ліки.

 

Task 2 Find in which sentences the word “for” has the meaning a)задля”, “протягом”, “тому, що”; b) the word “since” has the meaning “з”, “тому, що”, “з того часу, як”:

а) 1 The patient stated that he had been suffering from a bad cough with purulent sputum for about a month.

2 The patient was administered a diet for the physical examination of the liver had revealed its considerable enlargement.

3 The change of the patient’s body temperature to abnormal was quite unexpected for the physician.

b) 1 Poorly developed bones and teeth, slow growth and even the general impairment of health occurred in some children since their food contained little phosphorus.

2 I have been waiting for the nurse since 8 o’clock.

Task 3 Define what part of speech the following terms are. Translate the terms:

dullness, enlargement, intensity, improvement, clearly, moisture, poisonous, smoothly, thinnish, useless, preventive, severely, indication

 

Task 4 Learn the following words and word combinations:

affect– вражати (хворобою)

causative agent – збудник

stage – ступінь

malaise – нездужання

fatigue – втома

loss – втрата

pus – гній

involve – вплутувати, втягати

profuse – рясний, багатий, щедрий

permanent – постійний, беззмінний

benign – доброякісний

elevation – підняття

perspiration – піт, потіння, випоти

evidence – доказ, свідчення, очевидність, ознака

Task 5 Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

1 Malaise: general malaise, to complain of a general malaise, a general malaise is one of the symptoms of tuberculosis.

2 Fatigue: a considerable fatigue, a marked fatigue, to suffer from a slight fatigue.

3 Pus: thick pus, the discharge containing much pus, much pus was found in the sputum.

4 Benign: a benign disease, a benign tumor was revealed in the lungs, benign growth of the kidney.

 

Task 6 Read the text. Write down the symptoms typical for tuberculosis. Translate the paragraph in which the body temperature at tuberculosis is described. Put up 10 questions to the text.

Home Assignments 3

Task 1 Use the proper tense forms to translate the sentences into English in writing:

1 При тяжких формах пневмонії температура зазвичай тримається на рівні 380С.

2 Зараз у цього хворого температура 380С внаслідок важкої форми пневмонії.

3 У цього хворого температура утримується на рівні 380С вже протягом місяця.

4 Хворий завжди дотримувався постільного режиму при серцевих нападах.

5 Хворий дотримувався постільного режиму, коли в нього стався серцевий напад.

6 У зв’язку із захворюванням серця хворий дотримувався постільного режиму протягом трьох тижнів.

Task 2 Define the root in the terms and translate them into Ukrainian:

intoxication, allowance, changeable, clearly, uncomplicated, disappearance, remarkable, unprotective, senselessness, thickness, warmth, ineffective, enlargement.

 

Task 3 Form the nouns (1), the adjectives (2), the adverbs (3), the verbs (4) with the same root and translate them:

1) accomplish, accumulate, investigate, pass, perspire, present;

2) protect, effect, change, move, pain, poison, produce, response;

3) loud, exact, mild, quiet, rapid, separate, severe, sharp, smooth, sudden;

4) accomplishment, complicated, considerable, unexpected, elevation.

 

Task 4 Choose the right answer:

1 What forms of tuberculosis are accompanied by a subfebrile temperature?

a) benign forms of tuberculosis;

b) pneumonic forms of tuberculosis.

2 What kind of sputum has the patient with tuberculosis?

a) it is purulent; b) it is mucopurulent.

3 The evidence of what form of tuberculosis may cold profuse perspiration at night be?

a) it may be the evidence of a benign form of tuberculosis;

b) it may be the evidence of a severe form of tuberculosis.

4 What erythrocyte sedimentation rate has the patient with lobular pneumonia?

a) it is slow; b) it is accelerated.

5 What does the X-ray examination reveal in case of lobular pneumonia?

a) it reveals a marked shadowing in the lungs;

b) it reveals a cavity in the lungs.

Task 5 Fill in the blanks with “what”, “which”, “whose”, “when”:

1 … treatment is indicated if a patient has a severe form of lobular pneumonia?

2 … may the patient’s erythrocyte sedimentation rate be accelerated?

3 … of the following symptoms is characteristic of tuberculosis: a bad headache, cough with mucopurulent sputum or a coated tongue?

4 Thanks to … scientific investigations was mycobacterium tuberculosis discovered?

 

Task 6 Read the text using a dictionary. Learn the words in bold type. Entitle the text. Write down irregular verbs and give their basic forms. Get ready to discuss the text. Give the English equivalents of the following word combinations:

симптоми, типовi для первинного туберкульозу; в ураженій легенi; клiнiчнi прояви; позитивна проба; ущільнення легеневої тканини; перкуторний звук.

 

Primary tuberculosis usually begins in childhood and affects the lungs and bronchial lymphatic glands of the lung roots. Primary tuberculosis may not give any clinical manifestations and is revealed only by a positive Pirquet’s and Mantoux’s tests and X-ray examination. Loss of appetite, short periods of fever, slow growth, and loss of weight may be some of the symptoms characteristic of primary tuberculosis.

Physical examination sometimes reveals consolidation of the pulmonary tissue. A shorter percussion sound and a small number of dry and fine moist râles are heard in the involved lung.

A favorable course of primary tuberculosis leads to the formation of a Ghon’s focus. In unfavorable cases primary tuberculosis may lead to an extensive inflammation.

Home Assignments 1

Task 1Read the sentences paying attention to the translation of various forms of the Infinitive:

1 I know this surgeon (him) to operate on successfully.

Я знаю, що цей хірург (він) оперує успішно.

2 I know this surgeon (him) to have operated successfully.

Я знаю, що цей хірург (він) прооперував успішно.

3 I know this patient (him) to be operated on at our clinic.

Я знаю, що цього хворого (його) прооперують у нашій клініці.

4 I know this patient (him) to have been operated on successfully.

Я знаю, що цього хворого (його) успішно прооперовано.

Task 2Study the rules of formation Complex Object:

 

Noun (Pronoun) + Infinitive (Participle)

Ex.: I want you to come at five.

 

Complex Object is used after the following verbs:

a) expressing wish: to want, to wish, to desire, should like, would like;

b) expressing expectation: to expect, to think, to believe, to suppose, to consider, to find;

c) expressing order: to order, to command, to ask, to allow;

d) the verbs of perception: to see, to hear, to notice, to feel, to watch, to observe;

e) the verbs to force, to make.

In this case, the Infinitive as a part of Complex Object is used without particle to.

Ex.: I felt the pain become less.

The doctor made the patient lie down.

Task 3Read the following sentences and find Complex Object in them:

1 I expected my sister to be operated on as soon as her temperature returned to normal.

2 The physician wanted my mother to be following a bed regimen for several days.

3 The cardiologist considered the electrocardiogram waves to have changed after the heart attack.

4 The physician supposed the intensity of the shadow in the lung to decrease after the treatment.

5 The investigator observed the primary manifestations of the disease be associated with the reduction of the number of erythrocytes.

6 The surgeon noticed the amount of pus in the mucopurulent discharge from the wound have been decreasing.

7 The examiner saw the marked shadowing in the lung have areas of various intensity.

8 I heard this patient coughing badly at night.

9 We watched the patient’s condition gradually becoming worse.

10 We saw typical signs of intoxication associated with the over-dosage of this poisonous drug appearing gradually.

 

Task 4 Learn the following words and word combinations:

palpitation– сильне серцебиття

onset– початок

precede – передумовити

moderate – помірний

readings– покази (обладнання)

slight– слабкий, незначний

confirm – підтверджувати

murmur– дзюрчання; шелестіти

duration – тривалість

insist on – наполягати на

strict– суворий

 

Task 5 Read the text. Find and translate the sentences with Complex Object. Entitle each paragraph. Write down the English equivalents of the following word combinations:

при фізичному напруженні, чітко виражений, на верхівці серця, змінюватися за щільністю та тривалістю, наполягати на дотриманні постільного режиму.

Rheumatic Endocarditis

The patient complained of a general malaise, early fatigue on exertion, cardiac discomfort and palpitation.

The physician found him to have been having an increase of body temperature to a subfebrile level for a prolonged period of time. The patient stated that the onset of the disease had been preceded by tonsillitis. The patient’s pulse rate had become irregular and accelerated on physical exertion.

The blood analysis revealed moderate leucocytosis and an elevated ESR. The electrocardiogram showed the changes in the most important readings. On percussion the doctor determined the heart to be slightly enlarged. These findings of the physical examination were confirmed by the X-ray examination.

While listening to the patient’s heart the doctor found a soft systolic murmur to be heard at the heart apex. These symptoms were accompanied by diastole murmur heard at the apex and base of the heart. The doctor estimated the murmurs to be varying in their intensity and duration. It was evidence of an inflammatory process in the valves. The doctor determined the organic changes in the mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves to be clearly marked.

The physician considered the patient to be ill with rheumatic endocarditis and insisted on his following a strict bed regimen at the in-patient department.

Task 6 Answer the following questions:

1 What most characteristic clinical manifestations does rheumatic endocarditis have?

2 What readings does the electrocardiogram show in case of rheumatic endocarditis?

3 How can a therapeutist determine the enlargement of the heart?

4 How can systolic and diastolic heart murmurs be revealed in patients with rheumatic endocarditis?

5 What regimen must a patient with rheumatic endocarditis follow?

 

Task 7 Learn the following words. Translate the sentences with the new words:

insufficiency– недостатність

Cardiac insufficiency was diagnosed in this patient.

eliminate – усувати, знищувати

The pain was eliminated due to the administration of this drug.

nourish– живитися

to be well nourished – бути добре нагодованим

The patient was a well nourished male.

tablespoonful–столова ложка

You must take a tablespoonful of this medicine.

preparation– препарат

Adonis preparations are administered in case of rheumatic endocarditis.

follow-up– віддалений результат; диспансерний облік

The patient was followed up at the out-patient department.

The follow-ups did not reveal any pathologic signs.

You must come for the follow-up examination in a month.

recurrence–рецидив

The recurrence of the disease was rather unexpected.

Home Assignments 2

Task 1 Translate the following terms with the same root:

sufficient недостатній, недостатність, достатньо

locate розташований, місцевий, розташування

involve уражати, ураження

prepare препарат, підготовлений

limit обмежений, обмеження

 

Task 2 Divide the complex words into the components and translate them:

toothache, cardiovascular, tablespoonful, earache, stomachache, breastbone, gallbladder, overdosage, headache.

 

Task 3 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type:

1 Суворий постільний режим послідував за діагнозом серцевої недостатності.

2 За приступом болю в грудях настала загальна слабкість.

3 Після рецидиву ревматичного ендокардиту хворий знову потрапив до лікарні.

4 Аби простежити віддалені результати у хворого, лікар викликав його до поліклініки кілька разів.

5 У деяких хворих, які стоять на обліку, були виявлені несприятливі зміни у печінці.

6 Усі хворі з підозрою на рак повинні проходити подальші обстеження регулярно.

 

Task 4 Change the sentences using Complex Object:

1 The X-ray examination confirmed (that the patient had) organic changes in the mitral, aortic and tricuspid valves.

2 The physician determined (that the primary focus of infection had been eliminated) due to antibiotic therapy.

3 Physicians consider (that the loss of weight is) one of the typical signs of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Task 5 Change the sentences using participial constructions:

1 (to have been treated) with Adonis preparations for several weeks the patient stated that his breathlessness had decreased.

2 (to have listened) to the patient’s heart the doctor believed him to suffer from cardiac insufficiency.

3 (to be fed) with the nourishing diet containing many vitamins the patient began to gain weight.

 

Task 6 Learn the following words:

note – помічати

radiate – випромінювати(ся)

frequently – часто

incidence – кількість випадків

overstrain– перенапруження

disturbance – розлад, порушення

diminish– зменшувати(ся), послабляти

deviate – відступати від норми

adequate– відповідний

rise (rose, risen) – підніматися

 

Task 7 Translate the following word combinations:

the pain radiated to the back; considerable disturbances of metabolic rate; a frequent sharp pain in the substernal area; the diminished waves of electrocardiogram; marked deviations in the electrocardiogram readings; the overstrain may produce nervous system disturbances; to administer an adequate dose of this preparation.

Task 8 Read the text. Find and translate the sentences in which a) Complex Object is used; b) the word “one” is used and define its function. Write down 1 question to each paragraph. Make up a plan of the text.

Angina Pectoris

On being admitted to the in-patient department the patient complained of pain in the chest.

He had been suffering from pain of various intensity in the chest and behind the breastbone for several weeks. The patient noted the pain to radiate to the left shoulder and down the arm. The patient also observed the pain have been growing worse on moving and on physical exertion. He stated that it frequently began suddenly at night during sleep.

During the attacks of pain he was covered with cold perspiration and his face was pale. The incidence of attacks was frequently associated with physical and mental overstrain.

On physical examination the doctor revealed areas of very sensitive skin from the 7th cervical vertebra to the 5th upper thoracic one. On percussion, palpitation and auscultation of the heart no significant abnormality was revealed.

The electrocardiogram taken during the attack showed a disturbance in the coronary blood circulation. The most important readings of the electrocardiogram were either diminished or deviated. By having repeated the electrocardiogram after the end of the attack the cardiologist found the adequate readings of the electrocardiogram to return to normal ones.

During the attacks of moderate pain no changes in the peripheral blood or elevation of body temperature were noted. However the temperature rose insignificantly and there was an accompanying slight leucocytosis when the attacks of pain were particularly severe.

The doctor made the diagnosis of angina pectoris with a severe course. Its main cause was atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.

Home Assignments 3

 

Task 1 Group the words according to the parts of speech (in writing):

various, severity, hospitalize, doubtful, radiation, favourable, sensitive, incidence, measure, disturbance, frequently, slightly, duration, characterize, improvement, eliminate, rupture.

 

Task 2 Group the words with the same root (in writing):

dilate, disturb, eliminate, unit, different, dilated, union, eliminated, differ, recurrence, dilatation, disturbance, elimination, unite, recur, difference, undilated, unity, disturbing.

Task 3 Read and memorize the facts:

Do you know that:

1 At rest the blood makes a complete circle in our body within 20 – 25 seconds?

2 Within 70 years of life the human heart contracts about 2.5 milliard times and pumps 145 million litres of blood?

3 At rest the human heart pumps 4 litres of blood per minute but on great exertion 40 litres?

4 The man can live without water for 10 days and without food for more than a month?

 

Task 4 Remember the reading of the following terms:

academician, coronary, defect, biochemical, manipulation, interval, characterize, hypothermia.

 

Task 5 Learn the following words and word combinations:

suffer from – страждати на

congenital– природжений

besides– окрім; крім того

failure – зупинка; порушення

heart failure – раптова зупинка серця

fibrillation – фібриляція

arrest– затримка; зупинка

damage– пошкоджувати

result in – призводити до

result from – бути наслідком

danger – ризик

exclude – виключати

bandage – пов’язка

incision– розтин

 

Task 6 Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

1 Сongenital: congenital disease, congenital heart defect, to suffer from a congenital heart defect.

2 Failure: heart failure, cardiac failure, to reveal heart failure, to prevent the development of heart failure.

3 Result: to result in the impairment of heart function, the inflammation resulted from infection.

 

Task 7 Learn the following word combinations paying attention to the prepositions:

in the presence of, to result in, to result from, to be operated on for smth, to be preceded by, a damage to some organ, because of a bad state, within a certain period of time

 

Task 8 Put up questions to the given answers:

1 Yes, there are about ten main kinds of congenital heart defects which can be treated both therapeutically and surgically.

2 Yes, heart defects result in the impairment of heart functions and the changes in its anatomical structure.

3 Yes, heart failure may occur during the operation on the heart.

 

Task 9 Read the text. Find and translate the sentences a) with the construction “it is … that”; b) with the predicate in Perfect Continuous; c) with the pronouns used instead of the nouns. Write the English equivalents of the following word combinations:

за наявності цих порушень, вада серця, виявлення шумів серця.

Cardiosurgery

Cardiosurgery has been developing successfully in our country. The beginning of its development was marked by the first operation on the heart performed by Academician Bakulev. It is due to the work of such prominent surgeons as Vishnevsky, Meshalkin, Petrovsky, Amosov, and others that great progress has been achieved in cardiosurgery. The lives of many thousands of people suffering from cardiac diseases and from those of coronary vessels have been already saved.

The operations on the heart are performed to eliminate the existing heart defects, congenital or developed, and to restore the normal function of the heart.

The operation on the heart is preceded by various examinations, which enable the surgeon to make a correct diagnosis. The most important ones are listening to the heart, its X-ray examination, electrocardiograms, the revealing of heart murmurs, and clinical and biochemical blood analyses. Only having made an exact diagnosis and having come to the conclusion that the therapeutic measures have been ineffective the surgeon can perform the operation on the heart.

The operations on the heart are very difficult to perform because of the intricate anatomical structure of the heart and because the heart constantly contracts.

Some operations are performed on the contracting heart, but such operations give the surgeon only a very short period of time for his surgical manipulations. Besides in such cases there is always the danger of the impairment of cardiac functions such as heart failure, fibrillation and others. In the presence of these impairments complete or partial arrest of blood circulation develops.

Such intervals of blood circulation result in the damage to some organs, for example, the brain can live without blood supply only four-five minutes; if the interval is longer the brain cells die.

 

Task 10 Write annotation to the text.

 

Home Assignments 4

 

Task 1 Find the predicates, determine their tense form and translate the sentences:

1 The life of the girl was saved thanks to a successful operation for a congenital heart defect.

2 On his first admission to the hospital the patient complained of palpitation and discomfort in the chest.

3 The patient had numerous foci of inflammation in the left lung before he underwent the streptomycin treatment.

4 The girl has had heart murmurs since the age of seven and no therapeutic measures were effective in their elimination.

5 On palpation the physician determined that the liver was considerably enlarged.

 

Task 2 Choose the right ending to complete the sentence:

1 The doctor wanted …

a) the heart failure to develop frequently;

b) the patient to be followed-up at the out-patient department.

2 The nurse made …

a) the patient take bromide to control his sleeplessness;

b) the heart be excluded from the blood circulation.

3 The surgeon ordered …

a) the patient’s wound to be bandaged immediately;

b) the intensity of the inflammatory process to be reducing gradually.

Task 3 Group the following terms according to the parts of speech:

a) nouns b) adjectives c) verbs d) adverbs

rupture, dangerous, incision, fibrillation, congenital, recurrence, eliminate, strictly, bandage, failure, extensive, frequently, evidence, sensitive, radiate, disturbance, damage, accelerate, feverish, deviate, insufficiency, slightly, duration

 

Task 4 Determine the function of the word “that” and its meaning:

1 The doctor expected that the disturbances in blood circulation would be eliminated by the administration of atropine.

2 The patient that is undergoing the course of treatment for rheumatic endocarditis will be followed up for several months.

3 That the inflammatory process would involve new areas in the lungs was clear at the onset of lobular pneumonia.

4 That child’s life was saved after cardiosurgeon had made the operation eliminating the congenital heart defect.

5 Subfebrile temperature accompanied by cold perspiration may be the clinical manifestation of tuberculosis and that of chronic rheumatic endocarditis.

Task 5 Answer the following questions:

1 What most characteristic clinical manifestations is lobular pneumonia accompanied by?

2 What treatment is administered to the patient with lobular pneumonia?

3 What is the causative agent of tuberculosis?

4 What do you know about primary tuberculosis?

5 What course is lung abscess characterized by?

6 What are the patient’s complaints in case of rheumatic endocarditis?

7 What treatment can you administer a patient with rheumatic endocarditis?

8 Describe a severe attack of angina pectoris.

9 What methods of performing operations are employed in cardiosurgery?

 

Task 6 Read the text. Write down the English equivalents of the following word combinations:

зовнішні ознаки, профілактичні заходи, розумове перевантаження, міцний сон.

Home Assignments 1

Task 1 Complex Subject.

a) Read the following sentences and compare their translation:

He is said to live here. – Кажуть, що він тут мешкає.

The patient is thought to suffer from pneumonia. – Вважають, що хворий страждає на пневмонію.

Leucocytosis is known to develop in inflammation. – Відомо, що лейкоцитоз виникає при запаленні.

 

b) Read the following sentences and pay attention to the voice of the predicate:

They seem to study Biochemistry. – Здається, вони вивчають біохімію.

He appears to suffer from tuberculosis. – Виявляється, він страждає на туберкульоз.

The pain proved to be sharp on physical exertion. – Доведено, що біль був гострим при фізичному навантаженні.

 

c) Read and translate the following sentences:

He is supposed to discharge the patient from the hospital.

He is supposed to have discharged the patient from the hospital.

He is supposed to be discharged from the hospital.

He is supposed to have been discharged from the hospital.

 

Task 2 Find the Complex Subject and translate the sentences:

1 On physical exertion the liver was considered to be enlarged.

2 The damage to the blood supply was supposed to have been present before the operation.

3 Both mental and physical overstrain have been eliminated to affect the normal function of the heart in the most unfavorable way.

 

Task 3 Remember the reading of the following terms, match them with their meaning:

ulcer, neurogenous, spastic, trophic, erosion, remission, pathogenesis

спазматичний (судомний), трофічний, ерозія, виразка, патогенез, неврогенний, ослаблення хвороби, послаблення хворобливих ознак.

 

Task 4 Learn the following words:

influence – вплив

majority – більшість

contribute – сприяти

nausea – нудота

perforate (into, through) – проникати

perforated ulcer – перфорована виразка

intermittent – переривчастий

rare– рідкий, розріджений

Task 5 Translate the following word combinations and find the sentences with them in the text:

in the majority of cases; contribute to the onset of ulcer; perforating ulcer; vomiting and haemorrhage; under the influence; followed by erosion; intermittent in occurrence; with remission.

 

Task 6 Read the text. Find the sentences with Complex Subject. Write down the equivalents of the following word combinations:

у поєднанні з, у більшості випадків, у ранньому віці, під впливом зовнішніх та внутрішніх подразників, сприяти початку появи виразки, жодних характерних клінічних проявів.

Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers

The famous scientists N. Burdenko, L. Koreisha, A. Speransky and B. Mogilnitsky proved the existence of an association between a lesion of the central and peripheral nervous systems and the development of ulcer.

The neurogenous theory of the pathogenesis of ulcer was developed further into the corticovisceral theory by K. Bykov and I. Kusisin. According to this theory gastric and duodenal ulcers were found to result from disturbances in the central nervous system, i.e. the brain cortex.

The brain cortex under the influence of external and internal stimuli sends impulses to the stomach and the duodenum, which cause a spastic contraction of vessels. Such a spastic contraction results in local trophic disturbances followed by erosion of the affected area by the gastric juice.

In the majority of cases ulcer is observed to develop in particularly nervous persons, often after emotional overstrain. But an irregular diet in combination with an emotional overstrain is often observed to contribute to the onset of ulcer development.

Gastric and duodenal ulcers are found to develop more frequently in men than in women, mainly at ages of 25 to 40 years. This disease is characterized by pains, hemorrhages, nausea, vomiting, etc. At the onset of the disease pain is usually dull in character. In gastric ulcers pain is found to grow worse after meals. Acute pain in the stomach is known to occur periodically and be intermittent in occurrence.

The course of ulcer has proved to vary with age and sex, location of ulcers, etc. At a young age its course has no characteristic clinical manifestations. In old persons the incidence of ulcers is known to be rare. But they are often complicated by considerable hemorrhage resulting from sclerotic changes in the stomach.

Ulcers are known to have a chronic, cyclic course, with remissions from 6 to 12 months. Exacerbation (загострення) of ulcers, particularly that of duodenal ulcers, has been found to occur in spring and autumn.

 

Task 7 Do you know that:

The movement of food in the intestines of a healthy person may last from 12 to 72 hours.

Milk products contain about 100 substances useful for men.

Salt consists of two poisons, which are combined chemically in such a way that we can eat it.

The amount of gastric juice secreted in the stomach within 24 hours is 1.5 – 2 litres.

 

Home Assignments 2

Task 1 Read and translate the following terms:

cancer, carcinoma, aetiology, tumour, epigastric, anaemia.

 

Task 2 Learn the following terms:

malignant – злоякісний

hot– гарячий

suggest– пропонувати

support – підтримувати

hereditary – спадковий

node– вузол

digestion– травлення

bleeding– кровотеча

remain– залишатися

empty– порожній

 

Task 3 Group the terms due to a) name of the disease; b) name of pathologic symptom:

angina pectoris, perspiration, murmur, intermittent fever, benign and malignant tumours, occlusion, dullness, crepitation, fatigue, ulcer, hemorrhage, epigastric pain, carcinoma, loss of appetite and weight, pleuricy, anaemia, fibrillation, vomiting, nausea.

 

Task 4 Write the terms with close meaning:

1) disturbance; 2) to radiate; 3) to result in; 4) a damage; 5) continuous; 6) influence; 7) fever; 8) constant; 9) mild; 10) acute; 11) internal; 12) adequate; 13) onset; 14) to diminish; 15) ache; 16) to rise; 17) to involve; 18) carcinoma; 19) to nourish; 20) state; 21) bleeding; 22) to extend.

 

Task 5 Write the terms with opposite meaning:

1) gradually; 2) to increase; 3) to diminish; 4) mild; 5) internal; 6) to be due to; 7) to follow; 8) onset; 9) base; 10) to accomplish; 11) to be admitted; 12) adult; 13) to decrease; 14) to disappear; 15) to divide; 16) dry; 17) exertion; 18) to rise; 19) to improve; 20) physical; 21) cold; 22) benign; 23) to leave; 24) to doubt.

 

Task 6 Find the sentences with Complex Object and with Complex Subject. Translate them:

1 Academician A.N. Bakulev is considered to be the founder of a new branch of surgery – cardiosurgery.

2 The cardiologist expected the patient to undergo the heart operation if the therapeutic measures proved to be ineffective.

3 Hypothermia is known to be employed in cardiosurgery to enable the surgeon to correct small congenital or developed heart defects.

4 The evidence of gastric ulcer seemed to be confirmed by nausea and vomiting, though such a sign as intermittent fever was not characteristic of the disease.

5 The physician observed the patient’s appetite have been gradually improving since the administration of the adequate preparation.

 

Task 7 Translate the following sentences using Complex Subject. Do it in writing.

1 Здається, метастази у печінці хворого є наслідком раку шлунка.

2 У нього було виявлено виразку шлунку.

3 Як виявилося, хворий був надто слабим для такої операції.

 

Task 8 Read the text. Find the sentences with Complex Subject and translate them. Give the main idea of the sixth paragraph in one sentence. Put up five questions to the second paragraph of the text.

Cancer of the Stomach

Gastric carcinoma is a frequent form of cancer causing about 35 – 40% of all deaths from malignant tumors.

The disease is more common in men than in women. The highest incidence is noted at ages of 50 to 60. Gastric carcinoma is known to have a more malignant course in young persons than in old age. The duration of gastric cancer from the appearance of its first manifestations to death is not longer than 1 – 2 years.

The aetiology of cancer is unknown. But such pathologic conditions as benign tumors, ulcer of the stomach, gastritis and stomach polyps have been determined to contribute considerably to its development.

According to certain data the use of too hot or too cold food, smoking and alcohol are considered to be responsible for the development of stomach carcinoma.

In the past few years a virus theory of cancer has been suggested. Though this theory is supported by many it has not yet been proved. For a long time many scientists have been discussing the importance of hereditary factors in the development of cancer. The hereditary theory has not been confirmed either.

The clinical manifestations of gastric carcinoma vary with the stage of its development, location and spread through the lymphatic nodes and other inner organs. The main symptoms of gastric carcinoma are known to be disturbance in gastric digestion, epigastric pains, loss of weight and sometimes vomiting of blood. A prolonged, usually external, profuse bleeding results in severe anaemia. The appetite is usually reduced.

 

Home Assignments 3

 

Task 1 Give the terms for the following definitions:

1) the decrease of the red blood cell count;

2) a physician who treats the heart diseases;

3) the causes that produce the development of a certain disease;

4) the mechanism of the development of a disease;

5) the inflammation of the internal serous coat of the abdominal cavity;

6) artificial cooling of the body;

7) the state of the organism when a person is neither well nor ill; 8) irregular contractions of atria and ventricles;

9) an increase of the white blood cell count.



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