Task 5. Look at the painting “The Last supper”, find the characters described, read and render the text in English.



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Task 5. Look at the painting “The Last supper”, find the characters described, read and render the text in English.



Andrei Rublev (1370-1430)

Born in a period of monastic revival, Rublev grew up in the period of increased public trust and support for the Eastern Orthodox Church. Although little is known about his life, sufficient evidence is available to begin to understand his work and the religious convictions that inspired it. Rublev is best known for his masterpiece “The Old Testament Trinity”. This icon exemplifies the simplicity and the skill of his style, as well as its ability to transcend pictorial constraints with spiritual and religious ideas. Renowned for its lyrical and rhythmic quality, the icon was an instant success and found many imitators. Perhaps Rublev contributed the most to icon painting. The icon “The Annunciation” (14th century) represents the moment when "The angel came in unto (Mary), and said, Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou among women. And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favor with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS." (KJV, Luke 1: 28-31).
In this painting the artist faithfully expresses the emotion and importance of the Annunciation scene. The angel occupies the left half of the picture plane, Mary occupies the right, and both stand out against the background constructed of architectural details connected in the middle of the picture. In contrast to the rather flat, forward–facing figures found in some icons, the announcing angel is shown from a side view which emphasizes depth and dynamic movement. The flow of drapery and the position of the wings reflect the fact that the angel has suddenly appeared and help strengthen the contrast with Mary, who is shown in a fixed and motionless pose. The beautiful gold and blue-green of the angel also emphasizes its heavenly origin and is balanced by the dark clothing worn by Mary, a rep

resentative of earth and humankind.

While the angel's hand is outstretched as the messenger speaks God's message, Mary's head is bowed as if in agreement and humility. Both figures are well-proportioned and accurately express the content of the scene.

The Annunciation

 

The overall color scheme of the background consists of a combination of yellow, cream, shades of orange, and black, which give the icon a warm tone. The two figures in the foreground stand out against the surrounding colors, but do not clash with them. In fact, Mary's clothing seems to correspond to the dark colors found in the roofs above her and in the angel, helping to unite foreground and background. The angel's coloring emphasizes its heavenly nature. He functions as one who announces the will of God to the world.

The Annunciation theme had been well established in icon painting and could be traced, like many other themes, to the traditional Byzantine prototypes. One of the most admired icons of this type, “The Annunciation of Ustyug” (Novgorod, 1110-30, shown on the right) demonstrates how closely the early Russian icons preserved the Byzantine heritage, while infusing it with a new Russian style. In this Annunciation the composition is more monumental than in its 14th century Muscovite version. The Angel and Mary are strong, uncompromising figures who seem to speak directly to the viewer; here the impact is immediate and forceful. While the figures may lack some of the later icon's movement, they are, nevertheless, equally impressive in their monumentality and spirituality. The angel seems to resemble ancient statues, and its facial features, hair, and the flowing garments make us think of classical antiquity.

The Annunciation of Ustyug

Notes

1. Old Testament - Ветхий Завет

2. The Annunciation - Благовещение

3. monastic revival - возрождение монашества, монастырей

Translation Practice.

Карл Павлович Брюллов -русский живописец, профессор Петербургской академии художеств (с1836 г.), почётный член Миланской, Болонской, Флорентийской, Пармской академий. Учился у отца, академика орнаментальной скульптуры, в академии художеств. В 1823-1834 гг. Брюллов жил в Италии, создал ряд жанровых картин ("Итальянское утро", "Итальянский полдень"), в которых решал проблемы осветления, показывал взаимосвязь человека с природой. Черты романтизма имеют автопортрет, портреты Брюллова, Г.Гагарина и одна из лучших работ - "Всадница". Широко известно полотно "Последний день Помпеи" (1830-1833 гг., золотая медаль в Париже). Трагическая гибель людей во время извержения Везувия, поэтика чувств, величие человеческого духа перед слепой стихией иллюстрировали драматическое восприятие художником жизни.

С 1843 г. Брюллов более четырех лет расписывал Исаакиевский собор. Главное достижение этого времени - портреты деятелей русской культуры (Кукольника, Витали, Жуковского, Крылова). В 1849 г. из-за болезни уехал на остров Мадейру, в 1850 г. переехал в Рим, там написал портреты архитектора Ланчи и членов семьи Титони. Творчество Брюллова - одна из вершин русской живописи 30-40-х гг. 19 века. В искусство классицизма он внёс жизненность и непосредственность. Реализм его произведений имел преимущественно романтическую окраску. Последние годы жизни постоянно жил в Италии, с которой Брюллова связывала близкая дружба.

В картине “Всадница” важно не столько повествование, сколько действие. Старшая из сестер резко останавливает разгоряченного коня, но сама остается абсолютно спокойной. Дикая сила, покоряющаяся хрупкой красоте, – один из излюбленных мотивов романтизма. Лицо девушки идеально прекрасно. Итальянский тип внешности считался во времена Брюллова совершенным, и художник с удовольствием его обыгрывает. Изысканные переливы красок, искрящиеся ткани – каждая деталь словно провозглашает великолепие этого полотна.

 

К. Брюллов. Всадница,1832

Изображены сестры Джованнина и Амацилия Пачини, воспитанницы

графини Ю.П.Самойловой

 

Notes

chiaroscuro – распределение светотени

to infuse a subject with smth - вселить в предмет достоинство и грацию

Notes

the might - мощь, могущество

abundant - изобильный, богатый

trustworthy - заслуживающий доверия, зд. достоверный, правдивый

grandeur – величие, великолепие, пышность

 

I.Shishkin: Rye (1878)

Task 9. Describe this Shishkin’s picture to your friend. Do not show it to him and do not tell him the picture’s name. Let your partner guess it. Use the information given below.(Look at its bigger copy in the Appendix)

 

Быть может, самая популярная картина Шишкина — “Утро в сосновом лесу”. В ней он стремится передать очарование нетронутой девственной природы, поэтизируя жизнь леса. Он передал характерное для него чувство восхищения жизнью первозданной природы, не тронутой столь часто губительным для нее вмешательством человека. В этой картине явственно ощутимы стремления мастера ко все более раскованному живописному языку, усиление внимания к передаче световоздушной среды, цветового богатства природы. Медведи написаны другом художника К.А. Савицким. Они получились столь удачно, что Савицкий даже расписался вместе с Шишкиным на картине. Однако П.М. Третьяков, купив картину, снял подпись. Он утвердил авторство одного Шишкина. Ведь в картине, говорил меценат, “начиная от замысла и кончая исполнением, все говорит о манере живописи, о творческом методе, свойственных именно Шишкину”.

 

Oil on canvas, 150 x 206 cm. Tretiakov Gallery, Moscow

Translation Practice

В начале 60-х гг. Перов создал ряд обличительных жанровых картин, подробно расказывая о несложных будничных событиях, усиливая и заостряя (вплоть до гротеска) социальные характеристики персонажей. Перов указывал на конкретных носителей общественного зла в крепостнической России (“Сельский крестный ход на пасхе”, 1861; “Чаепитие в Мытищах”, 1862). Работы парижского периода отмечены растущим интересом к человеческой индивидуальности, тягой к тональному колориту (“Слепой музыкант”, 1864). Во 2-ой половине 60-хгг. критические тенденции в творчестве Перова реализуются в произведениях, проникнутых сочувствием и состраданием к нищему, обездоленному люду. Картины становятся лаконичнее по композиции, выдерживаются в единой серовато-коричневой гамме. Большое значение в них приобретает пейзаж, получивший в его работах «социальный» характер и создающий общий эмоциональный строй произведения (“Проводы покойника”, 1865, “Тройка. Ученики мастеровые везут воду”, 1866 т.д.). Художник стремился также передать индивидуальные качества людей из народа, их способность глубогко мыслить и чувствовать. В 70-х- 80-х гг. Перов испытал идейный кризиз, в 1877 г. порвал с передвижниками, от обличительных жанровых тем он перешел преимущественно к бытоописательским «охотничьим» сценам (“Птицелов”, 1870; “Охотники на привале”, “Рыболов”, 1871).

 

 

 

V. Perov. "The Troika", 1866

 

 

V. Perov. Hunters at rest.1871, Oil on canvas,

119 x 183 cm, Tretyakov Gallery

This painting is full of gentle humor and irony

Translation Practice

Архип Ивановия Куинджи русский живописец-пейзажист. Сын сапожника-грека. Живописи обучался главным образом самостоятельно и в петербургской Академии Художеств (1868). Член товарищества передвижных художественных выставок. В ранний период испытывал влияние И.К.Айвазовского. В середине 1870-х гг. создал ряд картин, в которых пейзажный мотив рассчитан на конкретные социальные ассоциации в духе передвижников (“Забытая деревня”, 1874, “Чумацкий тракт”, 1875). В произведениях зрелого периода Кунджи стремился передать наиболее выразительные по освещению состояния природы. Используя световые эффекты и интенсивные цвета, сведенные к нескольким главным тонам, он добивался почти полной иллюзии освещения (“Украинская ночь”, 1876; “Березовая роща”, 1879; “После грозы”, 1879; “Ночь на Днепре”, 1880).

Notes

to treat smth - иметь дело с ч-л; рассматривать ч-л

to peer into people's faces - всматриваться в лица людей

artist's aspiration - стремление художника

to haul - тянуть, волочить

barge haulers = bargemen - бурлаки

 

 

I. Repin. Barge Haulers on the Volga

 

The action in “Religious Procession in Kursk Province” by Repin takes place in a province famous for its dense forests, but in the picture we can see only stumps left after the trees had been cut down. Modern man's activity resulted in the destruction of nature. We see crowds of people marching along the dusty road.

The composition was arranged in such a way that we almost feel the crowd moving forward, about to crush the spectator. Real religious faith can be read on the faces of heroes depicted on the left of the canvas and especially in the face of the hunchback on the foreground. Note that he is pushed aside by the policeman riding a horse because this poor cripple might disturb rich people proceeding along the road. (Didn't Christ say we are all equal before him?) The painting shows us two extremes: superficial, cold, hypocritical religious feelings on the right half and true believers in God in the left half of the painting. These people are rejected by this insincere society on the left part of the painting. By paying such attention to the individuality of a person, Repin displays the great variety of types and characters of his heroes. In the foreground we see a rich merchant woman avidly holding a icon. She is drawn into arrogance, clearly breaking the main tenet of Christianity. We can spend hours examining the painting whereby the motley crowd is represented as an integral part of the Russian people.

Notes

stumps - пень

to result in - приводить к чему-либо

to crush the spectator - давить на зрителя, раздавливать…

faith - вера

on the left (right) of the canvas - слева (справа) на полотне

in the left half of the painting - в левой половине катрины

hunchback - горбун

on the foreground – на переднем плане

cripple - калека, инвалид

superficial - поверхностный, неглубокий

hypocritical - лицемерный, притворный, ханжеский

true believers – истинные верующие

avidly - жадно, алчно

arrogance - высокомерие, надменость

a main tenet of Christianity - главный принцип Христианства

tenet - догмат, принцип, доктрина

whereby - посредством чего

the motley crowd - пестрая толпа

 

Part 1

Vasily Ivanovich Surikov was born in Krasnoyarsk into a family of Siberian Cossacks, whose ancestors came to conquer Siberia with Yermak in the 16th century (“The Conquest of Siberia by Yermak”). The future artist grew up among brave and solid people, in severe natural conditions. Surikov said later that Siberia gave him the ideals of historical characters, spirit, strength and health. After finishing school in 1868, the young man left for St. Petersburg on horse-back to join the Academy. He spent a year on his journey, because on his way he made frequent stops in the ancient towns through which he passed. In 1869, he entered the Academy of Art, where he studied excellently.

In 1875 Surikov moved to Moscow, where he settled permanently. Moscow with its old architecture impressed the artist deeply. The views of the Red Square, monasteries and cathedrals, Kitay-Gorod called to mind dramatic historical events. When he moved to Moscow, this center of the nation, he immediately found his way in art.' On impulse, he started the big historical canvas “Morning of Strelets' Execution”(finished in 1881). This painting defined the main direction of his work - depiction of Russians in turning points of their history.

The next big painting, “Menshikov in Berezovo”, dealt with the personal drama of an outstanding politician. Once a mighty courtier, the right hand of Peter the Great, now an exile, Surikov's Menshikov impresses the viewers with his strong personality.

Menshikov, Peter's favorite, captained Russian forces in the field against the Turks and Swedes, executed the Streltsy, built the new capital of St. Petersburg on marshland, built ships, trained troops, organized commercial and industrial companies, engaged in diplomatic negotiations. Menshikov was a low-born Russian, whose talent and energy took him to the top during Peter's rule. Menshikov, with support of the guards, after Peter's death proclaimed the widowed Empress Catherine sovereign and ruled Russia in her name.

 

 

V.Surikov. The Morning of the Execution of the Streltsy. 1881. Oil on canvas.


218 x 379 cm. The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

 

After her death Peter II rebelled against Menshikov's authority. In 1727 Menshikov was placed under house arrest and dispatched to Beriozov, Siberia. Everything was confiscated. On his way there his wife died. Menshikov passed away in 1729 and his beautiful daughter Maria (previously engaged to Peter II) followed him one month later.

 

V. Surikov. Menshikov at Beriozov. 1883. Oil on canvas.

169 x 204 cm. The Tretyakov Gallery. Moscow

 

Surikov used gloomy colors to show Menshikov's thoughts and misfortunes that he brought down on his children. A diamond ring symbolized his previous brilliant career. The artist used his wife as a model depicting Menshikov's daughter Maria. Surikov painted glazings over impasto painting producing rich vibrant colors. Tretyakov paid 5000 rubles to acquire Menshikov for his gallery collection enabling the artist to travel abroad to Berlin, Dresden, Cologne, Paris, Milan, Florence, Rome, Naples, Venice, and Vienna with his family.

The interesting fact is that while getting foreign impressions, the artist thought out his next work from Russian history “Boyarynya Morozova”. On his return Surikov started the work on the canvas.

The strife between tradition and reform developed itself in the XVIIth century. It was the collision between the Russian Orthodox Church and the reforms, which made the Church submitted to the tsar. In 1672 Morozova and her sister, Princess Urusova, were arrested and quietly kept in a pit in Borovsk, where Morozova died in 1675.
Morozova who represented Old Russian traditions was shown in the sledge by Surikov. The trong was divided into two groups. The right-hand group was her sympathizers, and in the left-hand group were Morozova's mocking enemies and indifferent people. Surikov spent over four years sketching to produce a realistic historical painting. Each figure, costume and face has its own meaning and expression. Surikov employed chiaroscuro, showing gorgeous color and three dimensional forms.
In 1887, Surikov's wife died. Her death caused a deep depression: he gave up painting, turned to religion, and left with his children for Siberia. The atmosphere, familiar from childhood, and the caring attitude of his friends restored him to life. In 1891, in Siberia, Surikov painted his most joyous picture “Taking of a Snow Fortress”, which shows a Siberian game in which a horseman must jump over a snow wall, defended by young people with twigs and whips. This cheerful painting is an exception in his art; all other paintings by Surikov are very serious.

After the “Taking of Snow Fortress” Surikov started painting “The Conquest of Siberia by Yermak” (1895). The battle of the 16th century between the Cossacks under their ataman (commander) Yermak Timofeevich and the troops of Kuchum-Khan, the ruler of Siberia, he showed with reliability of a witness. Another big canvas, devoted to Cossacks is “Stepan Rasin”, which depicts the moment of the Cossacks return from a successful campaign against Persia.

Surikov executed only nine historical canvases out of hundreds of portraits, studies, and sketches, but he is still considered Russia's greatest historical painter.

Notes

1. to think out – задумывать

2. to ‘execute – выполнить, осуществить; казнить

3. joyous - радостный

4. a mighty courtier - могущественный придворный

5. an exile - ссыльный, изгнанник

Part 2

Besides historical pictures Surikov created many portraits and self-portraits which show the gift of the master and his interest into the inner world of his models. Surikov always focused on fine portraiture. His female images are particularly elaborate and masterful. He appreciated and knew how to depict the beauty of a Russian woman; he understood her contradictory personality, her tenderness, kindness, compassion, cordiality, quiet resignation, and readiness to sacrifice herself, and he recognized that sometimes, her courage, strong will, devil-may-care attitude, and her strong convictions bordered on fanaticism.

During that epoch - the heyday of portrait genre in Russian art - many artists tended to emphasize their characters' personalities in their historical and genre painting. Itinerants made a particularly notable contribution to portraiture. For the first time in Russian art, portraiture stopped being merely the art of painting family members and stopped serving exclusively the sentimental needs and vanity of individuals and families. As a result of the itinerants, the very word portrait acquires new understanding. The reason for the above we find in the definition of reconsidered art that achieved vivid social status. Art changed much. Now it served more for exhibition purposes rather than purely as private commissions.

 

Notes

contradictory personality – противоречивая личность

compassion - сострадание, сочувствие

quiet resignation - тихое смирение, покорность

cordiality - сердечность

to sacrifice oneself – жертвовать собой

strong will – сильная воля

devil-may-care attitude - наплевательское отношение

devil-may-care - беззаботный

strong convictions bordered on fanaticism – сильные убеждения, граничащие с фанатизмом

the heyday - - в расцветеб в зените

to emphasize their characters' personalities - акцентировать внимание на личностях героев

contribution - вклад

vanity of individuals – тщеславие людей

to acquire - приобретать

vivid - явный, яркий

private commissions – частные заказы

rather than - а не

 

Task 12. Describe the paintingBoyarina Morozova” by V. Surikov using the description outline, the vocabulary below and the information from the Text above.

throngs of people - толпы людей / to throng - толпиться

to surge into the street – ринуться на улицу

interrogation - допрос

torture - пытка

adherence to - приверженность к-л, ч-л

old believers – староверы

dissenters (raskolniki) - сектанты ( раскольники ), диссиденты, оппозиционно настроенные люди

to pay homage to – отдать должное, оказать почтение

to feel the reverence for smb – чувствовать почтение к к-л

to sympathize with smb – сочувствовать к-л

to worship - поклоняться (боготворить)

the heroic martyr - героический мученик (мученица)

sorrowful – печальный

frightened expression – испуганное выражение

inspired faces – вдохновенные лица

eloquent gesture – красноречивый жест

to make the sign of the cross – крестить (-ся), осенять крестом

indomitable - упрямый, упорный

inflexibility – непреклонность, непоколебимость

a righteous cause - праведная (справедливая) цель

feeble-minded – слабоумный

devotee – фанатик, человек преданный к-л делу

the pilgrim – паломник, странник

absorbed in deep thought - глубоко погруженный в мысли

beggar - бедняк

to kneel – преклонять колени

dispersing crowd – расступающаяся толпа

drawn face - искаженное лицо

Nikolay Yaroshenko

(1846 – 1898)

Nikolay Yaroshenko, who was called “the conscience of the Itinerants”, for his integrity and adherence to principles, created his own portrait type, and his representation of a specific model became the basis for his generalized image of the representation of the different layers of society. “Girl Student”, is typical of Yaroshenko. His “Portrait of Pelageya Strepetova”, a Russian tragical actress, is a very good example of his work. She specialized in the roles of the poor and humiliated, exhausted by life women, and these roles left their mark on this portrait. Looking at the clenched hands of this fine, young, but not pretty woman, we can feel her inner strength and the emotional strain in her image. This image probably reminded contemporaries of young girls exiled to the mines for expressing their ideas. One critic noted the resemblance of bracelets on her wrists to fetters.

 

Notes

the conscience - совесть

integrity - прямота, честность, целостность

adherence to principles - приверженность (верность) принципам

humiliated - униженный

to clench hands – сжимать кулаки

emotional strain – эмоциональное напряжение

the resemblance – сходство

fetters - кандалы, оковы

2.15. Viktor Mikhailovich Vas netsov (1848-1926)

Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov was a painter whose works revealed an important facet of Russia's art during the period of Russian Revival. The son of a country priest, he attended a seminary before beginning his artistic education at the Petersburg Academy and later, at the Academy of Arts.

Vasnetsov created many genre scenes, his style changed as the tide of public support turned against such prosaic, "social" art. By 1880 he was busy painting historical and legendary scenes taken from Russia's colorful past. Although by now there are some who doubt the enduring quality of his work, during Vasnetsov's lifetime he enjoyed at least a moderate level of popularity and appreciation and fulfilled various commissions for both museums and churches.

Vasnetsov was probably the first painter to create theater backdrops; he began working in this capacity during the 1880s and 1890s. These efforts were also an expression of the Russian Revival, for out of his work and that of his followers sprang the idea of "realistic theatrical décor," which contributed much to the development of the Russian theater and ultimately was quite influential in Western Europe

Notes

luminary - книжн. светило, светоч

under the master's tutelage - под покровительством мастера

tutelage - опекунство, попечительство

destitute - a. сильно нуждающийся

juxtaposition of light and shadow - наложение света и тени

utilitarian purpose of art - утилитарная (практичная) цель искусства

mentor - наставник, руководитель, ментор

to impose standards on smb - навязывать кому-либо стандарты

to subscribe to all points of the program - подписаться под всеми пунктами программы, зд быть согласным

to gain popularity - завоевать популярность

acclaim - шумно приветствовать

in great demand - быть в большом спросе, быть востребованным

maecenas - меценат

 

Translation Practice

Высшими достижениями раннего периода Серова являются портреты-картины “Девочка с персиками”(1887) и “Девушка, освещенная солнцем” (1888). В этих произведениях Серов, воспевая юность и красоту, передавая чувство счастья и радости бытия, видел главную свою задачу в непосредственности восприятия модели и природы и убедительности пластических истолкований. В разработке света и цвета, в передаче сложной гармонии рефлексов, в насыщении среды воздухом, в свежести живописного восприятия мира проявлялись черты раннего русского импрессионизма.

С начала 90-х гг. портрет стал основным жанром в творчестве Серова, приобретая новые черты: психологически заостренную характеристику человека и активно выявленное в нем артистическое начало. Излюбленными моделями Серова становятся артисты, художники, писатели … (БСЭ, т. 23,с.308-309)

Translation Practice

Fine Art – April 17, 2007

2. Among the outstanding fine art highlights in the April sale of Russian Art was a masterpiece by Mikhail Nesterov, “Vision of St. Sergius When a Child”, a painting that is often considered the inaugural work of the Russian Symbolist movement (pictured below). The composition reveals a scene from the life of Sergius of Radonezh, a 14th-century saint who served as the subject of an entire cycle of Nesterov's paintings. According to the legend, young Sergius encountered a mysterious stranger who prophesied for him a divine future. He went on to become a great spiritual leader, monastic reformer, and one of the most venerated saints of the Russian Orthodox Church. An earlier version of this scene by Nesterov, painted in 1889-90, hangs in the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow. Nesterov executed the given variation 32 years later, in 1922. Like the majority of artists who remained in Russia after the Revolution, Nesterov had fallen on very difficult times. A fundraising exhibition of Russian artwork was to be held at the Grand Central Palace in New York. Nesterov decided to submit his own work to the exhibition; not only did he hope to find a new audience in America, but, like the other 100 artists who participated, he relied on financial relief to rejuvenate his artistic career. The work exhibited was well received at the New York exhibition and was purchased by a well known collector of Russian Art.

Ms. Bekkerman said that the sale of that painting presented an incredible opportunity to purchase one of the most iconographic images in Russian art history. Masterpieces of this nature very rarely appear at auction. She considered it magnificent, in excellent condition and well documented.

Andrei Rublev (1370-1430)

Born in a period of monastic revival, Rublev grew up in the period of increased public trust and support for the Eastern Orthodox Church. Although little is known about his life, sufficient evidence is available to begin to understand his work and the religious convictions that inspired it. Rublev is best known for his masterpiece “The Old Testament Trinity”. This icon exemplifies the simplicity and the skill of his style, as well as its ability to transcend pictorial constraints with spiritual and religious ideas. Renowned for its lyrical and rhythmic quality, the icon was an instant success and found many imitators. Perhaps Rublev contributed the most to icon painting. The icon “The Annunciation” (14th century) represents the moment when "The angel came in unto (Mary), and said, Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou among women. And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favor with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS." (KJV, Luke 1: 28-31).
In this painting the artist faithfully expresses the emotion and importance of the Annunciation scene. The angel occupies the left half of the picture plane, Mary occupies the right, and both stand out against the background constructed of architectural details connected in the middle of the picture. In contrast to the rather flat, forward–facing figures found in some icons, the announcing angel is shown from a side view which emphasizes depth and dynamic movement. The flow of drapery and the position of the wings reflect the fact that the angel has suddenly appeared and help strengthen the contrast with Mary, who is shown in a fixed and motionless pose. The beautiful gold and blue-green of the angel also emphasizes its heavenly origin and is balanced by the dark clothing worn by Mary, a rep

resentative of earth and humankind.

While the angel's hand is outstretched as the messenger speaks God's message, Mary's head is bowed as if in agreement and humility. Both figures are well-proportioned and accurately express the content of the scene.

The Annunciation

 

The overall color scheme of the background consists of a combination of yellow, cream, shades of orange, and black, which give the icon a warm tone. The two figures in the foreground stand out against the surrounding colors, but do not clash with them. In fact, Mary's clothing seems to correspond to the dark colors found in the roofs above her and in the angel, helping to unite foreground and background. The angel's coloring emphasizes its heavenly nature. He functions as one who announces the will of God to the world.

The Annunciation theme had been well established in icon painting and could be traced, like many other themes, to the traditional Byzantine prototypes. One of the most admired icons of this type, “The Annunciation of Ustyug” (Novgorod, 1110-30, shown on the right) demonstrates how closely the early Russian icons preserved the Byzantine heritage, while infusing it with a new Russian style. In this Annunciation the composition is more monumental than in its 14th century Muscovite version. The Angel and Mary are strong, uncompromising figures who seem to speak directly to the viewer; here the impact is immediate and forceful. While the figures may lack some of the later icon's movement, they are, nevertheless, equally impressive in their monumentality and spirituality. The angel seems to resemble ancient statues, and its facial features, hair, and the flowing garments make us think of classical antiquity.

The Annunciation of Ustyug

Notes

1. Old Testament - Ветхий Завет

2. The Annunciation - Благовещение

3. monastic revival - возрождение монашества, монастырей

Task 5. Look at the painting “The Last supper”, find the characters described, read and render the text in English.

“Тайная вечеря” — самое зрелое и законченное произведение Леонардо. В этой росписи мастер избегает всего того, что могло бы затемнить основной ход изображенного им действия, он добивается редкой убедительности композиционного решения. В центре он помещает фигуру Христа, выделяя ее просветом двери. Апостолов он сознательно отодвигает от Христа, чтобы еще более акцентировать его место в композиции. Наконец, в этих же целях он заставляет сходиться все перспективные линии в точке, непосредственно расположенной над головой Христа. Учеников Леонардо разбивает на четыре симметрические группы, полные жизни и движения. Стол он делает небольшим, а трапезную — строгой и простой. Это дает ему возможность сосредоточить внимание зрителя на фигурах, обладающих огромной пластической силой. Во всех этих приемах сказывается глубокая целеустремленность творческого замысла, в котором все взвешено и учтено..."

“Тайная вечеря: мягкий, обреченный жест учителя. Кротость, с которой произнесены страшные слова о предательстве, – троих из 12, поразили, словно гром среди ясного неба. Невозможность постичь случившееся, неприятие зла отразились на их лицах (слева). Трое других (справа) страстно и безответно вопрошают друг друга: “Который же из нас”? Недоуменно и растерянно, с немым вопросом вскочил Филипп – но ничего более не сказал ему Учитель. Развел руками возмущенный Яков. Фома застыл с поднятою рукою. Негодующий Петр схватился за нож, требуя указать злодея, но взгляд его задержался на безвольно поникшей фигуре Иоанна – последний во всем стремился подражать Учителю, разве что у того кротость – это глубокая мудрость, а у юноши – слабость. И порыв Петра как бы гаснет, хотя виновник рядом – резко отпрянул от Учителя, зажав в руке свои серебренники: никто не обращает на него внимания, а ведь страх уже выдал его с головой, - поза, полная ужаса, выражение лица, заметная оттчужденность от остальных не оставляет сомнений”.

 

2.3. Vladimir Lukich Borovikovskii: “Portrait of Madame Lopukhina” (1797).

This portrait is one of the most famous Russian paintings of the 18th century. Every aspect of it is carefully controlled and directed to produce a certain effect, to create an atmosphere that is both in accord with, and slightly differing from, the prevailing neoclassical style of the day. This is reflected in the subtle natural background, the classic simplicity of Madame Lopukhina's dress, and the cool sense of decorum, individual calm, and quiet assurance that is transmitted through the combined effect of these and other details. At the same time, Madame Lopukhina's image reflects many characteristics of Borovikovskii's style that depart from standard neoclassical practice. This portrait, for instance, is far less ceremonial than many that were produced at the time. Madame Lopukhina is not decked out in her finest clothing, she is not depicted among rich surroundings, neither is she stiff and artificially posed. Rather, she is dressed unostentatiously and placed in an obscure natural background, which while it conforms to the neoclassical idea of nature's secondary position, contrasts with the formality often associated with neoclassic 'symbolic' portraits. Her pose, too, though it may not be natural, at least seems to be so. The "languid" position of her body, her facial expression, the tilt of her head, all combine to create a sense of individual character. Madame Lopukhina is here at ease, in her natural state of mind and a psychologically revealing pose. Her gaze is familiar, her eyes expectant, her mouth bantering, while her posture indicates a relaxed, confident poise (осанка, посадка головы).

One of the most noticeable elements of Borovikovskii's technique in this painting, which contrasts with common neoclassical practice and some of of his other works, is the soft-focus nature of the portrait. Even more obvious is his delicate use of color to create a harmonious atmosphere in which, again, Madame Lopukhina's presence is a natural occurrence. The cool tones of the background, her dress, and her sash are softly contrasted with the warmer tones of her face and neck. Though aesthetically pleasing on its own, the color scheme has a more important place in this portrait, accentuating her figure through an elegant luminescence that is only heightened by the dimming of the corners. Together these elements may create a slightly 'sentimental' portrait, but one that is nevertheless effective, and testifies to Borovikovskii's skill and importance as an 18th century Russian painter. At the same time, it reflects the "elegance" typical of the best 18th century Russian painting and supports the idea that Borovikovskii "was at heart a realist who never failed . . . to create a likeness"

“Портрет Е.А.Нарышкиной” (1799)

Портрет Елены Александровны Нарышкиной (1785–1855) – один из лучших женских портретов, написанных Боровиковским в конце XVIII века. Нарышкина – дочь обер-камергера А.Л.Нарышкина. В первом браке она была замужем за сы ном генералиссимуса А.В.Суворова графом А.А.Суворовым-Рымникским; овдовев, вышла вторично замуж за князя В.С.Голицына. Е.А.Нарышкина обладала хорошими музыкальными способностями. Итальянский композитор Дж. Россини написал в ее честь кантату. Она была дружна с поэтами В.А.Жуковским и И.И.Козловым. Художник изобразил еще юную очаровательную девушку, с томной улыбкой взирающую на зрителя. Героиня одета в изысканно-скромное платье, по плечам небрежно рассыпались кудри. В портрете ощущается влияние эстетики позднего классицизма – четкий рисунок, определенность контуров, колорит, тяготеющий к локальным цветам.



Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-08; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 3.238.250.105 (0.053 с.)