IV.  Read the descriptions of the following chemical reactions and  name the type of every reaction.

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IV.  Read the descriptions of the following chemical reactions and  name the type of every reaction.

a) This reaction, the opposite of oxidation, has very wide applications in the production of pharmaceuticals. Examples of reducing agents are aluminum amalgam, hydriodic acid, hydrogen and a catalyst, hypophosphoros acid, lithium aluminum hydride, metal and acid, sodium and alcohol, stannous chloride, and zinc dust and water. Reduction is employed in the synthesis of racemic menthol, an anti-itching agent. It is produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of the aromatic analogue, thymol, or of the saturated ketone, menthone, or of the unsaturated ketone, pulegone.

b) This chemical reaction can only take place with unsaturated compounds, but the addition products vary greatly in nature. The mode of addition, where there are two possibilities, is determined by the structure of the unsaturated compound and the mechanism of addition.

The anesthetic drug halothane is manufactured from trichloroethylene by an addition reaction        with hydrogen chloride. The product is treated with hydrogen fluoride; reaction with bromine    then gives halothane. The manufacture of the anesthetic drug trichloroethylene involves, as a   first step, the addition of chlorine to acetylene, followed by dehydrohalogenation.

c) Medicinal nitro compounds are invariably aromatic carbocyclic or heterocyclic derivatives. These are usually nitrated with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and concentrated or fuming nitric acid (mixed acid). Other nitrating agents include oxides of nitrogen and acetyl nitrate, CH3CO2NO2..

  Nitrofurantoin is prescribed as a urinary antiseptic and provides an example of nitration. Furfural is reacted with acetyl nitrate, and the resulting triacetate is treated with pyridine to give 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde diacetate. This is condensed (with elimination of acetic acid) with 1-aminohydantoin to yield nitrofurantoin.       


                                                            LESSON 10

Грамматика: словообразование, правила чтения, вопросительные слова, вопросительные предложения, типы вопросов в английском языке, заменители модальных глаголов.

                                               Main Medical Forms

Запомните : - tion ( ion) , - ison, - ture ( ure), - ment, - ance ( ence) – суффиксы

существительного ( повторение)

I. Прочтите слова : decoction, mixture, tincture, ointment, medication, preparation, solution, application.

II . Образуйте существительные от следующих глаголов:

to mix, to prepare, to apply, to develop, to prescribe, to solve, to infuse, to define.

III . Переведите предложения на русский язык , обращая внимание на образование вопросительной формы:

1. What is a solution?

2. Can you show me those vitamins, please?

3. Are you a chemist?

4. Do you work at a pharmaceutical company?

5. What is called a suppository?

6. A tablet is the most common form of medication, isn’t it?

7. Is powder a dry or a wet homogeneous mixture?

8. Who works at a pharmacy?

9. What is usually sold at a chemist’s?

IV . Работайте в парах. Составьте вопросы, поставив слова в соответствии с правилом составления вопросительных предложений. Проверьте свои ответы с ответами партнёра :

1. Parts, of, plant, may, purposes, what, the, used, be, for, medicinal?

2. When, collected, different, are, plant, parts, of?

3. Preservation, why, storage, important, proper, and, of, a drug, are?

4. Do, the drugs, affect, moisture, how, air, light, and?

5. The, odour, drug, does, of, a plant, depend on, what?

6. Substances, classified, according to, are, how, taste?

7. What, included, physical, in, properties, are, description, the, drugs, of?

V. Закончите предложения :

1. Кто helped you to prepare this solution?

2. Почему did the doctor prescribe him this ointment?

3. Где do you keep this powder?

4. Что do we call a  combination of two or more substances without any chemical reactions?

5. Сколько drops are necessary for a child?

6. Чьи capsules are these?

7. I don’t know сколько it will cost.

VI . Переведите предложения с заменителями модальных глаголов. Укажите, какой модальный глагол заменён в каждом из предложений:

1.The patients aren’t allowed to take medicines themselves at the in-patients departments.

2. She had to take the pills twice a day.

3. He will be allowed to prepare a suspension next week.

4. Who is able to differentiate between hard capsules and soft capsules?

5. In some countries you are not allowed to buy medicines if you are not 18 years old.

6.We’ll have to decide whether it is a tincture or a solution.

7. They were able to powder the drug.

VII . Прочтите следующую информацию. Ответьте на поставленные вопросы устно:

There are many different types of medicines available to us today, some of which cure diseases while others make us feel better and able to carry on with our lives. They can be represented in various forms. What kinds of medicinal forms do you know? Which of them do you prefer when you are unwell? Why?

VIII. Прочтите и запомните следующие формы медикаментов :

There are the most common medicinal forms: tablets, pills, capsules, powder, solution, decoction, mixture, tincture, drops, suppositories, ointments.

IX. Запомните некоторые определения :

o Any chemically and physically homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances is a solution.

o A tablet is the most common form of medication in a dry state. (a synonym is a pill).

o There are two forms of capsules, hard capsules and soft capsules. Hard capsules are for powders or semi-solid preparations and soft capsules for liquids.

o Ointments are semi-solid preparations for external application.

o Alcoholic or hydro alcoholic solutions prepared from animal or vegetable drugs or from chemical substances are tinctures.

o A drop is a dosage unit of a liquid medication.

o Powder is dry homogeneous mixture of fine particles of one or more substances.

o Decoction is dried parts of herbs infused in hot water.

o A combination of two or more substances without any chemical reactions is a mixture.

o A medicinal preparation in solid form suitable for insertion into a body cavity (rectum or vagina) is called a suppository.

o A suspension is obtained when comparatively large particles are mixed in water.

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