X . Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания:

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X . Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания:

initially – первоначально

are converted – превращаются

vapour – пар

combustion – горение, сгорание; хим.окисление

decay – распад; разложение

in a general sense – в общем смысле

an application – применение, употребление

a definition – определение; ясность, четкость

to distinguish – различать

mutually exclusive – взаимно исключительный

a chain reaction – цепная реакция

decomposition – распад. разложение

subsequently – последовательно

a substitution reaction – реакция замещения

an elimination reaction – реакция выделения; реакция очищения

an addition reaction – реакция добавления; addition – примесь (хим.)

an oxidation-reduction reaction – окислительно-восстановительная реакция

to supply – обеспечивать

a covalent bond – ковалентная связь

a colligation – обобщение

a reverse reaction – обратная реакция

to carry (lack) the electron pair – нести; (нуждаться) в электронной паре

saturated (unsaturated) carbon centre –  нейтрализованный (ненасыщенный) центр углерода

to employ – употреблять, применять, использовать

must be identified – должно быть установлено

a volume – объем

to measure – измерять

XI . Прочтите и переведите следующие словосочетания:

Noted by everyone, aspect of the material universe, at least two other substances, are converted into a chemical reaction, the tarnishing of silver, the corrosion of steel, in a general sense, undergo change, is discussed below, as differentiated, are manifested, the appearance of new properties, within the limits of observation, equal to the mass  

XII . Прочитайте и переведите текст A  на русский язык:

                                    Text A. Chemical Reactions ( Part I )

The phenomenon of change, noted by everyone almost continuously and said by some to be the only unchanging aspect of the material universe, is the context in which all of the sciences find their place, including the study of chemical reactions. A chemical reaction is a process of change during which either two or more substances both change or one substance changes into at least two other substances. Thus, when wood burns, the substances present initially wood and oxygen in the atmosphere, are converted in a chemical reaction to water vapour, carbon dioxide, and ash. All combustions are chemical reactions. Other types of familiar chemical reactions include decay, fermentation, the hardening of cement, the development of a latent image in an exposed photographic film, the tarnishing of silver, the corrosion of steel, the evolution of gas when vinegar and soda are mixed, the synthesis of nylon, and the digestion of food.

In a general sense, material substances can undergo change in three ways: a change of position, called movement; a change of form, such as the freezing of liquid water; and a change of substance, a chemical reaction. Some classify changes of form as chemical reactions, but, historically, the term chemical reaction has been applied only to changes of substance. The application to change of form is discussed below. Using the historical definition, each different chemical reaction displays the same unique characteristics.

Thus, a chemical reaction is any type of chemical process in which substances are changed into different substances, as differentiated from other kinds of changes – those of position or form – undergone by matter. Chemical reactions are manifested by the disappearance of properties characteristic of the starting materials and the appearance of new properties that distinguish the products; within the limits of observation, the mass of the products formed is equal to the mass of the substances consumed.


I. Answer the questions:

1. What is a chemical reaction?

2. What do other types of familiar chemical reactions include?

3. In what ways can material substances undergo change?

4. How are chemical reactions manifested?

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