Translate text B in written form .



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Translate text B in written form .



There are certain functions that are basic to almost all microcomputers systems. Timing, fetch and execution, read memory, write memory, input/ output transfer and interrupts are the main operations.

Timing.

The operational activities of a microcomputer system are achieved by a sequence of cycling instructions. The MPU, for example fetches an instruction, executes it and continues to operate in a cycling pattern. This means that all actions occur at or during a precisely defined interval. An orderly sequence of operations like this necessitates some type of a precision clock mechanism. In practice, a free-running electronic oscillator or clock is responsible for this function. In some systems the clock may be built into the MPU, while in others it is provided with an independent unit that feeds the system through a separate clock control bus.

Sequential operations such as fetch and execute are achieved within a period                                                                  

called the MPU cycle. The fetch portion of this cycle consists of the same series of instructions and therefore takes the same amount of time for each instruction. The execute phase of an operation, by comparison, may consist of many events and sequences, depending on the specific instruction being performed. This portion of the cycle will vary a great deal with each particular instruction.

 

                                                  

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The total interval in which a timing pulse passes through a complete cycle from beginning to end os called a period. In practice, one or more clock periods may be needed to complete an operational instruction such as fetch. The execute operation, as a rule, may require a larger number of timing periods to cycle through its sequence. Essentially, this means that the machine cycle of a system may be variable, while the period of a timing pulse is consistent.

 

                                                             

                             Listening

Read questions carefully in advance and think about the type of information required.  

Listen to the dialogue twice.

Complete the form below. Write no more than three words or a number for each answer.

 

Volunteer applicant details

Name of enquirer:            Ben Oppermann

 

Age:                                     1………………………

 

 

Qualifications:

 

BA in Social Studies

Postgraduate Certificate in  2………………………………………………

Interested in a placement lasting 3…………………………….years

 

Other skills and interests:

 

Experience of                       4……………………………………… work

 

Member of a                      5………………………………………….group

Answer the questions. Write no more than three words /or a number for each answer.

 

 

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6. How long can the selection procedure for applicants take?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

7. When are short-listed applicants usually interviewed?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

8. Approximately what proportion of the cost of their traini8ng and travel are applicants expected to contribute?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

9. How long does each volunteer’s training last?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

10. When do placements generally begin?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

                                                    UNIT VIII

 

                                     ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

                       

 

1. Read the words and give their Russian equivalents:

 

Expert (n), illustrate (v), graphics (n), strategy (n), diagnose (v), procedure (n), testing (n), information (n), controller (n), center (n), modern(a).

 

2. Find adjectives in each line:

 

Science                                         scientific                                           scientist

Probable                                      probably                                           probability

Value                                          valueless                                             valuation

Digit                                            digital                                                  digitally

User                                            useful                                                  usage

Alter                                           alternate                                             alternately

Advisory                                    advice                                                       

 

                                                               

                                                      

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3. Find word with opposite meaning:

 

                   A                                                                           B

 

1. help (v)                                                                     1. damage (v)

2. correct (a)                                                                  2. mistaken

3. frequently                                                                  3. complicated

4. next                                                                             4. solution

5. allow                                                                           5. expand

6. internal                                                                       6. hardware

7. nearby                                                                         7. seldom

8. problem                                                                      8. revious

9. plain                                                                             9. stoppage

10.operation                                                                   10. remote

11. limit(v)                                                                       11. external       

12. software                                                                    12. Prohibit

 

4. Find Russian equivalents to the words given in column A :

 

                  A                                                                            B

 

1. smart diagnostics                                                     1. составные части дисковода    

2. drive components                                                    2. импульсное кодирующее устройство

3. pulse encoder                                                           3. внутренняя база данных

4. artificial intelligence                                                4. быстрое решение

5. internal database                                                     5. точная диагностика

6. remote diagnostics                                                  6. искусственный интеллект

7. quick solution                                                            7. дистанционная диагностика

 

5. Read and translate the text:

                                           AI makes robots smarter

Artificial intelligence is the science of making machines perform tasks that would require intelligence if they were done by a person.

Expert systems, smart diagnostics, and remote diagnostics will bridge the gap and provide quicker solutions to difficult problems. These kinds of tools will provide

 

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customers a means of recovering from robot-related problems and returning to production as quickly as possible.

Expert systems are intended to lead the user through the troubleshooting process by using prompts that determine possible solutions. The prompts will be in plain English, designed for people who aren’t frequently faced with robot problems. This system remembers and updates its internal reliability database to alter the troubleshooting strategy based on its experience.

Built-in procedures helped the user to diagnose the problem. Extensive procedures further explained testing to drive components and pulse encoder feedback loops. To even further show the value, color graphics of a digital dual trace oscilloscope, the set-up operation, and step-by-step procedures helped the user to select the correct settings and probes.

Smart diagnostics or semi-automatic diagnostics takes the above concept and enhances ots operation to the next level. Communication between a PC and the tested device allows for many different tests. Information can be gathered in real time or stored for later expert sessions. This information allows the expert system to make some basic decisions on the direction of the test session.

Remote diagnostics while not related to expert systems, can certainly bridge the gap between support personnel and the end user. PC or UNIX-based systems operating at the support center access the robot controller via phone modem.

In an advisory mode, the support personnel can then “look” into the problem controller to help the on-site personnel locate the problem. Operating system software could be downloaded and applications programming problems corrected, as well.

 

6. Give English equivalents of the words and word combinations:

Системы проверки, обеспечивать быстрое решение, заказчик, процесс диагностики, сталкиваться с проблемой, простой английский, цветная графика, надежная база данных, основные решения, устранять брешь, обслуживающий персонал, конечный пользователь.

 

7. Put the following sentences in order dictated by the text. Speak on each point.

 

1. Artificial intelligence

2. The advantages of expert systems, smart and remote diagnostics.

3. Expert systems operation.

4. Smart diagnostics.

5. The use of remote diagnostics.

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6. Support and on-site personnel.

8. Point out key words in each part of the text.

 

9. Find a key-sentence expressing the main idea of the text.

 

10. Use the material of the text to prove that AI improves robots operation.

                          WRITING A  LETTER OF COMPLAINT.

 

1. Read and translate the following letter of complaint.

Dear Sirs,

We are sorry to have to inform you that in the consignment of the equipment we have received against the above Contract there are several broken cases and some machines are damaged. We are sending you the report signed by our inspectors from which you will see the extent of the damage.

We would also like to draw your attention to a delay in shipping the machines. This is an infringement of Clause 4 of the Contract which, you may well see, also stipulates payment by the Supplier of damages in case of delay in delivery.

So we ask you to transfer to our account the sum of the penalty and to strictly observe the terms of the Contract in future.

 

We hope to hear from you soon.

Yours faithfully,

Name Surname

 Position

2. Complete the letter with proper phrases.

 

I am writing regarding the consignment of …………..we received to the above order yesterday. There seems to be a mistake in the order as we ordered ………..not the ……………..units that were delivered.

                                                               48

As I have firm orders for the……. I asked for, I would be grateful if you could send my consignment as soon as possible, and collect the wrongly delivered goods. Thank you very much in advance.

Best regards,

Name, Surname

Position

3. Write your own letter of complaint . You can invent the address, company name, and the problem.



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