Read the text . Be ready to answer the following questions.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Read the text . Be ready to answer the following questions.



1. What is microprocessor?

2. What is the function of chip?

3. How does microprocessor operate?

4. What are the advantages of new updated versions of chips?

5. What is the storage capacity of updated chips?

6. What is the architecture of microprocessor?

 

A microprocessor is a scaled-down computer that fits on a single chip. Typical chip sizes measure approximately 0.5 cm. In this small space the chip may contain over a million components. Several companies are now manufacturing these chips in a variety of different designs. The performance of these chips makes them compatible with the most demanding applications in business and industry.

 

                                                                 27

A microprocessor is essentially a digital device that is designed to receive data in the form of 1s and 0s.

It may then store these data for further processing or perform arithmetic and logic operations in accordance with stored instructions. The results will then be delivered to an output device. The microprocessor was primarily designed for use in low-level personal computers and is largely responsible for the term microcomputer. A microcomputer has several chips, including the microprocessor, mounted on its main circuit board. This board permits the computer to perform its arithmetic, logic control, and memory functions.

 New developments in microprocessor technology have changed the internal construction of this device. In 1975 the first personal computers using a                                                        

microprocessor began to appear on the market. Upgraded versions of these chips were soon introduced. Chips like Zilog’s Z80, MOS Technology’s 6502, Intel’s 8080, and Motorola’s 6809 all had built-in eight-line data paths or data buses. This type of chip is designed to retrieve from storage, manipulate and process a single eight-bit byte of data at a time.

A sixteen-line address bus is built into these chips for memory locations and instructions. This makes it possible for the chip to have 64,000 or 64K of memory.

                                                           

 

 

Listening (IELTS  Masterclass p 15. Unit 1.)

 

Read questions carefully in advance and think about the type of information required.  

Listen to the dialogue twice.

Complete the form below. Write no more than three words or a number for each answer.

 

Notes on University 2

Subject: International Business

Qualification: MIB

 

 

Entry requirements

 

Educational qualifications 1 ……………………………………………………………………….

English language                 2 …………………………………………………………………………..

                                                  

                                                    28

Course hours:                      3…………………………  per week.

Extended stay: at the start of the 4…………………………………………………………………….

 

Course dates

 

Semester 1:               27th September to 22nd January.

 

Semester 2:                7th February to 5……………………………….th May.

 

 

Course content

 

Study of                      6…………………………………………………………., in particular how 

                                     they are managed and their changing external context.

 

 

                                                     Phone enquiries

 

 

Purpose of the call:         Information about MIB course

 

Caller details

 

Name:                               Javed Iqbal

 

Home address:                Aga Khan Road, Shalimar 7 …………………, Islamabad, Pakistan

 

First degree

 

Subject:                             8………………………………………………

 

Class:                                 9…………………………………………………..

                                                        29

 

University:                        Islamabad University

 

First language/s:              10……………………………………………..

                                                 UNIT   V

                                                

                                             PROGRAMMING

1. Read and translate the following words:

Instruction, programmed, chip, type, dictate (v), method, symbol (n), punctuation, specialize (v), unique, address (n).

 

2. Find  Russian equivalents to the words given in the left column:

1. a series of                                                             1. посредством

2. generally                                                               2. обычно

3. normally                                                                3. из-за

4. through                                                                  4. как правило

5. because of                                                             5. потому что

6. as a rule                                                                 6. ряд

7.similar to                                                                7. aналогичный

                                                    

3.  Find the synonyms to the words given in the left column:

 

1. acceptable                                                            1. Microprogram

2. program                                                                2. Change

3. firmware                                                               3. Place

4. replacement                                                         4. Flexible

5. achieve                                                                  5. Permission

6. symbol                                                                     6. Get

7. command                                                              7. Instruction

8. operation                                                               8. Character

9. mode                                                                      9. Storage

10. locate                                                                  10. Work

                                                                                    11. way

                                                                                    12. system

 

                                                         30

 

 

4. Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

 

Firmware systems, prescribe operation, hard-wired, industrial application, employed method, plug-in circuit board, through software, ordinary typewriter, decimal digits, specialized keyboard characters, symbolized instructions, read-only memory, binary numbers, specific memory location, addressing modes.

 

5. Read  the text.

 

The term programming  generally refers to a series of acceptable instructions developed for a computer that will permit it to perform a prescribed operation or function. In microcomputer systems, some programs are hard-wired, some are in ROM called firmware, and others are described as software. A dedicated system that is designed to achieve a specific function is generally hardware programmed, which means that it cannot be adapted for other tasks without a physical circuit change. Firm ware systems have programmed material placed on ROM chips. Program changes for this type of system can be achieved by changing the ROM. A software type of program has the greatest level of flexibility. This type of program is created on paper and transferred to the system by keyboard, floppy disk, or hard disk-drive unit. Instructions are stored in RAM locations and performed by calling for these instructions from memory.

 

Most microprocessor systems used in industrial applications are replacements for hard-wired circuits or systems. The design of the system and its purpose usually dictate the type of programming method employed. Combined firmware and                                                           

software-programmed systems, with a keyboard, are very common today, and these systems often adapt personal computers for specific applications.

 

Computers of this type can be adapted to systems through hardware, by plug-in circuit boards, and through software, by programming. Personal computers are widely used in industrial systems because of the ease with which they can be adapted.

 

The instructions for a microcomputer system normally appear as a set of characters or symbols which are used to define a specific operation. The presentation of symbolized instructions may appear as binary numbers, hexadecimal numbers, or mnemonic codes.

 

 

                                                         31

Microcomputers may use one of several codes in a program. As a general rule, each type of MPU has a unique instructional set or repertoire of instructions which it is designed to understand and obey. These instructions primarily appear as a binary data symbols and words. Machine instructions of this type are usually held in a read-only memory unit that is address selected and connected to the MPU through the common data bus. Instructional sets of this type are firmware because they are fixed at a specific memory location and cannot be changed by program material.

 

Microcomputer instructions usually  consist of one, two, or three bytes of data. This type of data must follow the instruction commands in successive memory locations. The instructions are called addressing modes. There are several distinct types of addressing modes in a typical microcomputer systems.

 

 

6. Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

 

Вводные команды, микропрограммное обеспечение, жесткий дисковод, клавиатура, гибкий диск, уровень гибкости, особое применение, электронная схема, набор команд, шина для передачи данных, адресация, ячейка памяти.

 

7. Answer the questions :

 

1. What kind of system is called hardware-programmed?

2. What kind of system is called firmware system?

3. What are the main characteristics of software program?

4. Where are the instructions stored in a software program?                                                      

5. What kind of system can be replaced by microprocessor system?

6. How can microcomputer be adapted to different systems?

7. Why are personal computers widely used in industrial systems?

8. How can the symbolized instruction be represented?

9. What do microcomputer instructions consist of?

10. What do you know about different codes in a program?

11. What do you know about addressing modes?

 

8. Make up a plan of the text.

                                            

                                                          32

9. Render the text in English using your plan and following phrases:

The title of the text is………..

It is devoted to……… (it is concerned with, it deals with…)

I found the text rather interesting (easy, difficult…) because I’ve learned a great deal about….

According to the text…

As far as I could gather from the text…..

The text reports (informs) about…..

The text provides the reader with some data on ………

A careful account is given to…..

Of particular interest is….

In conclusion it is said that …..

WRITING A COVERING LETTER

 

1. Read and translate the following covering letter. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate phrases.

 

                                                                                               January 1, 2002

 

Tyson Kammen

8108 Coldspring Rd

Arlington, TX 76016

 

Dear Mr. Kammen,

 

I read, with interest, your ad in the _______________ for the position of _______________. I am enclosing my resume for your consideration, and will hopefully meet with you in the near future to discuss this exciting opportunity. 

I will not take up more of your time by describing my credentials; my resume is lengthy enough. I will simply say that I attribute all of my success to one thing: dedication to my profession. I have the education and practical experience that is necessary for me to perform this job successfully.

 

If you are seeking a candidate with my qualifications, I would welcome a personal interview. I can make myself available at your convenience. I will contact you in the near future to schedule a meeting time. Thank you for your consideration.

 

Sincerely

Jonathan Sammuels

                                                               33

2. Louisa Barry wants to apply for a job through Horizons Unlimited , so she is sending her CV and a covering letter. Put the address, date and letter in the correct order.

 

30th Aplril 2013

 

Horizons Unlimited                                           

PO Box 444

Richmond

Surrey

SJ5 4TS

 

 

15 Thayers Farm Road

Abingdon

Northampton

NT 12 4 PF

 

a. I would therefore be particularly interested in any secretarial position that you have available, especially in France or Switzerland.

 

b. I will be available to start work from the middle of June.

 

c. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

 

d. Yours faithfully,

                                                                                 

e. I enclose my CV, as requested.

 

f. I am a qualified and experienced secretary, and am bilingual in Spanish and English. I also speak French fluently.

 

g. I am writing in reply to your advertisement for temporary summer positions, which appeared in the Western Mail on 27th April.

 

h. Dear Sir or Madam,

 

I. However, I am willing to consider any kind of work.

j. Louisa Barry

                                                       

                                           34

3. Underline five phrases in Louisa’s letter that might be useful in any formal letter that you write in English.

4. Write a similar letter to employment agency in response to their advertisement. Mention briefly where you would like to work, and what kind of work you would be interested in. (You can invent qualifications and experience).

                                                       UNIT VI

 

                                                      MEMORY

 

1. Read and translate the following words:

Massive (a), economically, potential (a), in practice (n), classification (n), duplication (n), logical (a), group (n).

 

2. Find English equivalents of the following Russian words:

 

1. служащий              a) employment  b) employee    c) employer

2. существенный      a) essentially     b) essential      c)essentiality

3. дополнительный  a) add                   b) addition        c) additional

4. ограниченный      a) limitation       b) limited          c) limit

5. разнообразие         a) various                b) variety        c) variation

6.доступный                a) access                  b) accessing    c) accessed

7. выполненный         a) accomplish             b) accomplishment c)accomplished                     

 

                                                                        

3. Translate the following word combinations:

Direct

Serial

Random                                                         access

Keyed

Failure

Authorized

 

                                                     35

Associative                                           

Auxiliary

Core

Data addressed

Dynamic                                                           memory

Electrically-erasable

Read-only

External

Non-volatile

 

4. Read and translate the text A.

                                                         

                                       MICROCOMPUTER  FUNCTIONS

 

Microcomputer applications range from a number of single chip microprocessor units to some rather complex networks that employ several auxiliary chips interconnected together in a massive system. As general rule, the primary difference in this broad range of applications is in the memory capabilities of the system. Single-chip microprocessors are quite limited in the amount of memory they can process because of the large number of essential logic functions needed to make the unit operational. Additional memory, as a rule, can be achieved much more economically through the use of auxiliary chips. The potential capabilities of a microcomputer system are primarily limited by the range of memory that it employs.

 

Memory, in general terms, refers to the capability of a device to store logical data in such a way that a single bit or group of bits can be easily accessed or retrieved. In practice, memory can be achieved in a variety of different ways. Microprocessor systems are usually concerned with read/write memory and read-only memory. These two classifications of memory are accomplished by employing numerous semiconductor circuit duplications on a single IC chip.

 

Read/write memory permits the access of stored memory (reading) and the

ability to alter the stored data (writing). Read/write memory is commonly called random access memory (RAM). The read-only memory (ROM function is primarily concerned only with reading. ROM is primarily concerned with storing information that is not subject to change. When operation power is removed from a ROM device, it continues to retain its contents.

 

                                                     36

 

5. Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

Сложная сеть, вспомогательный чип, широкий диапазон, взаимосвязанный, способность памяти, дополнительная память, разнообразие, потенциальные возможности,

ПЗУ, память чтения-записи, полупроводниковые схемы.

 

6. Complete the following sentences:

1. Memory refers to the capability of a device to………..

2. Microcomputer operations vary from a number of single-chip microprocessor units to…….

3. A large number of essential logic functions limit……..

4. Microprocessor memory is divided into two main types of memory:

5. These two types of memory are accomplished by…….

6. Read/write memory is called……..

7. Rom is connected with…………

7. Answer the following questions:

 

1. What is meant by the term “memory”?

2. Why are single-chip microprocessors limited in the amount of memory?

3. How can additional memory be achieved?

4. What are the main types of microprocessor system memory?

5. What is the difference between RAM and ROM? 

 

                                                          TEXT B

1. Read the words and find their Russian equivalents:

 

Return (v), ultraviolet (a), dioxide (n), result (n), principle (n).

 

 

2. Translate the sentences paying attention to the underlined words.

                     

1. Storage of this type of memory unit is provided with read-only memory.

2. A data pattern can be placed into memory by “blowing out” the unwanted links .

3. A fusible link cannot be reformed after it has been destroyed.

4. The fusible link principle is used  only once.

                                                       37

 

5. Writing data into the chip again initiates the new program.

6. Erasing the changed data of each MOS cell is achieved by exposing the chip to ultraviolet light.

7. Selective charge and discharge of each cell can be achieved by signals applied to the gate connection.

8. The charge and discharge of each cell can be achieved by signals.

9. The potential usefulness of EEPROM is quite large.

 

3. Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

Permanent program, rarely altered data, prime example, nonvolatile, power source, small capacitor, fusible link, interconnecting conductor, light exposure, entire unit, zero state, excessive leakage, dissipate (v), circuit board, restore, gate connection, programmable controllers, alterable program, data logger.

 

4. Read and translate the text.

 

                                                      READ-ONLY MEMORY.

 

Most computer systems necessitate memories that contain permanently  stored or rarely altered data. A prime example of this would be math tables and permanent program data. Storage of this type of memory unit is provided with read-only memory. Information is often placed in this type of memory unit when the chip is manufactured. ROM data is non-volatile, which means that it is not lost when the power source is removed or turned off.

Read0only memory is achieved in a variety of ways. One process employs fusible links built into each memory cell. A data pattern can then be placed into memory by “blowing out” the unwanted fusible links. This action may be used to open interconnecting conductors, place a diode between two connections, or place a small capacitor between two electrodes. A fusible link cannot be reformed after it has been destroyed. The fusible link principle is used only once to program a read-only memory chip.

                                                      

Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) can be optically erased by exposure to an ultraviolet light source. After light exposure each cell of the entire unit goes to a zero state. Writing data into the chip again initiate the new program.

Erasing the charged data of each MOS cell is achieved by exposing the chip to ultraviolet light. This action temporarily makes the silicon-dioxide insulation layer more conductive. As a result, excessive leakage causes the floating gate charge to

                                                   38

dissipate. In practice, each cell of the chip is discharged by the exposure process at the same time. Memory can be restored by writing data back into each transistor cell. EPROMs of this type can be altered while in the circuit board if the need arises.

An alternative to EPROM is electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). This type of chip permits erasures of individual cells or word locations instead of the entire chip. Cell structure is similar to the EPROM, but the floating gate structure of each cell is altered by having a discrete interface insulation strip between it and the drain. Selective charge and discharge of each cell can be achieved by signals applied to the gate connection. The potential usefulness of EEPROM is quite large. It is presently used in programmable controllers, data loggers, and systems that have user-entered, alterable programs.

 

5. Find English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

 

Ультрафиолетовый свет, взрыв, разнообразие, постоянно хранящийся, конденсатор, плавная связь, заряд, изоляционный слой, разрушать, изменять, электрически стираемый, программный контроллер, программа доступная для пользователя, зарядка и разрядка батареи.

 

6. Complete the sentences according to the content of the text:

 

1. The main example of ROM memory may be ………

2. Information is often placed in this type of memory unit when ………………

3. The fusible-link principle is used only once to ……………………….

4. Erasable programmable read-only memory can be erased by……………………

5. Memory cell can be restored by …………………………….

6. EEPROM is an alternative to ………………………………..

7.This type of chip permits ………………………………………

8. EEPROM is used in……………………………………………….

 

7. Speak on Read-Only Memory.

 

                                                         TEXT C

 

                                         RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY

 

Read and translate the text without consulting the dictionary. Be ready to answer the following questions:

1. What types of RAM do you know?

                                                          39

2. What are the main characteristics of dynamic RAM?

3. What are the drawbacks of dynamic memory?

4. What are the main advantages and disadvantages of static memory unit?

5. Where is MOS (metal-oxide semiconductor) located and what is its function?

6. Discuss the main advantages and disadvantages of MOS.

 

                                      RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY

                                     

Random Access Memory or RAM semiconductor memories are the most widely used form of electronic memory found in microprocessors. Two basic types of RAM have been evolved in these systems. Dynamic RAM is noted for high capacity, moderate speeds, and low-power consumption. A memory cell of this type of circuit is achieved by charge-storage capacitors with drive transistors. The presence or absence of charge in a capacitor is interpreted by the RAM’ sense line as a logical 1 or  0). Because of a natural tendency for a charge to discharge itself into a lower energy-state configuration, dynamic RAM requires periodic charge refreshing in order to maintain data storage. Traditionally, the charge refreshing function of a RAM means that this type of system needs additional circuitry in order to perform its memory function.

Static RAM is an alternative to dynamic RAM. Static RAM is designed to store 1s and )s using traditional flip-flop gate configurations. This type of memory is faster and requires no refresh circuitry for continuous operation. An operator simply addresses the static RAM and, after a very brief delay, obtains the stored information from a specific location. Static RAM is easier to use and to design circuitry around, but the complexity of a memory cell occupies a great  deal more space than its dynamic counterpart. Static memory cells are also classified as volatile memory. With the energy source removed or turned off momentarily, a RAM will lose its memory.

Many RAMs employ a single metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistor for each memory location.

Binary information is stored in the transistor as a charge on a small capacitor. No charge across the transistor gate-channel electrodes indicates a 0 state, and a                                                           

charge appearing across the two electrodes represents a 1. When a row select line is activated, it energizes the gate of each transistor in the entire row. When a column line is selected, it energizes the source-drain electrodes of each transistor in the column. Simultaneous activation of a row and column energizes a specific transistor memory cell.

A charge placed on a discrete MOS transistor of a memory cell may be restored periodically in order to overcome leakage. Charge regeneration is generally achieved by a special transistor amplifier. In practice, charge regeneration occurs

                                                       

                                                             40

every few milliseconds on a continuous basis. To write a word into the memory, a specific address is first selected according to the data supplied by the address bus.

                                                

                                              UNIT VII

 

                                   Arithmetic-logic Unit

 

1. Read and translate the following international words:

 

Decoder(n), accumulator (n), arithmetic(a), operation (n), typical (a).

 

2. Find Russian equivalents to the words given in the left column:

 

1. in a sense                                                                    1. Как правило

2. as a rule                                                                      2. В конечном итоге

3. ultimately                                                                       3. Первоначально

4. since                                                                            4.в основном

5. the latter                                                                       5. В соответствии с

6. in this case                                                                    6. В некотором смысле

7. initially                                                                           7. Так как

8. basically                                                                         8. В данном случае

9. in accordance with                                                      9. Последний (из перечисленных)

 

3. Translate the following words and word combinations:

 

Logic operations, data words, data register, logic comparisons, control function, binary number, data input, temporary register, similar instruction, typical instruction, respond.

 

                                                               

4. Translate the sentences paying attention to forms and functions of the Infinitive:

 

1. Keys are made to work  automatically by control signals developed in the instruction decoder.

2. As a rule, addition, subtraction and logic comparisons are the primary operations to be performed by the ALU.

 

                                                       41

3. To demonstrate the operation of the ALU assume that two binary numbers are to be added.

4. The typical instruction is “to load the accumulator”.

5. The accumulators are designed to store operands that are to be processed by the ALU.

6. The instruction enables the contents of a particular memory location to be placed into the accumulator.

 

5. Read text A.

                                    ARITHMETIC-LOGIC UNIT.

All microprocessors contain an arithmetic-logic unit. In a sense, the ALU is a calculator chip that performs mathematical and logic operations on the data words supplied to it. Its keys are made to work automatically by control signals developed in the instruction decoder.

The ALU simply combines the contents of its two inputs, which are called the data register and the accumulator. As a rule, addition, subtraction and logic comparisons are the primary operations to be performed by the ALU. The specific operation to be performed is determined by a control signal supplied by instruction decoder.

The data supplied to the inputs of an ALU are normally in the form of 8-bit binary numbers. Upon receiving this data at the input, it is combined by the ALU in accordance with the logic of binary arithmetic. Since a mathematical operation is ultimately performed on the two data inputs, the latter are often called operands. It is important to note that the ALU only responds to binary numbers.

 

Accumulators

 The accumulators of a microprocessor are temporary registers which are designed to store operands that are to be processed by the ALU. Before the ALU can perform, it must first receive data from an accumulator. After the data register input and accumulator input are combined, the logical answer or output of the ALU appears in the accumulator. This function is basically the same for all microprocessors. In microprocessor operation, a typical instruction would be “to load the accumulator”. This instruction enables the contents of a particular memory location to be placed into the accumulator. A similar instruction might be to “store accumulator”. In this operation, the instruction causes the contents.

 

6. Find in the text English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

                                                       42

Арифметико-логический блок, логические операции, содержимое, получать, предполагать, ввод данных, работа микропроцессора, особая ячейка памяти, схожие команды, операнд.

 

 

7. Answer the questions:

 

1. Where is the ALU mounted?

2. What is the function of the ALU?

3. How many inputs has the ALU, what are they?

4. What are the primary operations performed by the ALU?

5. What kind of numbers does the ALU respond?

6. What part of microprocessor is called the accumulator?

7. What is the major function of the accumulator?

 

8. Speak on ALU and the accumulator using task 7 as a plan.

                                                                TEXT B

 



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