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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Entertainment. Use the questions from Ex. 6 to help you. Give additional information if you have some.
1. You will listen to a man talking about his experience of learning how to use a computer. Before you start working read the following information.
Information technology is having a very big effect on our lives. It allows us to:
- store very large amounts of information
- transmit a lot of information quickly
- process a lot of information as soon as we receive it.
With the developments of information technology we can now:
- send messages directly from one computer to another (electronic-mail)
- send electronic copies of documents (facsimile transfer)
- hold long-distance meetings in which the participants can see each other on a screen (teleconferencing)
- make use of central stores of information (databases or electronic filing)
- send and receive TV programmes from one country to another (satellite transmission).
2. Listen to a man. Read these questions before you listen:
1. Why did the man decide it was time to learn computers?
2. Who did he decide to ask for lessons?
3. Was he successful or not?
3. Listen to the man again and discuss the meaning of these expressions:
“thread the new ribbon in a typewriter”
“out of date”
“from that moment my memory of the lesson becomes vague…”
“a disc drive”
“a floppy disc”.
4. Answer the questions to the text:
1. The man suggests that there are three types of memory in a computer. Can you remember what they are?
2. The man’s son said it was possible to lose information on a floppy disc. Is that true? Why did he say it?
3. Why did the man stop his lessons?
4. Do you think he is typical?
1. Read and translate the following words:
Arithmetic(a), copy (v), alphabetic (a), symbol (n), manipulate(v), result (n), bit, binary (a), group (n), byte, fundamental (n), block (n), specific(a), processor (n).
2. Find Russian equivalents to the words given in the left column:
1. however 1. В то время как
2. a number of 2. В основном
3. primarily 3. Ряд
4. set of 4. Число
5. while 5. Все таки
6. still 6. Однако
7. in a way 7. Таким образом
3. Read and translate the following words:
1. operate - operator - operation - operating
2. compute - computer - computation - computing
3. compare - comparison - comparing - compared
4. manipulate - manipulator - manipulation - manipulating
5. arrange - arrangement - arranging - arranged
6. differ - difference - different
7. connect - connection - connected
4. Put the verbs given in the brackets into V-ing or V-ed forms:
1. Input data (supply) to the computer are translated into some type of a number code.
2. The keyboard (connect) to a computer is an example of a direct input device.
3. The term “computer” describes a number of (operate) systems.
4. Computers are (design) to automatically accept and store input data.
5. Fundamental parts may be (arrange) in a variety of different ways.
6. Data (feed) into input storage area are (hold) in memory.
7. The (work) storage space is like a sheet of scratch paper.
8. The program storage area is responsible for (hold) all the internal instructions of the processor.
5. Form adverbs from the following adjectives using the suffix – ly:
Essential, complete, primary, ultimate, fundamental, automatic, total, recent, direct.
6. Read and translate the following words and word combinations:
Appropriate information, routing map, set of instructions, desired result, built – in boundaries, specific application, arithmetic, output device, control section, continuous basis.
7. Read text A
The term computer is a broad general term which describes a number of operating systems. It primarily refers to a device that will perform automatic arithmetic computations when provided with the appropriate information. It is however much more than a fast calculator. A computer can choose, copy, move, compare, and perform other non-arithmetic operations on alphabetic, numeric, and other types of symbols used to represent different things. The computer manipulates these symbols through a routing map called a program. The program is a detailed set of instructions that directs the computer to function in a way that will produce a desired result. Computers are fast and accurate symbol-manipulating systems that are designed to automatically accept and store input data, process them and produce a resulting output.
Computers use numbers represented by the presence or absence of voltage at a particular level. A high voltage or pulse is taken to represent a “1” state, while no voltage indicates the “0” state. A voltage value or signal pulse is a bit of information. The term bit is a contraction of the letters bi from the word binary and the letter t from digit. A binary system has two states or conditions of
operation and uses the base 2 counting system. A group of pulses or voltage –level changes produces a word. A byte consists of eight bits.
A computer system, regardless of its complexity, has a number of fundamental parts that are the basis of its operation. These parts may be arranged in a variety of different ways and still achieve the same primary function. The internal organization and design of each block of a computer differ between manufactures.
Computers use a variety of devices for their input. The input is primary responsible for direct human to machine communication or interfacing. Input data supplies to the computer are translated into some type of number code or
machine language before operation progresses. These data may appear as magnetized material on a floppy disk or on a hard-drive unit. The keyboard or workstation connected directly to a computer is an example of a direct input device. Other inputs can be a mouse, a marking pen, a touch screen, or a microphone/sound-generating station.
The processor of a computer is considered to be the heart of the system. Processors house sections for storage, arithmetic and logic, and control. The storage or memory function of a processor is responsible for input data storage, working storage space, output storage, and program storage. Data fed into the input storage area are held in memory until ready to be processed. The working storage space is like a sheet of scratch paper. It is used to hold data being processed and any intermediate result of processing. The output storage area is designed to hold the finished results of the processing operation until they can be released. The program storage area is responsible for holding all of the internal instructions of the processor. These functions of the processor are not fixed by built-in boundaries, but can vary from one application to another. A specific storage area may be called on to store input data in one application, output results in another, and processing instructions in a third. The program of the unit determines how storage space is utilized for a specific application. The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) and control section of a processor are combined to form the CPU. Essentially, all calculations are performed and all comparisons or decisions are made in the ALU of the CPU. Once data are fed into input storage, they are held and transferred as needed to the ALU where processing takes place. No processing occurs in the input storage area. Any intermediate results generated in the ALU are temporarily placed in the working storage area. These data may
move from primary storage to the ALU and back again to the working storage area many times before processing is finished. Once the operation is complete, the final results are supplies to the output storage section and ultimately transferred to the output device. The type and number of ALU operations performed by the computer are determined by design of the CPU.
The control section of a computer is responsible for selecting, interpreting, program instructions, maintaining order, and directing system operations. The control section doesn’t process data, it acts like a central nervous system for other data-manipulating components of the computer. When processing begins, the first program instruction is selected and fed into the control section from
program storage area. It it then interpreted and sent to other components to execute the necessary action. Further program instructions are selected and executed on a continuous basis until the processing is completed.
8. Look through the 1 part of the text again and answer the following questions:
1. What does “computer” term mean?
2. What functions can computer perform?
3. What is a program?
4. What is the function of a program?
5. What is bit and byte?
6. What is the function of input device?
7. What types of input devices you know?
9. Read 2 part of the text and answer the questions:
1. What is a processor?
2. What is the function of processor?
3. What is the storage of a processor responsible for?
4. What is the function of ALU?
5. What determines the type and number of ALU operations performed by computer?
6. What is the function of the control section?
10. Read the 2 part of the text again and speak on processing using the words and word combinations given below:
Processor: the storage section, arithmetic and logic section, control section.
Storage section: input data storage, working storage space, output storage, program storage, to hold intermediate results, finished results, internal instructions of the processor, specific storage area, unit program.
ALU: CPU, calculations and comparisons, to transfer, processing takes place, operation is completed, final results, output storage section.
Control section: selecting, interpreting, executing program instructions, maintain order, to direct system operations, central nervous system, to select, to send, to execute.
1. Read the text and answer the questions:
1.In what way can the limited storage capacity be extended?
2. Describe the way of a secondary memory unit operation.
3. What types of computer memory do you know?
4. What happens to the hard-disk memory in case the disk is removed from the system?
To supplement the limited capacity of the primary storage section, most computers have a secondary or auxiliary memory unit. Memory devices of this type are connected directly to the processor. This is considered to be an on-line operation. The memory unit accepts and retains data and/or program instructions from the processor. It then writes data back to the processor as needed to complete the processing task. On-board or chip memory is usually built into the assembly board of a personal computer. In addition, a computer can have soft-disk memory and hard-disk memory that extends the memory of the system to an unlimited capacity. This memory remains intact after the disc is removed from the system. Since the processor no longer has direct and unassisted access to this memory, its storage capability is considered to be off line.
Writing a CV
1. Study the examples of resumes and write your own resume.
Name Robert Edward Bateman
Address 28 Grew Road, West Clapam.
Phone oo-country –code 333-444-4-
Date and place of birth 9th September 1987 , London
Education Ripton County School
Grant College of Further
University of Everton
Languages English, French
Previous experience 2 years of translator for
publishers of dictionaries
3 years of teaching English in
Interests Reading, travelling, art.
2. Read and translate CV example.
C URRICULUM VITAE
Name: HROSS NOVAK
Date of Birth: 1. 1. 1974
Address: NEW YORK, NY
Status: Single, Male
Faculty of Management 1992 - 1997
New York University
Course: Human Resource management
Thesis theme: Human Resource Management in Organization
Final examination subjects: Design of IS, Finance, Law, Economics
Aditus - personnel agency 1998- 2001
Recruiter for Western Europe
(Recruitment, human resource counseling, organizational culture audit, training
Acesta-Job.info - Job Search Server 2001 - today
(Business requirements analysis, process specification, start up, project management)
Faculty of Economics and Management 1997 - 2002
(HR management, Management, Marketing, Cybernetics, Participation in inland and European grants)
Languages: Fluently English, Polish, Spanish
Computer skills: MS Windows, MS Office, HTML, MS Project, Statgraphics, SPSS, PHP, SQL, internet, SEO, etc.
Photography (Nature, Animals)
Name: Bill C
Address: Los Angeles
Phone: 00 Country-code 333 444 555
Faculty of Software Development and Programming 1992 - 1997
University of Information Technology in Seattle
Course: Software Engineering (Programming)
Thesis theme: Multi platform Programming and Microsoft .Net, Java and PHP platforms
Final examination subjects: Information Architecture, Object Oriented Programming, Microsoft .NET Programming (C, C#)
SW Develepement and Programmming Ltd. 2009 - today
SW Engineer, Software Architect (since 2012)
(Programmming and development of IS for multinational corporations, system architecture, 10 subordinates /Software Engineers, IS Analysts/, J2EE, MS .NET C# and VB, PL/SQL, MSSQL, )
Aditus Recruitment 2001 - 2008
Programming Department Manager (since 2004),
Programmer (SW Engineer, 2000-2004)
(Software Development Architecture and Strategy, 5 subordinates /Programmers, Analyst and Quality Engineer/, Microsoft .NET C#, MSSQL, Visual Basic, PHP, PERL Technologies, Internet Applications)
Acesta-Job.info - Job Search Information 1997 - 2000
Programmer (Software Engineer)
(Analyze and Development of Information System, Software Architecture, PHP, MySQL and JAVA technologies)
Languages: English (Native), French (Advanced), Czech (beginner)
C# (MS .NET) professional SW Architecture, programmers team management
PHP professional SW development of wide information system
JAVA (J2EE) professional 4 years experiences
J2SE advanced 1 year experience
Perl professional internet applications development
C, C++ advanced
Visual Basic professional
MS SQL professional 7 years
MySql professional 10 years
Windows 98, 2000,PL/SQL
XP, Vista, 2003 Server professional
Internet and Mobile Technologies
Golf, Squash, Biketrial, Traveling
4. Write your own CV.
1. Read and translate the following international words:
Decide, potential (a), version (n), adapter (n), interface (n), complex (a), plus (v), manipulate (v), base (n), discrete (a), ultraviolet (a), energy (a), accumulator (n), operand (n), initiate (v).
2. Translate the following adverbs. State the adjectives they are formed from:
Fully, fastly, generally, primarily, normally, physically, virtually, specifically, temporarily, logically, rarely, immediately.
3. Find Russian equivalents to the words given in the left column:
1. such as 1. действительно
2. in the same manner 2. так, чтобы
3. actually 3. определенный
4. nearly 4. вполне
5. so that 5. таким же образом
6. certain 6. такой как
7.access 7. почти
4. Translate the word combinations:
Datum limit REGISTER
5. Translate the following word combinations:
Easy serviceability, simplified version, microcomputer technology, small capacity, control circuitry, large-scale computer, enormous memory capacity, tiny unit, single circuit board, numbering systems, arithmetic function, temporary registers,
program counter, instruction decoder, sequence controllers, auxiliary memory, rarely altered data, permanent program data.
6. Find in each line the verb in Passive form:
1. a) process b) has processed c) has been processed
2. a) was placed b) was placing c) was to place
3. a) will maintain b) will be maintaining c) will be maintained
4. a) is using b) is being used c) is to use
5. a) executing b) is executed c) has
7. Read and translate the text
Microcomputer systems are one of the most significant developments in industrial processing in the last decade. Benefits such as smaller equipment size, increased reliability, easy service ability and lower product cost are only a few major considerations to keep in mind. As a general rule, a microcomputer is quite complex when looked at it in its entirely. It has a microprocessor, memory, an interface adapter, and several distribution paths called buses.
Microcomputer technology has virtually revolutionized the industrial process field by providing small-capacity computer systems that can be built into instruments.
Microcomputers use decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal numbering systems.
Microprocessor is a primary control section of a computer, scaled down so that it fits on a single IC chip. The ALU part of the chip performs arithmetic function. Accumulators are temporary registers that store operands that are to be processed by ALU. Data registers are used to temporarily store the address of a memory location that are to be accessed for data. A program counter is used to
hold the address of the next instruction to be executed, program instruction decoders are used to decipher an instruction after it has been pulled from
memory. Sequence controllers maintain the logical order in which events are performed. Buses are a group of conductor paths that supply words to registers.
Most microcomputer systems employ auxiliary memory units to extend operating capabilities. Memory permits data to be accessed or retrieved. Read/write memory permits data to be placed or stored into specific memory cell and retrieve it later when it is needed. Read-only memory contains permanently stored or rarely altered data. Permanent program data is an example of ROM application. EPROM is erasable programmable read-only memory in which electrical energy or ultraviolet light is used to erase stored data.
There are certain functions that are basic to almost all microcomputer systems, such as timing, fetch and execute read memory, write memory, input/output transfer, and interrupt operations.
8. Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:
Потенциальные возможности, преимущества, надежность, крупномасштабные компьютеры, крошечный блок, объем памяти, отдельная электронная схема, шестнадцатеричная система, восьмеричная система, ценность, счетчик программ, ячейка памяти, операнд, дешифратор команд, вспомогательная память, оперативная память, ПЗУ, передача данных, прерывание.
9. Match the sentences according to the text:
1. A digital computer system has …… 1. thousands of components.
2. Microcomputer system is …… 2. the primary control section of a computer.
3. The potential capabilities of the microcomputer ….. 3. a tiny unit built on a chip.
4. Large-scale computers employ……… 4. temporarily store the address of a memory location
5. Microcomputers are designed to ………. 5. input/output unit, ALU, control circuitry and memory.
6. Radix of the system indicates ………… 6. have not been fully realized.
7. Microprocessor is …………. 7. handle specific applications similar to those of a those of a central computer.
8. Memory permits data ……………. 8. the number of discrete digits it uses.
9. Data registers are used to ………………….. 9. to be accessed or retrieved.
10. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the basic organization of a computer system?
2. What is an accumulator and function it performs?
3. What is the purpose of a data register?
4. What are the basic differences between read/write and ROM chips?
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