Entertainment. Use the questions from Ex. 6 to help you. Give additional information if you have some.



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Entertainment. Use the questions from Ex. 6 to help you. Give additional information if you have some.



                                                     

                                                  Listening

1. You will listen to a man talking about his experience of learning how to use a computer. Before you start working read the following information.

 

Information technology is having a very big effect on our lives. It allows us to:

- store very large amounts of information

- transmit a lot of information quickly

- process a lot of information as soon as we receive it.

                                                     

With the developments of information technology we can now:

- send messages directly from one computer to another (electronic-mail)

- send electronic copies of documents (facsimile transfer)

- hold long-distance meetings in which the participants can see each other on a screen (teleconferencing)

- make use of central stores of information (databases or electronic filing)

- send and receive TV programmes from one country to another (satellite transmission).

 

2. Listen to a man. Read these questions before you listen:

 

1. Why did the man decide it was time to learn computers?

2. Who did he decide to ask for lessons?

3. Was he successful or not?

 

3. Listen to the man again and discuss the meaning of these expressions:

 

“thread the new ribbon in a typewriter”

“out of date”

“a VDU”

“from that moment my memory of the lesson becomes vague…”

“a disc drive”

“a floppy disc”.

 

4. Answer the questions to the text:

1. The man suggests that there are three types of memory in a computer. Can you remember what they are?

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2. The man’s son said it was possible to lose information on a floppy disc. Is that true? Why did he say it?                                                           

3. Why did the man stop his lessons?

4. Do you think he is typical?

                                        UNIT III

 

                                   COMPUTER BASICS

1. Read and translate the following words:

Arithmetic(a), copy (v), alphabetic (a), symbol (n), manipulate(v), result (n), bit, binary (a), group (n), byte, fundamental (n), block (n), specific(a), processor (n).

 

2. Find Russian equivalents to the words given in the left column:

 

1. however                                                                    1. В то время как

2. a number of                                                             2. В основном

3. primarily                                                                        3. Ряд

4. set of                                                                         4. Число

5. while                                                                          5. Все таки

6. still                                                                              6. Однако

7. in a way                                                                    7. Таким образом

                                                                                              8. независимо

 

3. Read and translate the following words:

 

1. operate            - operator               - operation                    - operating

2. compute         - computer              - computation              - computing

3. compare         - comparison           - comparing                  - compared

4. manipulate     - manipulator          - manipulation              - manipulating

5. arrange            - arrangement         - arranging                     - arranged

6. differ                 - difference              - different

7. connect             - connection             - connected

 

4. Put the verbs given in the brackets into V-ing or V-ed forms:

 

1. Input data (supply) to the computer are translated into some type of a number code.

2. The keyboard (connect) to a computer is an example of a direct input device.

3. The term “computer” describes a number of (operate) systems.

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4. Computers are (design) to automatically accept and store input data.

5. Fundamental parts may be (arrange) in a variety of different ways.

6. Data (feed) into input storage area are (hold) in memory.

7. The (work) storage space is like a sheet of scratch paper.

8. The program storage area is responsible for (hold) all the internal instructions of the processor.

 

5. Form adverbs from the following adjectives using the suffix – ly:

Essential, complete, primary, ultimate, fundamental, automatic, total, recent, direct.

                                                

 

6. Read and translate the following words and word combinations:

Appropriate information, routing map, set of instructions, desired result, built – in boundaries, specific application, arithmetic, output device, control section, continuous basis.

 

 7. Read text A

                                                          TEXT A

                                                          PART I

                                             COMPUTER BASICS

The term computer is a broad general term which describes a number of operating systems. It primarily refers to a device that will perform automatic arithmetic computations when  provided with the appropriate information. It is  however much more than a fast calculator. A computer can choose, copy, move, compare, and perform other non-arithmetic operations on alphabetic, numeric, and other types of symbols used to represent different things. The computer manipulates these symbols through a routing map called a program. The program is a detailed set of instructions that directs the computer to function in a way that will produce a desired result. Computers are fast and accurate symbol-manipulating systems that are designed to automatically accept and store input data, process them and produce a resulting output.

Computers use numbers represented by the presence or absence of voltage at a particular level. A high voltage or pulse is taken to represent a “1” state, while no voltage indicates the “0” state. A voltage value or signal pulse is a bit of information. The term bit is a contraction of the letters bi from the word binary and the letter t  from digit. A binary system has two states or conditions of

 

 

                                                      15

operation and uses the base 2 counting system. A group of pulses or  voltage –level changes produces a word. A byte consists of eight bits.

A computer system, regardless of its complexity, has a number of fundamental parts that are the basis of its operation. These parts may be arranged in a variety of different ways and still achieve the same primary function. The internal organization and design of each block of a computer differ between manufactures.

Computers use a variety of devices for their input. The input is primary responsible for direct human to machine communication or interfacing. Input data supplies to the computer are translated into some type of number code or

machine language before operation progresses. These data may appear as magnetized material on a floppy disk or on a hard-drive unit. The keyboard or workstation connected directly to a computer is an example of a direct input device. Other inputs can be a mouse, a marking pen, a touch screen, or a microphone/sound-generating station.

 

                                                               

                                                    PART II

                                             PROCESSORS

The processor  of a computer is considered to be the heart of the system. Processors house sections for storage, arithmetic and logic, and control. The storage or memory function of a processor is responsible for input data storage, working storage space, output storage, and program storage. Data fed into the input storage area are held in memory until ready to be processed. The working storage space is like a sheet of scratch paper. It is used to hold data being processed and any intermediate result of processing. The output storage area is designed to hold the finished results of the processing operation until they can be released. The program storage area is responsible for holding all of the internal instructions of the processor. These functions of the processor are not fixed by built-in boundaries, but can vary from one application to another. A specific storage area may be called on to store input data in one application, output results in another, and processing instructions in a third. The program of the unit determines how storage space is utilized for a specific application. The arithmetic-logic unit  (ALU) and control section of a processor are combined to form the CPU. Essentially, all calculations are performed and all comparisons or decisions are made in the ALU of the CPU. Once data are fed into input storage, they are held and transferred as needed to the ALU where processing takes place. No processing occurs in the input storage area. Any intermediate results generated in the ALU are temporarily placed in the working storage area. These data may

 

                                                          16

 move from primary storage to the ALU and back again to the working storage area many times before processing is finished. Once the operation is complete, the final results are supplies to the output storage section and ultimately transferred to the output device. The type and number of ALU operations performed by the computer are determined by design of the CPU.

The control section of a computer is responsible for selecting, interpreting,  program instructions, maintaining order, and directing system operations. The control section doesn’t process data, it acts like a central nervous system for other data-manipulating components of the computer. When processing begins, the first program instruction is selected and fed into the control section from                                                               

program storage area. It it then interpreted and sent to other components to execute the necessary action. Further program instructions are  selected and executed on a continuous basis until the processing is completed.

 

8. Look through the 1 part of the text again and answer the following questions:

 

1. What does “computer” term mean?

2. What functions can computer perform?

3. What is a program?

4. What is the function of a program?

5. What is bit and byte?

6. What is the function of input device?

7. What types of input devices you know?

 

9. Read 2 part of the text and answer the questions:

 

1. What is a processor?

2. What is the function of processor?

3. What is the storage of a processor responsible for?

4. What is the function of ALU?

5. What determines the type and number of ALU operations performed by computer?

6. What is the function of the control section?

 

 

10. Read the 2 part of the text again and speak on processing using the words and word combinations given below:

Processor: the storage section, arithmetic and logic section, control section.

 

 

                                                        17

Storage section: input data storage, working storage space, output storage, program storage, to hold intermediate results, finished results, internal instructions of the processor, specific storage area, unit program.

 

ALU: CPU, calculations and comparisons, to transfer, processing takes place, operation is completed, final results, output storage section.

 

Control section: selecting, interpreting, executing program instructions, maintain order, to direct system operations, central nervous system, to select, to send, to execute.

                                                       

                                                    TEXT B

 

                                                   MEMORY

1. Read  the text and answer the questions:

 

                                                                

1.In what way can the limited storage capacity be extended?

2. Describe the way of a  secondary memory unit operation.

3. What types of computer memory do you know?

4. What happens to the hard-disk memory in case the disk is removed from the system?

 

To supplement the limited capacity of the primary storage section, most computers have a secondary or auxiliary memory unit. Memory devices of this type are connected directly to the processor. This is considered to be an on-line operation. The memory unit accepts and retains data and/or program instructions from the processor. It then writes data back to the processor as needed to complete the processing task. On-board or chip memory is usually built into the assembly board of a personal computer. In addition, a computer can have soft-disk memory and hard-disk memory that extends the memory of the system to an unlimited capacity. This memory remains intact after the disc is removed from the system. Since the processor no longer has direct and unassisted access to this memory, its storage capability is considered to be off line.

                                                   

                                                      18

                                            Writing a CV

1. Study the  examples of resumes and write your own resume.

 

Curriculum Vitae

 

Personal data

 

Name                                                                                Robert Edward Bateman

 

Address                                                                             28 Grew Road, West Clapam.

                                                                                         UK

 

Phone                                                                                oo-country –code 333-444-4-   

                                                         

E-mail                                                                             name.programmer@domain.net 

                                                                                                                                        

Date and place of birth                                                9th September 1987 , London

 

 Nationality                                                                     British

                                                      

Education                                                                           Ripton County School

                                                                                         Grant College of Further                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                         University of Everton

 

Languages                                                                      English, French

 

Previous experience                                                    2 years of translator for                 

                                                                                          publishers of dictionaries

 

                                                                                          3 years of teaching English in

                                                                                            France

                                                                                     

Interests                                                                          Reading, travelling, art.

 

                                                    19

2. Read and translate CV example.

C URRICULUM VITAE

Personal Information

Name: HROSS NOVAK

 Date of Birth: 1. 1. 1974

 Address: NEW YORK, NY

 Telephone: 77676767611112

 E-mail: hross.novak@domain.net

 Nationality: Polish

 Status: Single, Male

Education

Faculty of Management 1992 - 1997

New York University

 Course: Human Resource management

Thesis theme: Human Resource Management in Organization

 Final examination subjects: Design of IS, Finance, Law, Economics

Job experience

Aditus - personnel agency 1998- 2001

Recruiter for Western Europe

(Recruitment, human resource counseling, organizational culture audit, training

Acesta-Job.info - Job Search Server 2001 - today

Project manager

                                                             20

 (Business requirements analysis, process specification, start up, project management)

www.acesta-job.info

Faculty of Economics and Management 1997 - 2002

External teacher

(HR management, Management, Marketing, Cybernetics, Participation in inland and European grants)

Skills

Languages: Fluently English, Polish, Spanish

Computer skills: MS Windows, MS Office, HTML, MS Project, Statgraphics, SPSS, PHP, SQL, internet, SEO, etc.                                                    

Interests

Tennis, Golf

 Book Reading

 Photography (Nature, Animals)

                                                        

                                                  Example 3.

CURRICULUM VITAE

 

Personal Data

 

Name: Bill C

 Address: Los Angeles

 Phone: 00 Country-code 333 444 555

 Birth: 11-01-1975

 E-mail: name.programmer@domain.net

 Nationality: English

 Status: Male

 

                                                   21

Education

Faculty of Software Development and Programming 1992 - 1997

University of Information Technology in Seattle

 Course: Software Engineering (Programming)

 Thesis theme: Multi platform Programming and Microsoft .Net, Java and PHP platforms

 Final examination subjects: Information Architecture, Object Oriented Programming, Microsoft .NET Programming (C, C#)

 

Job experience

SW Develepement and Programmming Ltd. 2009 - today

SW Engineer, Software Architect (since 2012)

(Programmming and development of IS for multinational corporations, system architecture, 10 subordinates /Software Engineers, IS Analysts/, J2EE, MS .NET C# and VB, PL/SQL, MSSQL, )

 

 

Aditus Recruitment 2001 - 2008

Programming Department Manager (since 2004),

Programmer (SW Engineer, 2000-2004)

(Software Development Architecture and Strategy, 5 subordinates /Programmers, Analyst and Quality Engineer/, Microsoft .NET C#, MSSQL, Visual Basic, PHP, PERL Technologies, Internet Applications)

 

www.aditus.cz

Acesta-Job.info - Job Search Information 1997 - 2000

Programmer (Software Engineer)

(Analyze and Development of Information System, Software Architecture, PHP, MySQL and JAVA technologies)

 

www.acesta-job.info

 

Skills

 

Languages: English (Native), French (Advanced), Czech (beginner)

 

                                                       

                                                       22

Computer Skills:

 

 Programming         

C# (MS .NET)                       professional     SW Architecture, programmers team management

PHP                                 professional         SW development of wide information system

JAVA (J2EE)                       professional     4 years experiences

J2SE                                 advanced                   1 year experience

Perl                                     professional          internet applications development

C, C++                                     advanced   

Visual Basic                  professional 

HTML                                professional          

CSS                                professional

                                                  

Database        

MS SQL                               professional      7 years

MySql                                     professional   10 years

PostgreSQL                 professional  

Oracle                                         average

Operating Systems             

Windows 98, 2000,PL/SQL

XP, Vista, 2003 Server    professional   

Unix                                advanced   

Linux                                professional          

 

                                                    

Hobbies

 

Internet and Mobile Technologies

 Golf, Squash, Biketrial, Traveling

 

 

4. Write your own CV.                                             

 

 

                                              23

                                          UNIT IV

                          MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS

1. Read and translate the following international words:

 

 Decide, potential (a), version (n), adapter (n), interface (n), complex (a), plus (v), manipulate (v), base (n), discrete (a), ultraviolet (a), energy (a), accumulator (n), operand (n), initiate (v).

 

2. Translate the following adverbs. State the adjectives they are formed from:

 

 Fully, fastly, generally, primarily, normally, physically, virtually, specifically, temporarily, logically, rarely, immediately.

 

3. Find Russian equivalents to the words given in the left column:

 

1. such as                                                           1. действительно

2. in the same manner                                    2. так, чтобы

3. actually                                                          3. определенный

4. nearly                                                             4. вполне

5. so that                                                            5. таким же образом

6. certain                                                            6. такой как

7.access                                                              7. почти

                                                                             8. близкий

                                                                             9. доступ

 

 

4. Translate the word combinations:

 


Data                                                                 

Temporary                                                      

Current address

Datum limit                                                                             REGISTER

Index

Shift

General-purpose

Instruction

 

                                                     24

5. Translate the following word combinations:

 

Easy serviceability, simplified version, microcomputer technology, small capacity, control circuitry, large-scale computer, enormous memory capacity, tiny unit, single circuit board, numbering systems, arithmetic function, temporary registers,                                                                    

 program counter, instruction decoder, sequence controllers, auxiliary memory, rarely altered data, permanent program data.

 

6. Find in each line the verb in Passive form:

1. a) process                            b) has processed                                  c) has been processed

2. a) was placed                      b) was placing                                       c) was to place

3. a) will maintain                   b) will be maintaining                         c) will be maintained

4. a) is using                             b) is being used                                    c) is to use

                                                

5. a) executing                         b) is executed                                       c) has

                                                                                                                            executed

 

7. Read and translate the text

                                                              TEXT A

 

Microcomputer systems are one of the most significant developments in industrial processing in the last decade. Benefits such as smaller equipment size, increased reliability, easy service ability and lower product cost are only a few major considerations to keep in mind. As a general rule, a microcomputer is quite                                                    complex when looked at it  in its entirely. It has a microprocessor, memory, an interface adapter, and several distribution paths called buses.

Microcomputer technology has virtually revolutionized the industrial  process field by providing small-capacity computer systems that can be built into instruments.

Microcomputers use decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal numbering systems.

Microprocessor is a primary control section of a computer, scaled down so that it fits on a single IC chip. The ALU part of the chip performs arithmetic function. Accumulators are temporary registers that store operands that are to be processed by ALU. Data registers are used to temporarily store the address of a memory location that are to be accessed for data. A program counter is used to

hold the address of the next instruction to be executed, program instruction decoders are used to decipher an instruction after it has been pulled from

                                                            25

memory. Sequence controllers maintain the logical order in which events are performed. Buses are a group of conductor paths that supply words to registers.

Most microcomputer systems employ auxiliary memory units to extend operating capabilities. Memory permits data to be accessed or retrieved. Read/write memory permits data to be placed or stored into specific memory cell and retrieve it later when it is needed. Read-only memory contains permanently stored or rarely altered data. Permanent program data is an example of ROM application. EPROM is erasable programmable read-only memory in which electrical energy or ultraviolet light is used to erase stored data.

There are certain functions that are basic to almost all microcomputer systems, such as timing, fetch and execute read memory, write memory, input/output transfer, and interrupt operations.

 

                                                        

8. Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

 

Потенциальные возможности, преимущества, надежность, крупномасштабные компьютеры, крошечный блок, объем памяти, отдельная электронная схема, шестнадцатеричная система, восьмеричная система, ценность, счетчик программ, ячейка памяти, операнд, дешифратор команд, вспомогательная память, оперативная память, ПЗУ, передача данных, прерывание.

 

                                                                 

9. Match the sentences according to the text:

 

1. A digital computer system has ……                                          1. thousands of components.

2. Microcomputer system is ……                                                  2. the primary control section of a computer.             

                                                                                                                   

3. The potential capabilities of the microcomputer …..           3. a tiny unit built on a chip.

4. Large-scale computers employ………                                       4. temporarily store the address of a memory location

                                                                                                                    

5. Microcomputers are designed to ……….                                 5. input/output unit, ALU, control circuitry and memory.

 

                                                          

 

                                                         26

                                                                                                                

6. Radix of the system indicates …………                                     6. have not been fully realized.

7. Microprocessor is ………….                                                         7. handle specific applications similar to those of a                                                                                                                      those of a central computer.

8. Memory permits data …………….                                             8. the number of discrete digits it uses.

9. Data registers are used to …………………..                                9. to be accessed or retrieved.

 

                                                                                

10. Answer the following questions:

 

1. What is the basic organization of a computer system?

2. What is an accumulator and function it performs?

3. What is the purpose of a data register?

4. What are the basic differences between read/write and ROM chips?

                                            

                                                   

                                                           TEXT B

 

                                            

                                            MICROPROCESSOR

 



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