ТОП 10:

Announced, oppose, ensure, authority, expressed, prescribed, borrow, lies, vest, treaty, empower, separation, misuses, implied, raised, expressed, conceived, patterns, levied

1. A commanding officer has complete … over his personnel. 2. In Indochina all previous …. of America's involvement abroad were shattered. 3. All children will tend to suffer from …. from their parents. 4. They signed a … to settle all border disputes by arbitration. 5. He … the fact, but gave no details. 6. You could … some money from your uncle without paying interest. 7. Who first … the idea of announcing the competition? 8. Computers …. students to become intellectual explorers. 9. The government has taken measures to … against Euro cheats. 10. It is … as a percentage. 11. It is not directly asserted, but it seems to be … .12. Taxes should be …. more on the rich than on the poor. 13. The job of ensuring an equal sharing of national wealth …. with the government. 14. It will not be men's fault if she …. her liberty. 15. The world does not …. religion as such. 16. The punishment is …. by law. 17. Any worker who makes a useful suggestion to the firm will beto a higher position. 18. I … you with full powers to decide any question which may arise.

B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.

1. Who was … authority? 2. These employees are … my authority. 3.what authority do you do these things, and who gave you this authority? 4. They are always borrowing … us. 5. He expressed his sympathy … the bereaved (постраждала) family. 6. They will only assume that, as a woman, the fault lies … me. 7. The problem lay … the large amounts spent … defence. 8. The Indian Government was vested … the power of sovereignty. 9. In some countries authority is said to be vested … people. 10. Congress of the United States is established … the Constitution. 11. The Senate is composed … 100 members who are elected … a term …six years. 12. The number of Representatives depends … its population. 13. The Speaker presides … the House of Representatives.

6.Translate the words given in two columns and match the pairs as they are used in the text.

1. державний a. конституція
2. двоїстий b. Палата
3. найстаріший c. гілка
4. іноземний d. характер
5. судовий e. принцип
6. обраний f. Сенат
7. головний g. влада
8. спеціальний (2) h. суддя
9. високий i. спосіб
10. вищий j. посадовець
11. персональний k. управління
12. консервативний l. повноваження
13. різноманітний m. держава
14. федеральний n. спосіб
15. законодавчий o. місце

7. Fill in a correct word or phrase from the list below:

International; sea; taxes; Supreme Court; money (4); courts; credit; patent; commerce; copyright; foreign; post; interstate; post offices; naturalization; counterfeiters; value(2); measures; war; support; imminent; gold; militias (2); invaded; laws (2); countries; states; troops; rebellions (2); exports (2);imports; invasion (2); nobility (2); District of Columbia; obligation; federal government; ex post facto (2); powers; attainder (2); elastic clause; silver; implied; treaty; habeas corpus; act of Congress; water; advantages

Some of the powers of Congress are: to collect (1)____________; borrow (2) _________ on the (3)_________ of the United States; regulate (4) _________ (both (5) _________ and (6)_________; make (7)__________ laws allowing foreigners to become citizens; coin (8)_________ and decide its (9)________ and the (10)_________ of foreign (11)_________; fix the (12)________ of weights and (13) ________; punish (14) _________; set up (15) _________ and roads; encourage the science and arts by passing (16)________ laws and (17) ________ laws; set up all federal (18) _________ lower than the (19)________ ________; punish crimes at (20) __________ or against (21) ____law; declare (22) ___; raise and (23) ___ the army, navy, and air force; call the states’ (24)_________ to enforce federal (25) __________; end (26) __________, or for defense against (27) ____; organize and furnish weapons for the states’ (28)_________; govern the (29) _________ ___________ and control all property in the states owned by the (30) ________ _________ and pass laws to see that these (31)__________ are carried out. This last clause is sometimes called the (32)__________ __________ and gives Congress its (33) ____________ powers.

Some powers Congress may not have are to rake away the privilege of writs of (34) __________ _________ except during times of (35)_________ or (36)_________; pass bills of (37)____________ or (38) _________ laws; tax (39) _________; give to the ports of any one state any (40) _________ over those of another, or tax goods shipped by (41) _________ in the United States; draw money from the United States Treasury without an (42)_______ ____________; or grant title4s of (43) ___________.

Some powers the states may not have are: to make any separate (44)____; coin (45)____; use anything but (46) ____ or (47) ___ money in payment of debts; pass bills of (48) ____, (49) ___ ______ laws, or laws that damage the (50)____ of contracts; or grant titles of (51)_____. States must have the permission of Congress to tax (52) ____ or (53) ____; keep (54)____ or warships in time of peace; make agreements with other (55) ____ or foreign (56) ____; or fight a war unless actually (57)___ or in (58) _____.

8. Match the words given on the left with their definitions on the right.

1.authority a. involved in the writing and passing of laws
2. government b. to manage the affairs of a business, organization, or institution
3. legislative c. an amount of money levied by a government on its citizens and used to run the government and the country or state
4. executive d. a formal contract or agreement negotiated between countries or other political entities
5. judicial e. an organized event at which somebody is chosen for something, especially a public office, by vote; the process of choosing somebody or of being chosen by vote
6. tax f. power to act on behalf of somebody else or official permission to do something
7. credit g. a written proposal for a new law, discussed and voted upon by the members of a legislative body
8. commerce h. the section of a country’s government responsible for implementing legislative decisions
9. to administer i. the management or control of something; a group of people who have the power to make and enforce laws for a country or area; a type of political system
10. treaty j. the large-scale buying and selling of goods and services
11. to approve k. to give formal approval to something, usually an agreement negotiated by somebody else, in order that it can become valid or operative
12. to ratify l. to agree officially to something, or accept that something has reached a required standard
13. election m. to express an opinion or preference in an election or for a referendum
14. to vote n. relating or belonging to a body of judges or to the system that administers justice
15. bill o.the amount of money that a financial institution is prepared to lend somebody

9. Translate the text given below.

Наглядові (oversight) повноваження Конгресу

Нагляд Конгресу запобігає марнотратству (waste) й ошуканству (fraud); захищає громадянські свободи та права людини; забезпечує неухильне дотримання (compliance with) виконавчою владою законів; накопичує інформацію для законотворення й просвітницької роботи в суспільстві; оцінює (evaluates) дієвість (performance) виконавчої гілки влади. Цей нагляд охоплює (applies to) міністерства Кабінету, виконавчі управління, регулюючі комісії, а також Президента.

Функція нагляду Конгресу набуває різних форм:

  • розслідування та слухання у комітетах;
  • проведення офіційних консультацій з Президентом та вивчення президентських звітів;
  • надання Сенатом порад та згоди щодо президентських призначень і договорів;
  • початок справи про імпічмент Палатою Представників та подальший (subsequent) розгляд справи Сенатом;
  • дії Палати Представників та Сенату відповідно до Двадцять п‘ятої поправки у випадку, коли Президент виявляє неспроможність виконувати свої обов‘язки (disabled) та коли стає вакантною (falls vacant) посада Віце-президента;
  • проведення неофіційних зустрічей між законодавцями та урядовцями-виконавцями;
  • участь конгресменів в урядових комісіях;
  • проведення досліджень комітетами Конгресу та допоміжними (support) органами – такими як Бюджетне бюро (office) Конгресу, Бюро загальної бухгалтерії (Accounting), Бюро технологічних оцінок (Assessment), які є підрозділами Конгресу.

Наглядові повноваження Конгресу допомагали усунути з посади деяких урядовців, змінити політику й запровадити новий встановлений законом (statutory) нагляд за виконавчою владою. Наприклад, розслідування Конгресом Вотергейтської справи 1973 року викрило (exposed) офіційних осіб Білого дому, які незаконно скористалися своїм службовим становищем для одержання політичної вигоди. А наступного року Комітет юстиції (Judiciary Committee) Палати Представників розпочав справу про імпічмент проти Президента Ричарда Ніксона, що й поклало край його президентству. Наглядові повноваження Конгресу підтверджують, що вони є істотним засобом (check) стримування (monitoring) дій президентської влади та контролю за державною політикою.

10. Answer the following questions.

1. Which body represents the legislative branch of government in the USA? 2. What powers does Congress enjoy? 3. What is the role of the Senate in the legislature? 4. Why is only one-third of the Senate re-elected every two years? 5. What requirements must a person meet to be elected a Senator ? 6. What does the number of representatives in Congress depend on? 7. In what ways are votes taken in American Congress?

11. A. Read the text given below and render it into Ukrainian. Do the exercises that follow it.

Often discussing Congress of the USA a third chamber is mentioned. The third chamber is a specific American phenomenon – lobbies.


In the previous centuries people who wanted to hand in petition or to discuss some project went to Washington, to the Capitol and there met the Congressmen from their states. The tradition is still alive, only today it is big corporations, social organizations, foreign diplomats, etc. who try to influence law-making in their favour. This is done with the help of lobbyists who arrange meetings with Congressmen, and through bribery andpersuasion make them vote for measures favourable to the group they represent. Practically lobbyism (backstage influencing of legislation) has become legal, it means that the passing of a bill can be prevented if it does not suit the interests of a definite group of Big Business.

The delicate art of influencing legislation has moved a great distance from the days when votes were bought with black satchels full of money. Today’s successful lobbyists are more likely to be smooth professionals. But if lobbying techniques have grown complicated, the name of the game is still the same: special interest. Lobbyists may call themselves legislative counselsor Washington representatives but the name of the game is the same: they are hired to sell their clients’ special interests.

The lobbyists’ role in government is greatly misunderstood. They only exercise their Constitutional right to petition. The First Amendment guarantees “the rights of the people to peaceably assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances”. But the Founding Fathers did not foresee that this amendment would be so distorted.

A 1946 law requires all lobbyists to register with the clerks of both chambers of Congress, and to give annual reports of the money used for this or that bill, the most effective lobbyists seldom do. They try to remain, if possible, invisible.

B. Say whether each of the following sentences is true or false. Correct the false sentences to make them true.

According to the text, lobbyists…

1. by means of different techniques make Congressmen vote for measures favourable to the group they represent; 2. follow the old tradition of petitioning the Government; 3. can seldom prevent Congressmen from passing a bill; 4. are mainly real professionals; 5. are often called legislative counsels; 6. always register with the clerks of the both chambers of Congress; 7. influence the legislation due to their invisible efforts.

C. Find English equivalents to the following Ukrainian words or phrases:

кулуари; закулісний; сумка, ранець; прийоми; право звертатися до органів влади з петиціями; сатисфакція образи; головна мета, найважливіший аспект діяльності;(the main purpose or the most important aspect of activity – Hard work is the name of the game if you want to succeed in business) спритний, приємний, улесливий фахівець;вручити петицію; на свою користь; організувати, домовитись; відповідати інтересам; витончений; просунутися далеко вперед; радник; підкуп, хабарництво; переконання; хибно розуміти; мирне зібрання; передбачати; спотворювати; палата Конгресу; щорічний звіт; непомітний, невидимий

D. Answer the following questions:

1. Why did people go to Washington in the previous centuries? 2. Who did they meet there? 3. What is this tradition like today? 4. How do the lobbyists make Congressmen vote in their favour? 5. Can the passing of a bill be prevented? 6. In what ways were votes bought in the past? 7. What is the name of the game? 8. What may lobbyists call themselves? 9. What is their role in the government? 10. What does the First Amendment guarantee? 11. What is required from the lobbyists by law? 12. Are they public people?

Grammar Section

The Passive Voice

1. Rewrite the following passages in the passive.

A)Someone broke into the National Gallery late last night. The thieves had broken the alarm system before they climbed through a window. They stole some priceless works of art. They used a getaway car to escape. The police have questioned some suspects. They have not caught the thieves yet.

B) A few days ago, somebody stole Keith Dunn’s motorbike. Keith had left his motorbike outside his house. Keith reported the theft to the police. The police told him they would try to find his motorbike. This morning the police, the police called Keith and asked him to go to the police station. They have found his motorbike. The thieves had painted the it and then they sold it to someone else. The new owner had parked the motorbike outside the police station. The police arrested the thieves.

2. Rewrite each sentence in a more formal style so that it contains a passive form of the word given in brackets.

1. Sorry, but we’ve lost your letter. (mislay) 2. The police are grilling Harry down at the station. (question) 3. They have found the remains of an old Roman villa nearby. (discover) 3. You’ll get a rise in salary after six months. (raise) 4. They stopped playing the match after half an hour. (abandon) 5. They took Chris to court for dangerous driving. (prosecute) 6. They stopped traffic from using the centre. (ban) 7. We usually eat this kind of fish with a white sauce. (serve) 8. I don’t know your name. (introduce)

3. Using the notes as a guide, complete the e-mail to all company staff. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable passive verb form.


Tell staff:

We’ll try flexi-time for 3 months.

After 3 months we’ll get the opinions of all staff.

We’ll look at feedback comments and make a decision.

We may try it for another month.

All workers will have to arrive at 8 – 9.30.

We hope you like the idea.


FROM: The Managing Director

TO: All staff

It ……………. (1. decide) to adopt a flexi-time system for a trial period of three months. After this period …………… (2. elapse) all members of staff ……………….. (3. consult) through their line manager, and feedback …………… (4. seek). Comments ………………… (5. collect) and analysed before a decision ………………….. (6. make) as to whether the system …………………… (7. adopt) permanently or not. Alternatively, the trial period ………………….. (8. extend) for a further month. All employees ………………….. (9. require) to arrive between the hours of 8.00 and 9.30, and to leave after they have fulfilled their contractual obligation of eight hours. It …………….. (10. hope) that this arrangement meets with your enthusiastic approval!

4. Read the excerpt from the radio mystery show ‘Phantasma’ and underline all passive constructions.

Midnight. Earlier, the city was blanketed by a nearly impenetrable mist, the perfect environment for a crime to be committed. Now the streets are getting pelted by violent raindrops. No one is about.

On the sixty-seventh floor of a massive office building, the door to an executive suite of offices is ajar. Inside, the main room is dimly lit. A man lies crumpled near the windows. An hour ago he had the misfortune to get bludgeoned by a heavy object. The carpet around him is slowly getting stained by blood. A perfect crime has been committed.

Or has it? The perpetrator is now far from the scene, sure that he is going to get paid handsomely for his work. He is certain that the man was killed by the blow to his head and is convinced that his murderous actions haven’t been noticed. He believes that his whereabouts are a mystery. He is wrong! A spark of life remains in the man. His life can be saved if help arrives soon. Phantasma knows who the perpetrator is and where he is. Phantasma knows all!

5. Fill in the blanks with passive constructions. Add the relative pronouns who or that, where necessary.

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