Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
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Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Relates, enabled, vacancy, debate, circumstance, otherwise, bind, refer, exceeded, delayed, comply, preside, in order to, disqualified, office, ceased
1. The arbitrators exceeded their jurisdiction. 2. The old German Empire … to exist in 1918. 3. I have … no reason to suspect them. 4. He notices nothing but what …. to himself. 5. He was convicted of corruption, and will be … from office. 6. How could there be an election without a …? 7. In 1787 George Washington was called to … at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. 8. I have no official business to …. me. 9. After the Prime Minister accepts…, he/she must form a government. 10. The weather is a … to be taken into consideration. 11. He … my calling the police. 12. He went to Harvard … obtain a degree in law. 13. The collapse of the strike … to resume normal bus services. 14. You must …. with the rules. 15. … to the dictionary when you don't know how to spell a word. 16. We had to … with two speakers expressing the opposing view.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. It is difficult to relate these phenomena … each other. 2. The city council is presided …. by the mayor. 3. He refused to comply … our decision. 4. The new law does not refer … land used … farming. 5. These three articles make … the whole book. 6. Life peers are appointed ….life. 7. The titles … life peers cease …. death. 8. Life peers are created … the advice … the Prime Minister. 9 If the Commons passes the Bill, it goes … the Lords, and …. they don’t reject it, it goes … the same procedure as … the Commons. 10. The Lords must pass a money Bill … amendment … a month … being presented … the House. 11. Parliament acts … such a way as not to bind its successors … the manner or form … their legislation.
6. Choose word or phrase (a, b or c) which best completes the unfinished sentence:
1. The ….of the UK consists of the sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. a) judiciary; b)legislature; c)executive;
2. The maximum duration of any particular Parliament is …, after which its functions expire. a) five years; b) four years; c) six years;
3. A parliament’s life always ends by its earlier ... by the sovereign under the royal prerogative. a) summon; b)election; c)dissolution;
4. Any British subject aged 21 may be elected …. a) a member of the House of Lord; b) a member of the House of Commons; c) a member of the Privy Council.
5. MPs are paid a salary and allowance for secretarial and office …. a) work; b) expenses; c) service;
6. The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected … a) every year; b) every session; c) after every new Parliament is formed;
7. The House of Lords is presided by the… a); Lord Chancellor; b) Speaker; c) Prime-Minister;
8. Life peers and peeresses are … by the Monarch in recognition of public service. a) appointed, b) created, c) elected.
9. The House of Commons is composed of …. a) the Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal, b) Life peers and peeresses; c) Members of Parliament.
10. After Parliament is dissolved all … are subject to a General Election. a) offices, b) services, c) seats.
11. The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected … over the House. a) to rule, b) to preside, c) to speak.
12. In each house a Bill is considered in three stages called .. . a) hearings; b) readings: c) debates.
13. Nowadays the Royal assent is merely a …. a) formality; c) necessity: c) amendment.
14. The supremacy of the Parliament is the most basic …. of British constitutional law. a) rule, b) article, c) principle.
15. The House of Lords can … the passage of Public Bill for one year. a) forbid, b) reject, c) delay.
7. Match the definitions in the right column to the words given in the left.
8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:
1. 1. Parliament is the executive body and is constitutionally made of the Monarch, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. 2. The Parliament is elected for a term of 4 years. 3. The House of Lords consists of hereditary and life peers and peeresses. 4. Parliamentary elections take place every 5 years. 5. Members of the regular armed services and police forces may be elected to the House of Commons. 6. The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected to preside over each parliamentary session. 7. The Bills passed by Parliament are divided into Public and Private Bills. 8. A Bill becomes a law if it passed three readings in the House of Lords. 9. The power of the Lords to reject a Bill has been retained. 10 The House of Lords can delay the passage of any Bill for a period of one year. 11. The supremacy, or sovereignty, of the House of Lords is the most basic principle of British constitutional law. 12. The Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949 has provided that a Bill may become law only when all the component parts of Parliament come to agreement.
9. Study the text more carefully and answer the following questions:
1. What is the United Kingdom Parliament composed of? 2. Who represents the supreme authority within the United Kingdom? 3. How does the Parliament at Westminster work? 4. Who may be a member of the House of Lords? 5. How is the House of Commons elected? 6. Who may be elected a Member of Parliament? 7. When do by-elections take place? 8. What are the duties of the Speaker of the House of Commons? 9. What are the functions of Parliament? 10. What are the main types of Bills? 11. What is a Bill? How does it become a law? 12. Can the Monarch veto a Bill? 13. What is the role of the House of Lords in passing Bills? 14. Which is the basic principle of British constitutional law? 15. Which Bills can and which cannot be delayed by the House of Lords?
10. Complete the following text with the words and expressions from the list below.
Cabinet; backbenchers; Prime Minister; ministers; debates; benches; Budget; Speaker; front bench; Opposition; Foreign Secretary; Shadow Cabinet; Home Secretary; Leader of the Opposition; Chancellor of the Exchequer.
This is the House of Commons, where Members of Parliament take their seats on the green leather 1)_________ according to their party and position. One of them is chosen to be the 2) ___________ , who acts as a kind of chairman of the 3) _________ , which take place in the House. In front of him on his right sit the MPs of the biggest party, which forms the Government, and facing them sit the MPs of the party who oppose them, the 4) _________. The leaders of these two groups sit at the front on each side. MPs without special positions in their parties sit behind their leaders at the back. They are called 5) ___________. The leader of the Government, the 6) ___________, sits on the government 7) _____________, of course, next to his or her 8) _____________. The most important of these are from the 9) ____________. The minister responsible for relations with other countries is called the 10) ____________. The one responsible for law and security is called the 11) _______________ . The one who deals with financial matters and prepares the annual 12) _______________ speech on the economic state of the country is called 13) ______________ . Opposite the group sits the 14) _____________ (the main person in the largest party opposing the government) and the 15) _________, each member of which specializes in a particular area of government.
11. Translate into English using the active vocabulary.
1. Члени парламенту обрали його головою комісії за визнання його суспільної діяльності. 2. Кожного року Парламент приймає приблизно сто законів безпосоредньо шляхом створення акту парламенту. 3. Парламент інколи приймає дуже загальні закони, даючи можливість міністерству заповнити деталі. 4. Міську раду очолює мер. 5. Коли у Великобританії жінки отримали право голосу? 6. Після одруження ця жінка стала британською підданою. 7. Співробітники поліції та регулярних військових сил не можуть бути членами парламенту. 8. Після того, як виборці обирать новий парламент, його члени обирають спікера. 9. Палата лордів може відкласти прийняття будь-якого законопроекту, за винятком фінансового, на період до 1 року. 10. Спікер палати общин слідкує за виконанням парламентського регламенту, а також охороняє права та привілеї членів парламенту. 11. Акт Європейської Співдружності 1972 р. вніс законодавчі зміни щодо виконання Великобританією як членом Співдружності всіх зобов’язань. 12. Країни-члени Співдружності повинні дотримуватися її законів.
Pre-reading task. Read the words. Mind the stress. A):
΄supervise de΄serve de,libe΄ration
΄spokesman i΄nitiate ,una΄nimity
΄nucleus de΄liberative ,liti΄gation
΄integrate pro΄ceedings ,appre΄hension
΄frequently con΄cern re,sponsi΄bility
΄prosecute a΄ttorney ad,minis΄tration
΄magistrate so΄licitor ,parlia΄mentary
΄substance de΄partment ,compo΄sition
B) Complete the word building table.
1. Look through the words and expression to make sure that you know them. Learn those you don’t know.
2. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.
The government consists of the ministers appointed by the Crown on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, who is appointed directly by the Crown and is the leader of the political party which for the time being has a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The office of Prime Minister dates from the eighteenth century and is the subject of a number of constitutional conventions. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and presides over meeting of the Cabinet; by convention he is always a Member of the House of Commons. He consults and advises the Monarch on government business, supervises and to some extent coordinates the work of the various ministries and departments and is the principal spokesman for the government in the House of Commons. He also makes recommendations to the Monarch on many important public appointments, including the Lord Chief Justice, Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, and Lords Justices of Appeal.
The Cabinet is the nucleus of government; its members consist of a small group of the most important ministers who are selected by the Prime Minister. The size of the Cabinet is today about 23 and its principal function, much of the work being carried out in Committee, is to determine, control and integrate the policies of the government for submission to Parliament. The Cabinet meets in private and its deliberations are secrets; no vote is taken, and, by the principle of “Cabinet unanimity”, collective responsibility is assumed for all decisions taken.
The central government ministries and departments give effect to government policies and have powers and duties conferred on them by legislation, and, sometimes, under the Royal Prerogative. Each is headed by a minister who is in most cases a member of either the House of Lords or the House of Commons. There are over 100 ministers of the Crown at the present time; they include departmental ministers (e.g., the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs); non-departmental ministers (e.g., Lord President of the Privy) Council; Paymaster General; Ministers without Portfolio); ministers of state (additional ministers in departments whose work is heavy); and junior ministers (usually known as Parliamentary Secretary and Parliamentary Under-Secretary) in all ministries and departments.
The Lord Chancellor [΄t∫a:ns(ə)lə] and the Law Officers of the Crown deserve special mention at this point. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain presides over the House of Lord both in the Cabinet and also has departmental responsibilities in connection with the appointment of certain judges. He advises on, and frequently initiates, law reform programmes with the aid of the Law Commissions, the Law Reform Committee and ad hoc committees. The four Law Officers of the Crown include, for England and Wales, the Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General; for Scotland, the Lord Advocate and the Solicitor-General for Scotland. The English Law Officers are usually members of the House of Commons and the Scottish Law Officers may be. They represent the Crown in civil litigation, prosecute in certain exceptionally important criminal cases, and advise government on points of law. They may appear in proceedings before the International Court of Justice, the European Commission of Human Rights and Court of Human Rights. They may also intervene generally in litigation in the United Kingdom as representatives of public interest.
The United Kingdom has no Ministry of Justice. The courts and lawyers have a strong tradition of independence from the government. Responsibility for the administration of the judicial system in England and Wales is divided between the courts themselves, the Lord Chancellor, and the Home Secretary. The Lord Chancellor, who is the head of the legal profession and is always a member of the Cabinet, is concerned with the composition of the courts, with civil law, parts of criminal procedure and law reform in general; the Home Secretary is concerned with the prevention of criminal offenses, the apprehension, trial and treatment of offenders, and with the prison service. England and Wales have a single system of law and courts, and Scotland has a system of its own.
The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the magistrates’ court, which is presided over the magistrates, who are normally Justices of the Peace (JPs). More serious cases then go to the Crown Court presided over by judges or senior barristers specially appointed to perform judicial functions for part of their time. Civil cases (for example, divorce or bankruptcy cases) are dealt with in County Courts. Appeals are heard by higher courts. For example appeals from magistrates’ courts are heard in the Crown Court. Certain cases are referred to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg [´lΛks(ə)mbə:g] or the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg [´stræzbə:g]. The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners’ courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural death). There are administrative tribunals [trai´blju:nl], which deal with professional standard, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).
The first thing to notice is that there is no civil code and no criminal code. The law consists partly of statutes, or Acts of Parliament, and partly of common law made up of the decisions of judges, with regard to matters not regulated by statutes, in accordance with custom and reason. A large part of the civil law is not contained in statutes at all but made up of a mass of precedents, privious court decisions. By now, however, almost all actions for which a person may be punished are actions which are specifically forbidden by some statute.
3. Give the English equivalents to the following words and phrases.
The office of the Prime Minister; to be appointed by the Crown on the recommendation of somebody; government business; intervene in litigation; point of law; junior ministers; criminal procedure; prison service; to determine the police, to integrate the policy, to control the police; apprehension; to appear in proceedings; to be the subject of a number of constitutional conventions; to date from; in connection with appointment of certain judges; to be concerned with the prevention of criminal offenses; in private; with the aid of; to make recommendations to somebody on something; secret deliberations; legislative capacity; Parliamentary Secretary and Parliamentary Under-Secretary; law reform; to assume collective responsibility; the International Court of Justice: the Court of Human Rights; the European Commission of Human Rights.
4. Give each paragraph a heading of your own. Compare your headings with other members of the group. Are all the headings possible?
На даний час / на деякий час; посада Прем’єр-Міністра; підлягати ряду конституційних угод; наглядати та координувати роботу; речник уряду; головувати на зборах Кабінету; до деякої міри; ядро уряду; приймати рішення; для подання до парламенту; одностайність кабінету; міністр; міністр закордонний справ; міністр юстиції; Лорд-Канцлер; Міністр внутрішніх справ; заслуговує на окрему згадку; ініціювати правову реформу; керування правовою системою; поводження із злочинцями; Міністр без портфеля; попередження кримінальних злочинів; представник громадських інтересів; займатися складом судів; затримання; суд / судовий процес; втручатися виконувати судові функції; справа про банкрутство; суд графства; суд у справах неповнолітніх; подати справу до Європейського суду; мати справу з правопорушниками молодше вісімнадцяти років; розслідувати насильницьку, раптову, чи неприродну смерть..
5. A: Fill in the appropriate word from the list below.
Prosecuted, juvenile court, International Court of Justice, apprehension, Magistrates’ Courts, nucleus, deliberation,county courts, concerns, Crown Court, integrated, coroner
1. The resolutions were made after long … upon a constitutional question. 2. Retired employees make up the … of the club. 3. I … your suggestion into my work. 4. He was … for fraud. 5. The problem …. all of us. 6. The warrant for his … was obtained. 7. … has unlimited jurisdiction over all criminal cases tried on indictment ([in΄daitmənt – обвинувальний акт]) and also acts as a court for the hearing of appeals from magistrates’ courts. 8. The principle function of … is to provide the forum in which all criminal prosecution are initiated. 9. A …. or forensics examiner is an official responsible for investigating deaths, particularly some of those happening under unusual circumstances, and determining the cause of death. 10. A … is a court of law having special authority to try and pass judgments for crimes committed by children or adolescents who have not attained the age of majority. 11. There are 218 … in England and Wales which deal with the majority of civil cases, as well as some family and bankruptcy hearings. 12. The …. is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations, the main functions of which are to settle legal disputes submitted to it by member states and to give advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by international organs, agencies and the UN General Assembly.
B: Fill in the appropriate proposition or adverb where necessary.
1. The law firm was concerned … the building contract. 2. The government consists … the ministers appointed … the Crown … the recommendation … the Prime Minister. 3. The Prime Minister is the head … the government and presides … meeting … the Cabinet. 4. The Prime Minister advises the Monarch … government business. 5. The Cabinet of Ministers determines, controls and integrates the policies …the government … submission … Parliament. 6. The Cabinet makes decisions collectively and is collectively responsible … them … Parliament. 7. The Lord Chancellor …Great Britain presides … the House of Lord. 8. The Lord Chancellor is responsible … the appointment …certain judges. 9. The four Law Officers represent the Crown … civil litigation, prosecute … important criminal cases, and advise government …points …law. 10. The Lord Chancellor is concerned … the composition … the courts.
6. Choose word or phrase (a, b or c) which best completes the unfinished sentence:
1. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Monarch and is the leader of … a) Opposition; b) Cabinet; c) majority party.
2. Meetings of the Cabinet are presided by ….. a) the Speaker; b) the Lord Chancellor; c) the Prime Minister.
3. The Lord Chancellor is responsible for the appointment of …. . a) ministers; b) secretaries; c) judges.
4. The government ministries and departments have powers conferred on them sometimes…… . a) by the Lord Chancellor; b) by the Monarch; c) under the Royal prerogative.
5. Responsibility for the administration of the judicial system is taken …… a) by the Ministry of Justice; b) by the courts; c) by the Monarch.
6. The prevention of criminal offenses, the apprehension, and trial are the duties of …. . a) the Lord Chancellor; b) the judges; c) the Home Secretary.
7. The ….. met urgently at 10 Downing Street to decide Government policy on the new economic crisis. a) Privy Council; b) Cabinet; c) ministries.
8. The Road Traffic Act 1972 ….. that it is illegal to drive under the influence of drugs. a) legislates; b)amends; c) provides.
9. Parliament is a …. body. a) legislation; b) legislative; c) legislature.
10. The Chancellor of the Exchequer asked the Parliament to ….the existing tax on alcoholic drinks and replace it with a tax on all drinks except water. a) establish; b) abolish; c) enact.
11. The Law Officers of the Crown may ….. in litigation defending the public interest. a) reform; b) initiate; c) intervene.
12. The Home Secretary is …… the prevention of criminal offenses. a) accused of; b) concerned with; c) known for.
13. England and Scotland have a …… system of law and courts. a) different; b) similar; c) Romano-Germanic
7. Match the definitions in the right column to the words given in the left.
8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:
1. The ministers of the government are appointed by the Crown. 2. The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party in both Houses. 3. The Prime Minister is the head of state. 4. The Cabinet is selected by the Monarch. 5. The Cabinet is responsible for all decisions taken at its meetings. 6. The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain appoints certain judges. 7. The Law Officers of the Crown advise government on points of law. 8. Ministry of Justice of Great Britain is headed by the Lord Chancellor. 9. The administration of the judicial system is divided between the courts, the Lord Chancellor and the Home Secretary. 10. The most common type of law court in England and Wales is the Crown Court. 11. Appeals are heard by the magistrates’ courts. 12. The highest court of appeals is High Court.
9. Study the texts more carefully and answer the following questions:
1. How is the Prime Minister selected in the UK? 2. What are the Prime Minister’s functions? 3. What is the relationship between the Prime Minister and the monarch? 4. What is the relationship between the Cabinet and Parliament? 5. What is the vital difference between the role of the Cabinet and the role of government ministries and departments? 6. What is the role of the Privy Council in the UK? 7. What is the most important department in the UK? Who is it headed by? 8. The Lord Chancellor is the most important legal figure in the UK, isn’t he? 9. Who is the UK Minister of Justice? 10. What matters is the Home Secretary concerned with? 11. What does the English law consist of?12. What actions may s person be punished under English law?
10. Complete the passage by choosing the best word in an appropriate form from the list below:
a) law; convention; rule; practice; provision; bill; act of Parliament; legal enactment; statute law; legislation.
A proposal of law, or _____only becomes a/an __________called a/an _________when all its __________have been approved by the Queen in Parliament.
Many _____of English constitutional ________do not derive from (come from)________or common law, but are political ____called _______, which have the force of law.
b) transfer; confer; executive authority; Judicial Committee; advise; granting; royal advisers; retain; constitutional issues; dependencies; appeal; influential; arbiter; office.
The Privy Council
The Privy Council developed from a small group of _____ at court into the chief source of _____ . But its position was weakened in the 18th and 19th centuries as more of its functions _____ to a developing parliamentary Cabinet.
Today its main role is _____ the monarch on a range of matters, like the resolutions of _____ and approval of Orders in Council, such as the ____ of Royal Charters to public bodies. The most important task of the Privy Council is performed by its ____ . It serves as the final court of ____ from those _____ and Commonwealth countries that this avenue of appeal. It may be used as an ____ for a wide range of courts and committees in Britain and overseas, and its ruling can be ______ .
The ______ of Privy Councilor is an honorary one, which_____, for example, on former Prime Minister.
c) functions; constitute; unanimous; office; political heads; Prime Minister; collectively(2)Members of Parliament;government; make; majority party; Cabinet; form
The Ministry is the _____ of the moment. The head of the Ministry is the ____ . The _____ of the Prime Minister are: leading the ________; running the Government; appointing Cabinet of Ministers; representing the nation in political matters.
Upon accepting ________ the Prime Minister must form the Government, that is, select a cabinet and ministry from among the __________ of his own party. The Cabinet _____ the nucleus of the government and is composed of about 20 of most important ministers. All major decisions of the Government ____ by the Cabinet, and therefore it is the _________ that forms the Government policy. Decisions made must be _____ . It makes its decisions ______ and is _____ responsible to Parliament.
After the Prime Minister has formed his ____, he selects the rest of his ministry. Most of the ministers are the ______ of Government Departments and are members of one of the Houses.
d)Civil Service; responsible; be subject; Treasury; administrative head; implementing; agencies; political head; control; permanent secretary
Government Departments are _____ for implementing Government policy. Each department is headed by two people: a ____ who is usually the minister; and an ______ from the Civil Service, called a _____ . They are responsible for a permanent staff which is the part of the _____ . There are many such departments, for example, the Home Office, the Department of Education, the Ministry of Defense, etc. The most important department is the ______, and the Prime Minister is its political head. It is the Department that ______ the national economy.
As well as government departments there are government ________ formed to operate public services, such as Post Office, British Rail, etc. Most of them ____ to the control of one of the government departments.
11. Read the definitions and give a name to each of them.
1. a group of important politicians in the UK who are officially chosen to be advisers to the monarch; the head of this group; 2. a government department with a minister in charge of; 3. someone who is in a position to make influential judgment or settle an argument; 4. the most important ministers of the government who meet as a group to make decisions or to advise the head of the government; 5. all various departments of the British government except the armed forces, law courts and religious organizations; people who work in these departments and they are not allowed to take any active part in politics, they don’t change when the government changes. 6. the bishops and archbishops of the church of England who are the members of the House of Lords; 7. members of the House of Lords who do not belong to the Church of England; 8. the government department that is responsible for money system of a country and for carrying out government plans in relation to taxes and public spending; 9. (adj.) all agreeing completely; 10. an organization of about 50 independent countries, most of which were formally part of the British Empire; 11. a government official, such as a minister; 12. a high non-elected official, usually an administrative head of a department; 13. an earlier happening, decision, etc. taken as an example or rule for what later.
12. Translate into English using the active vocabulary.
1. Уряд складається з міністрів призначених монархом за рекомендацією прем’єр міністра. 2. Прем’єр міністр призначається безпосередньо сувереном, та, за звичай, є лідером партії, яка має більшість місць у палаті громад. 3. Він радить монарху по урядовим питанням, наглядає та координує роботу різних міністерств. 4. Він також надає рекомендації королеві в багатьох важливих призначень. 5. Кабінет є ядром уряду. 6. Всі головні рішення приймаються кабінетом, і тому саме кабінет відповідає за урядову політику. 7. Хоча кабінет звичайно обирається з членів палати громад, він, тим не менш, завжди включає декілька членів Палати Лордів. 8. Політики усіх партій були одностайні у тому, щоб засудити (condemn)таки дії. 9. Британський монарх є головою всіх країн Співдружності Націй. 10. Армія, морський флот (navy) та повітряні сили контролюються Міністерством Оборони.
13. Optional text. Read about the future Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
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