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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
The environmental problem in GB.
Pollution is probably the most acute problem that the mankind faces today. It’s an alarming picture. Pollution knows no frontiers. Pollution is basically the result of industrialization. Above all it’s the increasing use of and dependence upon oil. Oil is the wheels of industry throughout the world.
As a highly industrialized state Britain can’t ignore the problem of environmental protection. The Control of Pollution act which applies to England, Scotland and Wales, sets out a wide range of powers and duties for local authorities , including control over wastes, air and water pollution and noise & contains important provisions on the release of information to the public on environmental conditions.
The main risks of land pollution lie in the indiscriminate dumping of materials on land, careless disposal of pesticides & chemicals, fall-out of materials from the atmosphere & the disposition of materials from flood- water. The use of sewage sludge on farms, too, involves risks as well as the benefits to the land.
The Government encourages the reclamation and recycling of waste materials wherever this is practicable & economic in order to reduce imports & to help to conserve natural resources. Industry already makes considerable use of reclaimed waste materials such as metals, paper & textiles. In an increasing number of areas there are “bottlebanks” where the public can deposit used glass containers.
Carbon emissions from factories and traffic emission from exhaust of cars are responsible for the atmospheric pollution. The emission causes acid rains which are harmful for plants and people. Considerable progress has been made towards the achievement of cleaner air and a better environment in GB in the last 20 years.
There has been a steady improvement in water quality too. Discharges of polluting matter into rivers, lakes and some coastal waters are already controlled by law.
One more kind of pollution although not so harmful is noise pollution. The main sources are aircraft, loud engines. They can be quiter but still they produce much noise. Noisy traffic can have a continuously bad effect on man’s health. Another sources are hi-fi systems, pubs and other places of entertainment.
On the whole the practical results of the state policy in environmental protection include the development of technology to control atmospheric and water pollution, agricultural pollution control, the study of man’s influence on the climate, the forecasting of earthquakes, protection of rare and vanishing plants and animals as well as a whole lot more.
The green movement.
Greenpeace is an independent, campaigning organization which uses non-violent, creative confrontation to expose global environmental problems, and to force solutions for a green and peaceful future. Greenpeace's goal is to ensure the ability of the earth to nurture life in all its diversity. Greenpeace has national and regional offices in 41 countries worldwide.
The origins of Greenpeace lie in the formation of the Don't Make A Wave Committee. Taking its name from a slogan used during protests against United States nuclear testing in late 1969,
By the late 1970s, spurred by the global reach of what Robert Hunter called "mind bombs”, more than 20 groups across North America, Europe, New Zealand and Australia had adopted the name "Greenpeace".
The organization currently actively addresses many environmental issues, with primary focus on efforts to stop global warming and to preserve the biodiversity of the world's oceans and ancient forests. In addition to the more conventional environmental organization methods, such as lobbying politicians and attendance at international conferences, Greenpeace has a stated methodology of engaging in nonviolent direct action.
Some of Greenpeace's most notable successes include the ending of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, a permanent moratorium on international commercial whaling, and the declaration by treaty of Antarctica as a global park, forbidding possession by individual nations or commercial interests. To back up this latter point, World Park Base was established in Antarctica.
Friends of the Earth is one of the leading environmental pressure organisations in the UK, and a major force behind today's growing green movement. Their message is a simple one: it is only in protecting the earth that we can protect ourselves — against pollution, the destruction of our urban and rural environment, mass unemployment and the horrors of global famine and war. Friends of the Earth is a national campaigning organisation (Friends of the Earth Ltd) established in Britain in 1971, with a network of 250 local groups. Each group is financially independent and decides its own policies and priorities. In practice, groups support national campaigns, organised by Friends of the Earth Ltd, and also initiate campaigns on local issues.
The problem of waste products.
Speaking about Great Britain the main risks of land pollution lie in the indiscriminate dumping of materials on land, careless disposal of pesticides and chemicals, fall-out of materials from the atmosphere and the deposition of materials from flood-water. The use of sewage sludge on farms, too, involves risks as well as benefits to the land. The Government encourages the reclamation and recycling of waste materials wherever this is practicable and economic in order to reduce imports and to help to conserve natural resources. Industry already makes considerable use of reclaimed waste materials such as metals, paper and textiles. In an increasing number of areas there are "bottlebanks" where the public can deposit used glass containers.
There has been a steady and significant improvement in water quality: the level of pollution in the tidal Thames has been reduced to a quarter and 100 different kinds of fish have been identified there since 1964. The Control of Pollution Act, which applies to England, Scotland and Wales, sets out a wide range of powers and duties for local and water authorities, including control over wastes, air and water pollution and noise, and contains important provisions on the release of information to the public on environmental conditions.
Traffic pollution in GB.
Traffic pollution is threatening the health of people living in cities. On a planetary scale, it is contributing to global warming. The urgency is to develop alternatives to transporting goods by road and nonpolluting methods of propulsion for vehicles.
The effects of air pollution on health are starting to be known – respiratory problems for vulnerable people and a contributory factor in the development of cancers… A great number of people die several weeks prematurely as the result of pollution by particles originating from motor vehicle – one of the many pollutants emitted. Studies also suggest that people living in polluted areas are more at risk of heart disease. This is why a number of cities in Europe have installed networks to measure pollutants and alert the population. Certainly, ever harsher standards are limiting the noise emitted by vehicles; but the biggest nuisance is caused by railways and roads close to homes.
On the global scale, the environment impact of traffic is just as worrying. The combustion of hydrocarbons gives off carbon gas, the principal greenhouse gas responsible for the current climate changes.
There are various useful tips for cutting pollution when driving:
• drive gently – rapid acceleration and heavy braking increase fuel consumption.
• Steady your speed – emissions are lowest when driving at about 50 mph, while they rise dramatically above 70mph
• Switch off the stationary – if stuck in traffic or stopping for more than a minute, switch off the engine.
• Look after your car – check tyre pressure and fuel consumption – regular servicing helps keep your car efficient
• Air conditioning and other on board electrical devices increase fuel consumption – only use then when really necessary
• When buying a new car, consider smaller & more fuel efficient models with catalytic converter, which will reduce emissions and save your money on fuel, tax and insurance.
By changing your travel habits, it is possible to have a major impact on how much you contribute to air pollution. This could range from car sharing to choosing alternatives such as walking or cycling:
• Avoid using your car for short journeys – short trips use more fuel, especially if the engine is cold – make combine trips or walk, cycle or use public transport instead.
• Plan your journeys carefully, choosing the shortest routes, which will save you both time and money while reducing your impact on traffic emissions.
• Car sharing will reduce pollution and running costs can also be shared.
• Cycling and walking are clean, cheap and healthy alternatives to driving
It is no surprise that we are in energy crisis, oil supply problems rapidly escalationg demand of energy, depletion of domestic oil & gas reserves is decreasing.
Demand for energy has encreased in recent years at an average rate at 4,3 %. Recent statistics report that the USA consumes over 20 % of global energy output.
The president of the USA proposed a 20% increase in federal funding aimed to develop alternatives to petroleum. Alternative examples included solar energy, wind power, hydro power.
All energy technologies produce waste. Burning fossil fuels, even relatively clean fuel like natural gas, are released as air polution & toxic waste.
The great advantage of nuclear power is its ability to wrest enormous energy from a small volume of fuel. It is ecologicaly safe & doesn’t pollute the enviroment.
Aprile 26 of 1986 marks the anniversary of the world’s worst nuclear accident, at Chernobyl in nothern Ukraine. It was the most serious accident to have occured at a nuclear power plant.
The Chernobyl reactors didn’t conform to international safty standarts & there was no protective structure around the reactorsto limit the effect of the accident. The reactor core erupted in a gigantic explosion, injecting huge amounts of heat & radiactive fuel into the atmosphere. The death toll was about thousand, some 3.5 mlm other people(over a third of them children) are thought to have suffered illness as a result of contamination from the deadly cloud or radioactivity.
Pick up most regional & local newspapers or magazines & you’ll read about the expanding energy problems. Look closer & you’ll also see features on alternative energy options as well. May be it is the only way out of enviromental pollution.
Children and music.
Actually, it seems to me that having a musical education is important as it helps one to mould a many-sided personality with rich imagination, sensitivity. Music is a source of inspiration, so one can flex their creative muscle. Besides, playing a musical instrument isn’t a walkover & it teaches you to be well-disciplined & hard-working. You know, it’s necessary to spend hours practicing, doing scales, learning to read. By the way, it’s a well known fact that with a musical background under their belt people can easier develop linguistic skills: your visual & long-term memory gets a good work-out & your ear is trained enough to enable you to pick up some subtleties in phonetics. Personally, I’m grateful to my parents for sending me to music school. I think that if a child has an ear for music & is interested in it going to music school will do him the world of good. However, I also believe that parents shouldn’t force & plunge their kids into music as early as possible.
Although musical education is valuable experience in forming one’s taste in music, I don’t think that one needs to be a connoisseur to appreciate it. Indeed, music & songs address our feelings & arouse common emotions in people who are of different nationalities & speak different languages. I don’t confine my attention to just one musical trend. I generally believe that every style has some classic examples or masterpieces of its kind that are worthy of attention. However, there’s music which I find not easy on the ear, e.g. psychedelic or aggressive rock as I consider it depressing and shocking to a certain extent. As they say, every man to his own taste. Dealing with problems of musical education I can’t help mentioning some advantages & disadvantages of making a career in this sphere.
On the plus side, being a musician or a singer is a very creative occupation where there are no limits in achieving mastery. On the minus side, nothing is achieved without hard work, & especially in music related professions. One should really endeavour and sweat to succeed, practice for 8 hours a day – some people just can’t bear the strain. I think that all these disadvantages testify to the fact that there are a lot of heavy drinkers & drug addicts esp. in show business.
What helps to become an eminent musician? Those whose parents or relatives are musicians are said to be more likely to follow in their relatives’ steps.
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