Тема «Enviroment and its problem»



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Тема «Enviroment and its problem»



1. ПРОЧИТАЙТЕ ТА ПЕРЕКЛАДІТЬ ТЕКСТ.

2. ПІДГОТУЙТЕСЬ ДО ДЕТАЛЬНОГО ПЕРЕКАЗУ ТЕКСТУ

Ecological Problems

Since ancient times Nature has served Man, being the source of his life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the development of civilization man’s interference in nature began to increase.

Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises appear all over the world today. The by-products of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we grow grain and vegetables on.

Every year world industry pollutes the ahmosphere with about 1 million tons of dust and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Vast forests are cut and burn in fire. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of rivers and lakes dry up.

The pollution of air and the world’s ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is the result of man’s careless interaction with nature, a sign of the ecological crises.

The most horrible ecological disaster befell Ukraine and its people after the Chornobyl tragedy in April 1986. About 18 percent of the territory of Byelarus were also polluted with radioactive substances. A great damage has been done to the agriculture, forests and people’s health. The consequences of this explosion at the atomic power-station are tragic for the Ukrainian, Byelarussian and other nations.

Environmental protection is of a universal concern. That is why serious measures to create a system of ecological security should be taken.

Some progress has been already made in this direction. As many as 159 countries — members of the UNO — have set up environmental protection agencies. Numerous conferences have been held by these agencies to discuss problems facing ecologically poor regions including the Aral Sea, the South Urals, Kuzbass, Donbass, Semipalatjnsk and Chornobyl. An international environmental research centre has been set up on Lake Baikal. The international organisation Greenpeace is also doing much to preserve the environment.

But these are only the initial steps and they must be carried onward to protect nature, to save life on the planet not only for the sake of the present but also for the future generations.

 

Active Words and Word Combinations:

ancient – давній. стародавній

environment - довкілля

riches - багатства

to interfere - втручатися

smoky - димний, курний

by-product – побічний продукт

to pollute - забруднювати

substances - речовини

oxige - кисень

destruction – руйнування

 

Questions:

1. How did people live for thousands of years?

2. What cities appear all over the world today?

3. What pollutes the air we breathe?

4. What is the result of the pollution the atmosphere?

5. Why is environmental protection of a universal concern?

6. What are the initial steps in this direction?

Викладач ______________І.С. Коковіхіна

Тема «Enviromental protection»

1. ПРОЧИТАЙТЕ ТА ПЕРЕКЛАДІТЬ ТЕКСТ.

2. ПІДГОТУЙТЕСЬ ДО ДЕТАЛЬНОГО ПЕРЕКАЗУ ТЕКСТУ

Environmental Protection

Our planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but nowadays it's the only place where we can live.

 

People always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a serious problem. People lived in rural areas and did not produce such amount of polluting agents that would cause a dangerous situation in global scale.

 

With the development of overcrowded industrial highly developed cities, which put huge amounts of pollutants into surrounds, the problem has become more and more dangerous. Today our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, and overpopulation are the problems that threaten human lives on the Earth.

 

In order to understand how air pollution affects our body, we must understand exactly what this pollution is. The pollutants that harm our respiratory system are known as particulates. Particulates are the small solid particles that you can see through rays of sunlight. They are products of incomplete combustion in engines, for example: internal-combustion engines, road dust and wood smoke.

 

Billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year. When these fuels are burnt, they produce smoke and other by-products, which is emitted into the atmosphere. Although wind and rain occasionally wash away the smoke, given off by power plants and automobiles, but it is not enough.. These chemical compounds undergo a series of chemical reactions in the presence of sunlight; as a result we have smog, mixture of fog and smoke. While such pollutants as particulates we can see, other harmful ones are not visible. Among the most dangerous to bur health are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and ozone or active oxygen.

 

If you have ever been in an enclosed parking garage or a tunnel and felt dizzy or lightheaded, then you have felt the effect of carbon monoxide (CO). This odourless, colourless, but poisonous gas is produced by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels, like gasoline or diesel fuel.

 

Factories emit tons of harmful chemicals. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.

 

Our forests are disappearing because they are cut down or burnt. If this trend continues, one day we won't have enough oxygen to breathe, we won't see a beautiful green forest at all.

 

The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear wastes, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in our seas.

 

Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out forever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today may soon become extinct.

 

And even greater threats are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.

 

Fortunately, it's not too late to solve these problems. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place. We can plant trees and create parks for endangered animals.

 

We can recycle our wastes; persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities, because it is apparent that our careless use of fossil fuels and chemicals is destroying this planet. And it is now more than ever apparent that at the same time we are destroying our bodies and our future.

 

Vocabulary:

 

tiny part - крихітна частина

to pollute - забруднювати

rural area - сільський район

polluting agents - забруднюючі компоненти

global scale - глобальний масштаб

acid rains - кислотні дощі

overpopulation - перенаселення

to threaten - погрожувати

to affect - впливати

respiratory system - дихальна система

particulates - макрочасток

solid particles - тверді частинки

ray of sunlight - зд. сонячне світло

combustion - спалювання, згоряння

internal-combustion engine - двигун внутрішнього згоряння

wood smoke - зд. згоряння деревини

by-products - побічні продукти

power plants - силові установки

chemical compounds - зд. хімічні елементи

to undergo - піддаватися впливу

smog - зміг

fog - туман

carbon monoxide - чадний газ

nitrogen oxides - оксиди азоту

sulfur dioxide - сірчистий газ

dizzy - запаморочення

odourless - без запаху

fossil fuels - органічне паливо

gasoline - бензин

to emit - випускати, викидати

disastrous consequences - згубні наслідки

greenhouse effect - парниковий ефект

to breathe - дихати, вдихати

chemical fertilizers - добрива

pesticide - пестицид

plant - рослина

insect - комаха

extinct - зникнути, вимирати

to persuade enterprises - зд. переконати підприємців

wastes – відходи

 

 

Questions:

 

1. When did the problem of pollution become dangerous?

2. What problems threaten human lives on the Earth?

3. Why is air pollution harmful?

4. Is it dangerous to breathe polluted air?

5. What does the burning of fuel and fossil fuels produce?

6. What are the most dangerous pollutants?

7. What is the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains on our planet?

8. Can we solve the problem of environmental protection?

Викладач ______________І.С. Коковіхіна

1. ПРОЧИТАЙТЕ ТА ПЕРЕКЛАДІТЬ ТЕКСТ.

2. ПІДГОТУЙТЕСЬ ДО ДЕТАЛЬНОГО ПЕРЕКАЗУ ТЕКСТУ

Computers in my life

Computer addicts are the minority of computer users but there is no doubt that more and more young people are computer literate. Computer studies is a subject in many schools and many young people have personal computers. About one in three hundred computer owners spend almost all their time using computers.

Ninety six per cent of them are males of all ages. All of them spend an average of twenty hours per week on home computers. The majority of the adults also use computers at work. All the computer addicts are very intelligent. They have been interested in science and technology from a very early age and they are usually very shy people who like being alone.

A survey in a school showed that fewer girls are interested in computers because girls are less likely to have a computer. Even if they have one, they use then less frequently than boys. Possibly it is because we think of computers as something to do with maths and science, which are traditionally 'male' subjects. Possibly it is because most of the computer teachers are men, who give the girls less attention. Possibly parents think it is less important for girls to have computer skills.

Computer addicts are usually very shy people. Using computers gives them confidence. They love debugging and solving problems, develop programs and love learning programming languages. They learnt to communicate with other users through computer networks and the people they met in school and work think of them as experts who could help and advise when they had problems with their machines. A few spend their time 'hacking' and one addict left a message on a computer of Buckingham House. Very few computer addicts play computer games, but many people use a computer exclusively for games.

Some parents worry about computer games because they think their children won't be able to communicate with real people in the real world. But parents do not need to worry. According to research computer addicts usually do well after they have left school. Parents also do not need to worry that computer addiction will make their children become unfriendly and unable to communicate with people.

It is not the computer that makes them shy. In fact, what they know about computers improves their social lives. They become experts and others come to them for help and advice.

For most children computer games are a craze. Like any other craze, such as skate-boarding, the craze is short-lived. It provides harmless fun and a chance to escape.

If we didn't have these computer addicts, we wouldn't have modern technology. They are the inventors of tomorrow.

 

Questions:

1. What are computer addicts like?

2. Have you ever used a computer?

3. Why are computers used?

4. Why are more boys than girls interested in computers?

5. Is computer addiction harmful?

6. Do you use computers at school/university/work? What do you use them for?

7. Would you say you are computer-literate? Why?

 

Vocabulary:

addict — сильно увлеченный чем-либо, наркоман

minority - меншість

male - чоловік; чоловічий

average - середній

survey - дослідження, огляд, опитування

confidence - впевненість

debugging - finding and removing problems in computers and computer programs; відладка (програми); наладка (машини або механізму); усунення неполадок, усунення несправностей

'hacking' - gaining acess to computers when it is not allowed

to do well – процвітати

 

Викладач ______________І.С. Коковіхіна

1. ПРОЧИТАЙТЕ ТА ПЕРЕКЛАДІТЬ ТЕКСТ.

2. ПІДГОТУЙТЕСЬ ДО ДЕТАЛЬНОГО ПЕРЕКАЗУ ТЕКСТУ

Internet and Modern Life

 

The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundred of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other.

 

The history of Internet began in the United States in 1969. It was a military experiment, designed to help to survive during a nuclear war, when everything around might be polluted by radiation and it would be dangerous to get out for any living being to get some information to anywhere. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was called packet switching.

 

Invention of modems, special devices allowing your computer to send the information through the telephone line, has opened doors to the Internet for millions of people.

 

Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States of America. It is clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are hundred of millions of users and their number is growing.

 

Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.

 

In many countries, the Internet could provide businessmen with a reliable, alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems its own system of communications. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for international calls around the world, when you pay a good deal of money.

 

But saving money is only the first step and not the last one. There is a commercial use of this network and it is drastically increasing. Now you can work through the internet, gambling and playing through the net.

 

However, there are some problems. The most important problem is security. When you send an e-mail, your message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. But there are many encoding programs available. Notwith-standing, these programs are not perfect and can easily be cracked.

 

Another big and serious problem of the net is control. Yes, there is no effective control in the^Internet, because a huge amount of information circulating through the net. It is like a tremendous library and market together. In the future, the situation might change, but now we have what we have. It could be expressed in two words— an anarchist's dream.

 

Questions:

 

1. What is the Internet?

2. When and where did the history of Internet begin?

3. Why was the Internet designed?

4. What is modem?

5. Where are most of the Internet host computers?

6. What is the accurate number of internet users?

7. What is the most popular Internet service today?

8. What are other popular services available on the Internet?

9. What is the most important problem of the Internet?

10. Why is there no effective control in the Internet today?

11. Is there a commercial use of the network today?

 

 

Vocabulary:

 

network - мережа

to embrace - охоплювати, оточувати

user - юзер, користувач

to design - задумувати, придумувати, розробляти

to survive - вижити

nuclear war - ядерна війна

to pollute - забруднювати

dangerous - небезпечний

path - шлях, маршрут

available - доступний, наявний у розпорядженні, готівковий

the net - інтернет, мережа

packet switching - пакетне перемикання

invention - винахід

accurate - точний

to count - рахувати, порахувати

approximately-приблизно, приблизно

to receive - отримувати

message - послання

to provide - забезпечувати, доставляти, забезпечувати

reliable - надійний

alternative - альтернативний

provider - провайдер, постачальник

security - безпека

router - маршрутизатор

to intercept - перехопити (сигнал і т. д.)

to encode - кодувати, шифрувати

notwithstanding - тим не менш, проте, все ж

to crack - зламати

huge - великий, гігантський, велетенський, величезний

to circulate - пересуватися / рухатися в межах чогось

tremendous-разг. величезний, гігантський, велетенський; приголомшливий

 

Викладач ______________І.С. Коковіхіна

1. ПРОЧИТАЙТЕ ТА ПЕРЕКЛАДІТЬ ТЕКСТ.

2. ПІДГОТУЙТЕСЬ ДО ДЕТАЛЬНОГО ПЕРЕКАЗУ ТЕКСТУ

 

 

Television in Our Life

 

Television now plays an important role in our life. It is difficult to say if it is good or bad for us. It is clear, that television has advantages and disadvantages.But are there more advantages than disadvantages? In the first place, television is an entertainment. But it is not only a convenient entertainment. For a family of three, four or five, for example, it is more convenient and less expensive to sit comfortably at home than to go out to find entertainment in other places. They don’t have to pay for expensive seats at the theatre or cinema. They turn on the TV-set and can see interesting films, concerts, football matches.

But some people think that it’s bad to watch TV. Those who watch TV need do nothing. We are passive when we watch TV. Television shows us many interesting programmes. But again there is a disadvantage here: we watch TV every evening, and it begins to dominate our lives.My friend told me that when his TV-set broke down, he and his family found that they had more time to do things and to talk to each other. There are other arguments for and against television.Very often the programmes are bad. Sometimes they show too much violence in films and news programmes.There is also too much pop music and ads. Ads on the whole are convenient for grown-ups. But is it good for children to watch all those ads where they show all kinds of underwear and what not?

 

Active Words and Word Combinations:

 

entertainment — розвага

to turn on — вмикати

passive — пасивний

to dominate — домінувати

to break down – ломатися

argument — аргумент

violence — жорстокість

pop music — поп-музика

ads (advertisemets) – реклама, об’ява, оголошення.

 

 

Questions:

 

1. What advantages does television have?

2. What disadvantages does televіsion have?

3. What did my friend find when his TV-set broke down?

4. What do they sometimes show?

 

 

Teacher ________________I.S.Kokovihinа

 

 

1. ПРОЧИТАЙТЕ ТА ПЕРЕКЛАДІТЬ ТЕКСТ.

2. ПІДГОТУЙТЕСЬ ДО ДЕТАЛЬНОГО ПЕРЕКАЗУ ТЕКСТУ

 

 



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