ТОП 10:

The analyses of the vocabulary of the text 3.

Anestrus- (of a female mammal) the interval of sexual inactivity between two periods of heat or rut.

Caslick’s procedure -The Caslick procedure of surgically closing the upper part of the vulva has been commonly practiced on broodmares for the past 60 years. The procedure evolved in an effort to treat what E. A. Caslick, DVM, had observed--the negative effect that air had on a mare's reproductive system.

Deworming -is the giving of an anthelmintic drug (a wormer, dewormer, or drench) to a human or animal to rid them of helminths parasites, such as roundworm, flukes and tapeworm.
сокр. от Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.

ECAR -European College for Animal Reproduction;

Equine - relating to, or resembling a horse.

Fecal and urine- urineand feces together are called excreta.

Foaling- a young horse, mule, or related animal, especially one that is not yet one year of age.

Mare - a fully mature female horse or other equine animal.

MSc - magister.

Nutrition planning-the feed, following a particular schedule.

PhD - a doctorate usually based on at least 3 years graduate study and a dissertation.

Placentitis - this term refers to the inflammation of the placenta.

Rabies- an infectious disease of dogs, cats, and other animals, transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected animal and usually fatal.

Reproductive cycles -the cycle of physiological changes that begins with conception and extends through gestation and parturition.

Rhinopheumonitis (equine herpesvirus) -is a virus of the family Herpesviridae that cause rhinopneumonitis in horses.

Seal- a device or material that is used to close off or fasten an opening or connection, especially to prevent the escape of a liquid or gas.

Tetanus - an acute infectious disease characterized by tonic spasm of voluntary muscles especially of the jaw and caused by an exotoxin of a bacterium.

To bag up –to pack something.

To impede reproductive –to make harm to it.

Vulva- the vulva consists of the external genital organs of a woman.

Vulvar discharge- is a mixture of liquid, cells, and bacteria that lubricates the vagina.

West Nile virus - an illness caused by a chiefly mosquito-borne virus of the genus Flavivirus, characterized in a small percentage of infected persons by fever, headache, muscle weakness, and sometimes encephalitis or meningitis.

Western and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis -mosquito-borne pathogens that can cause nonspecific illnesses and encephalitis in equids (horses, mules, burros, donkeys and zebras) and humans in the Americas.


Text 4 Natural Selection and Horse Evolution.


The evolution of the horse involves the gradual development of the modern horse from the fox-sized, forest-dwelling Eohippus. Paleozoologists have been able to piece together a more complete picture of the modern horse's evolutionary lineage than that of any other animal. Eohippus, which lived 70 million years ago, was a small animal. This group of animals appears to have been originally specialized for life in tropical forests. They had small body structure, small teeth, and short legs with 4 toes on each front leg and 3 toes on each hind leg which were beneficial for walking on the soft, moist grounds of primeval forests. The heavy plant growth provided these prehistoric horses a cover for protection from predators and plenty of food to eat. As millions of years passed, the lush forest began to disappear and thin out. The lush tropical forest was gradually replaced by grassland with dry hard soil. The horse’s predecessors’ diets shifted from soft foliage to harder grasses. At the same time, as the plains began to appear, the horse's predecessors needed to be able to escape predators, since they no longer had the dense forest to hide in.

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