ТОП 10:

The analyses of the vocabulary of the text 2.



Artificial insemination- the introduction of semen into the oviduct or uterus by some means other than sexual intercourse

Artificial selection -is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

Breeders- a person who breeds animals

Breeding- breeding horses

Climatic conditions -is the statistics of weather, usually over a 30-year interval. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate differs from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region.

Crossbreed- the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock
Cultivated plants - plants that are grown for their produce.

Domestic animals -animals kept in order to produce.

Egg-laying ability -an amount of eggs a bird can lay in a partivular period of time

Fat-tailed sheep -is a general type of domestic sheep known for their distinctive large tails and hindquarters.

Forage -is plant material eaten by grazing livestock.

Greasiness -is the state of being greasy.

Laws of heredity - are statements about the way certain characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another in an organism

Local conditions -climatic conditions in a particular area.

Milk producing -the ability to produce milk.

Maturity speed -the speed of becoming viripotens.

Offspring - are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.

Planned economy -is an economic system in which inputs are based on direct allocation.

Productivity - is an average measure of the efficiency of production.

Prolificacy - is a derived term of prolific.As a noun prolificacy is great fertility.

Rump- the hind part of the body of an animal, as the hindquarters of a quadruped or sacral region of a bird.

Run agility -an ability to run fast.

Sexual selection- a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

Shearing of wool - is the process by which the woollen fleece of a sheep is cut off.

Stallions- is a male horse that has not been gelded (castrated).

To give an impetus- to give an impuls.

 

Text 3 Ready Mares in Fall for Foals in Spring.

Some might consider it a bit premature to be thinking about spring already (winter’s not even officially here yet!), but if you’re a horse owner expecting a foal out of your mare or hoping to get your mare in foal, this is the perfect time to start planning.

In this article, Igor Canisso, DVM, MSc, PhD, Dipl. ECAR, an equine theriogenologist at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, shares some helpful tips for the diligent mare owner looking to jumpstart the breeding season. He breaks down the preparation into three basic steps: fall reproductive health workup, nutrition planning, and lighting management.

Basic Reproductive Health

“(Fall) is the most critical time to evaluate any pregnant mares for signs of placentitis, one of the leading causes of pregnancy loss,” says Canisso. She should be monitored for premature bagging up, vulvar discharge, and “sucking air” through the vulva.

Air sucking indicates that the integrity of the seal formed by the vulva or internal parts of the vagina has been compromised. If this issue arises in your mare, your veterinarian might elect to perform a Caslick’s procedure or expand an existing one. This simple procedure involves suturing part of the vulva together to lessen the risk of fecal and urine contamination and to reduce air sucking.

A fall workup is equally important to a mare that is about to be bred.

“We want to make sure she is clean, that there is no infection in her uterus, and that she doesn’t need any reproductive procedures,” Canisso says. “If she does (have any issues), take care of those sooner rather than later. We want her to have been clean for a while by the time the spring breeding season occurs.”

Vaccinations and Deworming

 

Both pregnant and nonpregnant mares need to be up-to-date on their core vaccinations (rabies, tetanus, Western and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and West Nile virus). But there are some additional vaccinations are recommended for pregnant mares, like the vaccine for rhinopheumonitis (equine herpesvirus) that can cause abortions. Mares will need vaccinations for this at five, seven, and nine months of gestation.

You and your primary veterinarian should address not only vaccinations but deworming. While many horse owners deworm regardless of their horses’ worm infection status, new best practices suggest you ask your veterinarian to do a fecal egg count to see if your horse needs deworming. Both pregnant mares and mares that are going to be bred can suffer issues that can impede their reproductive systems if they have an overload of parasites.

Eating for Two

Once you and your veterinarian get your mare’s reproductive health up to par and her vaccinations up-to-date, you should also evaluate her nutrition plan.

Keep nonpregnant mares at an average, healthy weight. A mare with a low body condition score could have trouble getting pregnant, while one that is too heavy might have difficulties carrying and delivering the foal.

If your mare needs a few extra pounds, Canisso recommends sunflower oil as an additive to increase a mare’s weight.

“Sunflower oil increases energy density of the diet but won’t cause gut overload with carbohydrates if given at moderate amounts,” he says. “Owners should be careful with feeding grain. High amounts of soluble carbohydrates can lead to laminitis.”

If you find that your mare is having trouble gaining weight despite your best efforts, discuss with your veterinarian whether might have metabolic issues or chewing problems. Both issues can make it hard for a horse to maintain good body condition, and both are easily remedied in the fall.

Keep the Lights On

Finally, artificial lighting management is very important this time of year. The shorter days in late fall and winter alter a horse’s metabolic and reproductive hormones and induce winter anestrus. Anestrus is a time during winter when mares do not have reproductive cycles (ovulatory heat) and, thus, cannot get pregnant. Artificial lighting will cause mares to come into heat earlier in the season or sooner after foaling by simulating a longer day.

“Mares should be put under lights by the first of December,” Canisso says. “The easiest way to add light is six hours at the end of the day. This is a good time to bring mares into the barn to be fed, so you can evaluate their eating habits and also keep them protected from winter weather and under lights.”







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