Read the text and write an abstract. 


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Read the text and write an abstract.



Antimonopoly non-discriminatory access rules

Prior to the adoption of the fourth package, antimonopoly non-discriminatory access rules (NDAR) could be applied only to natural monopoly markets, and goods produced or sold by the natural monopolies. The fourth antimonopoly package allows for the assertion of NDAR also in respect of goods produced and (or) implemented by economic entities with a dominant position in the market.

NDAR can be established by an act of the Government of the Russian Federation in respect of an economic entity if:

§ it holds a dominant position on the relevant market and the size of its share exceeds 70%;

§ it has allowed the abuse of its dominant position, which is confirmed by an enforceable decision of the antimonopoly authority.

The NDAR will have to include, in particular, a list of information that an economic entity must disclose, and the order of this disclosure, essential conditions of contracts on the access to goods and (or) the relevant standard contracts and the procedure for determining the consumers that must be provided with these services. In addition, the NDAR may contain a provision on the mandatory sale of goods through tenders.

Thus, the application of NDAR entails a dual effect. On the one hand, it limits the freedom of economic activity for an economic entity occupying a dominant position it the market, in respect of which the NDAR were adapted. On the other hand, the use of the NDAR provides for transparency and equal access to goods produced and (or) being sold by such an economic entity. How reasonable and feasible the introduction of the NDAR is going to be, will depend on the extent to which the Government of the Russian Federation, in each individual case, shall be able to ensure a balance between the interests of the entity being in a dominant position and the interests of the consumers of its products.

Read the text and answer the following questions.

1. What aspects of culture should you know while communicating with people of different nations?

2. What country is the example of the most prominent business culture nowadays?

3. What is the most popular language in business sphere?

Cross-cultural meetings

Cross cultural negotiations is about more than just how foreigners close deals. It involves looking at all factors that can influence the proceedings. By way of highlighting this, a few brief examples of topics covered in cross cultural negotiation training shall be offered.

Eye Contact: In the US, UK and much of northern Europe, strong, direct eye contact conveys confidence and sincerity. In South America it is a sign of trustworthiness. However, in some cultures such as the Japanese, prolonged eye contact is considered rude and is generally avoided.

Personal Space & Touch: In Europe and North America, business people will usually leave a certain amount of distance between themselves when interacting. Touching only takes place between friends. In South America or the Middle East, business people are tactile and like to get up close. In Japan or China, it is not uncommon for people to leave a gap of four feet when conversing. Touching only takes place between close friends and family members.

Time: Western societies are very 'clock conscious'. Time is money and punctuality is crucial. This is also the case in countries such as Japan or China where being late would be taken as an insult. However, in South America, southern Europe and the Middle East, being on time for a meeting does not carry the same sense of urgency.


Meeting & Greeting: most international business people meet with a handshake. In some countries this is not appropriate between genders. Some may view a weak handshake as sign of weakness whereas others would perceive a firm handshake as aggressive. How should people be addressed? Is it by first name, surname or title? Is small talk part of the proceedings or not?

Gift-Giving: In Japan and China gift-giving is an integral part of business protocol however in the US or UK, it has negative connotations. Where gifts are exchanged should one give lavish gifts? Are they always reciprocated? Should they be wrapped? Are there numbers or colors that should be avoided?
All the above in one way or another will impact cross cultural negotiation and can be learnt through cross cultural training. Doing or saying the wrong thing at the wrong time, poor communication and cross cultural misunderstandings can all have harmful consequences.



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