The complex and the compound sentences.

Types of composite sentences: According to the type of connection of clauses we can distinguish between complex and compound sentences. In compound sentences the type of connection of clauses is coordination (i.e. syntactically the clauses are of equal rank). In complex sentences the type of connection of clauses is subordination and clauses are of unequal rank (principal and subordinate). The means of combining clauses: syndetic and asyndetic. Syndetic: conjunctions, relative pronouns (who, which), relative adverbs (where, how, when, why), phrases (as long as, in order that). If asyndetically there are no connectives between the clauses. Some grammarians say, “the zero connector”. Поспелов believes that on a higher level of classification all composite sentences should be divided into syndetic and asyndetic and on the lower level syndetic composite sentences only should be divided into composite and complex.

There is much more to be said about the complex sentences than about the compound. The semantic relations which can be expressed by subordination are much more numerous and more varied than with co-ordination,e.g. time, place, concession, purpose, etc.

The notions of declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentence appear to be applicable to some types of complex sentences as well.

Classification of subordinate clauses: 2 approaches: 1) According to the functional principle we distinguish a) the subject clause, b) the predicative, c) object, d) adverbial, e) attributive. This approach shows correlation of clauses with parts of the sentence.2) According to the categorial principle subordinate clauses are divided into 3 categorial semantic groups: substantive-nominal, qualification-nominal and adverbial. e.g.That they were justified in this she could not but admit. – That fact she could not but admit. e.g.Ann had become aware of the fact that she was talking loudly. – Ann had become aware of that fact.e.g.I’ll deserve your confidence if you give me another chance. – I’ll deserve your confidence on condition that you give me another chance. This approach correlates clauses with parts of speech. The two classifications are mutually complementary: -clauses of primary nominal positions (subject, predicative, object clauses); - clauses of secondary nominal positions (attributive clauses); - clauses of adverbial positions.

According to the degree of self-dependence of clauses complex sentences are divided into monolythic and segregative sentence structures. Monolythic complex sentences are based on obligatory subordinative connections of clauses, whereas segregative complex sentences are based on optional subordinative connections.

Monolythic complex sentences: 1) merger complex sentences, i.e. sentences with subject and predicative subordinate clauses, where the subordinate clause is fused with the principal one. E.g. The trouble is we are to change our plans.

2) valency monolythic complexes, whose subordinate clauses are dependent on the obligatory right-hand valency of the verb in the principal clause. Here belong sentences with object clauses and valency-determined adverbial clauses. E.g. I think a man like that is a real artist. – I think -… e.g. Put the book where it belongs. – Put the book - …3) correlation monolythic complexes, which are based on subordinate correlations. Complex sentences with restrictive subordinate clauses are included into this subtype. E.g. The girl played the piano with such feeling as you had never experienced. 4) arrangement monolythic complexes, whose obligatory connection between the principal and subordinate clauses is determined only by the linear order of clausal positions. E.g. If you refused her present, it would upset her. The connection between the clauses is obligatory. Rearrangement of clausal positions turns the connection between the clauses into optional. It would upset her if you refused her present. – It would upset her.

The connection between the subordinate clauses can be parallel (homogeneous, heterogeneous) and consecutive (direct and oblique).

As for the compound sentence from the semantico-syntactic point of view there are 2 basic types of connection:

1. Marked coordinative connection – copulative, causal, resultative, adversative, disjunctive, e.g. We cannot go upstairs for we are too tired.

2. Unmarked coordinative connection - is realized by the coordinative connector “and” and also asyndetically (copulative, enumerative, causal, resultative relations), e.g. Time passed, and she came to no conclusions. We cannot go upstairs, we are too tired.

Opened constructions are copulative and enumerative. They are used in narrations in literary texts as a descriptive means.

Closed type of compound sentences presupposes some kind of finalization. Conjunctions and and but.

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