ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
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The secondary parts of the sentence
The Object is a secondary part of the sentence expressed by a verb, a noun, a substantival pronoun, an adjective, a numeral, or an adverb, and denoting a thing to which the action passes on, which is a result of the action, in reference to which an action is committed or a property is manifested, or denoting an action as object of another action.
· by their morphological composition, by the parts of speech or phrases which perform the function of object
· by the type of their relation to the action expressed by the verb (direct/indirect)
Classification of object:
1. Prepositional and non-prepositional objects.The dichotomic classification into prepositional and prepositionless objects seems practical and useful. It is to be noted, however, that the division based on the absence or presence of the preposition must be taken with an important point of reservation concerning the objects which have two forms: prepositional and prepositionless depending on the word-order in a given phrase, e. g.: to show him the book — to show the book to him; to give her the letter — to give the letter to her.
2.Morphological types (noun, pronoun, substantivized adjective, infinitive, gerund)
3.Direct/indirect, is applied only to objects expressed by nouns or pronouns. There are sentences in which the predicate is expressed by the verbs send, show, lend, give. These verbs usually take 2 different kinds of objects simultaneously: (1) an object expressing the thing which is sent, shown, lent, given, etc. (2) the person or persons to whom the thing is sent, shown, lent, given, etc. The difference between the 2 relations is clear enough: the direct object denotes the thing immediately affected by the action denoted by the predicate verb, whereas the indirect object expresses the person towards whom the thing is moved, e.g. We sent them a present. The indirect object stands 1st, the direct object comes after it.
In studying different kinds of objects it is also essential to take into account the possibility of the corresponding passive construction.
The Adverbial Modifier.
The term ‘adverbial modifier’ cannot be said to be a very lucky one, as it is apt to convey erroneous (wrong, incorrect) ideas about the essence of this secondary part. They have nothing to do with adverbs and they modify not only verbs.
There are several ways of classifying adverbial modifiers:
1. According to their meaning – not a grammatical classification. However it may acquire some grammatical significance.
2. According to their morphological peculiarities – according to the parts of speech and to the phrase patterns. It has also something to do with word order, and stands in a certain relation to the classification according to meaning.adverb,preposition + noun,a noun without a preposition,infinitive or an infinitive phrase
3. According to the type of their head-word – is the syntactic classification proper. The meaning of the word (phrase) acting as modifier should be compatible with the meaning of the head-word.
Adverbial modifier of:
· Time and frequency,
· Place and direction,
· Manner and attendant,
The attribute is a secondary part of the sentence modifying a part of the sentence expressed by a noun, a substantivized pronoun, a cardinal numeral, and any substantivized word, and characterizing the thing named by these words as to its quality or property. The attribute can either precede or follow the noun it modifies. Accordingly we use terms prepositive and postpositive attribute. The position of an attribute with respect to its head-word depends partly on the morphological peculiarities of the attribute itself, and partly on stylistic factors. The size of the prepositive attributive phrase can be large in ME. Whatever is included between the article and the noun, is apprehended as an attribute.
The paradigm of these linguistic means is rather manifold. We find here:
1) adjectives: the new house; a valuable thing; 2) nouns in the Possessive Case: my brother's book; 3) noun-adjunct groups (N + N): world peace, spring time; 4) prepositional noun-groups: the daughter of my friend 5) pronouns (possessive, demonstrative, indefinite): my joy, such flowers, every morning, a friend of his, little time; 6) infinitives and infinitival groups: an example to follow, a thing to do; 7) gerunds and participles: (a) walking distance, swimming suit; (b) a smiling face, a singing bird; 8) numerals: two friends, the first task; 9) words of the category of state: faces alight with happiness;10) idiomatic phrases: a love of a child, a jewel of a nature, etc.
Word order in English.
The term ''word order” is a singularly unhappy one, as it is based on a confusion of two distinct levels of language structure: the level of phrases and that of the sentence. To approach this problem from a viewpoint doing justice to modern linguistic theory, we should carefully distinguish between two sets of phenomena: the order of words within a phrase and the order of parts of the sentence within a sentence. Here we are again confronted with the problem of the attribute: if the attribute is a secondary part of the sentence, its place falls under the heading "order of the parts of the sentence”; if, on the other hand the attribute is part, not of a sentence, but of a phrase, its place with reference to its head word must be considered within the theory of the phrase and its parts. Since this question has not been settled yet, we may consider the place of the attribute in this chapter.
All other questions ought to be discussed under the heading "order of sentence parts", but as it is hardly possible to introduce-a change and to dismiss a term so firmly established, we will keep the term "word order", bearing in mind that it is quite conventional: what we shall discuss is the order of the parts of the sentence.
The English language is characterized by a rigid word order in accordance with which the subject of declarative sentences, as a rule, precedes the predicate. This is the so-called direct word order,e.g. The assistant greeted the professor.
Any deviation from the rigid word order is termed inversion, e.g. Often has he recollected the glorious days of the Civil War.
The direct object is usually placed after the verb unless the indirect object precedes it, e.g. He offered me his help. Sometimes the object is pushed to the front of the sentence, it occurs when:
1. The direct object is an interrogative word, which is naturally placed at the head of the sentence to form a special question, e.g. What did you do?
2. The object is separated from its verb by some other parts of the sentence – adverbial complements, prepositional objects – when it is intentionally placed at the end of the sentence for the sake of emphasis, logical stress, e.g. And unexpectedly he saw against the background of the forest two approaching figures.
The indirect object cannot be usedin the sentence without the direct object. The indirect object is regularly put before the direct object. The prepositional objects can be put at the head of the sentence for the sake of emphasis.
Occasionally the prepositional object is placed before the direct object (in to-phrases).
The position of adverbial modifiersin the sentence is known to be comparatively more free that that of other parts.
Those which are most closely linked with the part of the sentence they modify are the ones that denote the frequency or the property of an action. They come between the subject and the predicate, or even inside the predicate if it consists of two words-an auxiliary and a notional verb, or two elements of a compound predicate.
The more usual position of the adverbial modifiers of time and place is, however, outside the group “subject+predicate+object”, that is, either before or after it. If it contains the main new things to be conveyed, this adverbial modifier will have to come at the end of the sentence. The adverbial modifier of time can go at the beginning of the sentence. An adverbial modifier can also come in between two components of the predicate.
The positionof an attribute before or after it’s head word largely depends on its morphological type. An attribute consisting of a prepositional phrase can only come after its head word. As to adjectival attributes, their usual position is before their headword, but in some case they follow it. An attribute expressed by an adverb may come before its headword.
The position of direct address and parentheses of the sentence is probably more free that that of all other parts. A direct address can come in almost anywhere in the sentence. Some types of parentheses usually come in between two constituent parts of the predicate. Parentheses may also refer to one part of the sentence only, and is then bound to come before that part.
If a particle belongs to a noun connected to a noun connected with a preposition, the particle will come between the preposition and the noun. Sometimes a particle refers to the word of phrase immediately preceding it. This can only happen if the particle stands at the end of the sentence or at least at the end of a section of the sentence marked by a pause in oral speech and by a comma or other punctuation mark in writing. This usage seems to be restricted to more or less official style. Sometimes it comes before the predicate or between two elements of the predicate, while it refers to some secondary part of the sentence standing further ahead. In these cases, then, the position of the particle is determined, not by it’s semantic ties, but by the structure of the sentence.
On the whole, the problem of word order proves to be a highly complex one, requiring great care and subtlety in the handling. Different factors have something to do with determining the place of one part of a sentence or another.
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