The Gerund and Participle I.

Е.Крейзинг, В.Я.Плоткин, Л.С.Бархударов look upon the Gerund and the PI as one form.А.И.Смирницкий, Б.Стрэнг differetiate between the 2 forms.

According to Blokh The Gerund is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the noun. The Gerund serves as the verbal name of a process, but its substantive quality is more strongly pronounced than that of the infinitive. The Gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or its pronominal equivalents and it can be used with prepositions.

TheGerundcannot perform the function of the paradigmatic verbal head-form for a number of reasons:

1. It is more detached from the finite verb than Gerund semantically, tending to be a far more substantival unit categorially.

2. As different from theinfinitive, it does not join in the conjugation of the finite verb.

3. It is a suffixial form, which makes it less generalized than the infinitive in terms of properties of the verbal lexeme.

4. It is less definite than theinfinitive form the lexico-grammatical point of view, being subject to easy neutralization in its opposition with the verbal noun in -ing, as well as with the present participle.-> The Gerund is not rival of the infinitive in the paradigmatic head-form function.

The general combinability of the Gerund is dual, sharing some features with the verb, and some features with the noun:

1.The VERB-type combinability of theGerundis displayed in its combining:

a. with nouns expressing the object of the action

b. with modifying adverbs

c. with certain semi-functional predicator verbs (non-modal)

2.The NOUN-type combinability of theGerund:

a. with finite notional verbs as the object of the action

b. with finite notional verbs as the prepositional adjunct (приложение, дополнение, определение) of various functions

    1. with finite notional verbs as the subject of the action
    2. d. with nouns as the prepositional adjunct of various functions.

TheGerundperforms the functions of all the types of notional sentence-parts: the subject, the object, the predicative, the attribute, the adverbial modifier. One of the specific patterns is its combination with the noun in the possessive case or its possessive pronominal equivalent expressing the subject of the action. The gerundial construction is used in cases when the subject of the gerundial process differs from the subject of the governing sentence-situation, i.e. when the gerundial sentence-part has its own, separate subject (e.g. Powell’s being rude like that was disgusting).

The possessive with theGerund displays one of the distinctive categorial properties of the Gerund as such, establishing it in the English lexemic system as the form of the verb with nounal characteristics. From the point of view of the inner semantic relations, this combination is of a verbal type, while form the point of view of the formal categorial features, this combination is of nounal type.

Reconstruction:I can’t stand his criticizing artistic works that are beyond his competence->verbal – He is criticizing artistic works; nounal – His criticism of artistic works.

5)The Participle 1is the non-finite form of the verb which combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective and adverb, serving as the qualifying-processual name. In its form the Participle 1is wholly homonymous with the GERUND, ending in the suffix –ing and distinguishing the same grammatical categories of retrospective coordination and voice.

Like all the verbids, the Participle 1has no categorial time distinctions, and the attribute “present” in its conventional name is not immediately explanatory.

Since the Participle 1possesses some traits of adjective and adverb, the present participle is not only dual, but triple by its lexico-grammatical properties, which is displayed in its combinability, as well as in its syntactic functions.

1.The VERB-type combinability:

a. with nouns expressing the object of the action

b. with nouns expressing the subject of the action (in semi-predicative complexes)

c. with modifying adverbs

d. with auxiliary finite verbs (word-morphemes) in the analytical forms of the verb

2. The ADJECTIVE-type combinability: with the modified nouns, some modifying adverbs (adverbs of degree).

3. The ADVERB-type combinability: with the modified verbs.

The self-positional Participle I, in the proper syntactic arrangements, performs the functions of the predicative, the attribute, the adverbial modifier of various types.

The Participle 1, similar to the Infinitive, can build up semi-predicative complexes of objective and subjective types. The 2 groups of complexes may exist in parallel.

A peculiar use of the Participle 1is seen in the absolute participial constructions of various types, forming complexes of detached semi-predication.

According to Ilyishthere is no external difference between the Gerund and the Participle I, they are complete homonyms.

The Gerund has substantival qualities besides the verbal ones. The Participle I has adjectival qualities besides the verbal ones; the Gerund may be the subject and the object of the action, rarely attribute, the Participle is an attribute first and foremost.

The opposition between them is neutralized in: Do you mind my smoking? (gerund)

The Participle 2is the non-finite form of the verb, which combines the properties of the verb with those of the adjective, serving as the qualifying - processual name. The PII is a single form, having no paradigm of its own (it conveys implicitly the categorial meaning of the perfect and the passive). The main self-positional functions of the PII in the sentence are those of the attribute and the predicative. In the attributive use, the PII meanings of the perfect and the passive are expressed in dynamic correlation with the aspective lexico-grammatical character of the verb а the attributive PII of limitive verbs in a neutral content expresses priority, while the PII of unlimitive verbs expresses simultaneity:

· A tree broken by the storm blocked the narrow passage between the cliffs and the water (priority in the passive).

· I saw that the picture admired by the general public hardly had a fair chance with the judges (simultaneity in the passive).

The PII is capable of making up semi-predicative constructions of complex object, complex subject, as well as of absolute complex. The absolute PII complex as a rule expresses priority in the correlation of 2 events:

· e.g. The preliminary talks completed, it became possible to concentrate on the central point of the agenda.

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