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TEXT 1

Vocabulary


formation [fL'meISqn] формирование, образование

mechanical engineer инженер-механик

machinery [mq'SJnqrI] оборудование

turbine ['tWbaIn] турбина

diversity [daI'vWsItI] разнообразие, многообразие

among [q'mAN] среди

turbine ['tWbaIn] турбина

hydraulic [haI'drLlIk] гидравлический

boilers ['bOIlq'] паровой котёл


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Mechanical engineering has been recognized as a separate branch of engineering since the formation of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in Great Britain in 1847. The development of the textile machinery, steam engines, machine-tools, pumping machinery, turbines and locomotives of that time made such a diversity interest for civil engineers and applied subjects were called mechanical engineering.

Mechanical engineering deals with the design, construction and operation of machines and devices of all kinds, and with research and sciences upon which these depend. Among these machines are prime movers such as engines and turbines using air, gas, steam and water as operating media; pumping machines and other hydraulic apparatus; steam boilers, heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigerating equipment, transportation structures used in aviation; automotive engineering, railroads and ships, machine-tools, special machines for industry and for construction of buildings, railroads and harbours. In fact, mechanical engineering enters into the work of all engineers whose machines are to be developed for the processes of specialists of the other branches of engineering.

Упражнения

1. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских слов и словосочетаний:

1. the textile machinery 2. hydraulic apparatus 3. a separate branch 4. refrigerating equipment 5. heating 6. railroad 7. pumping machinery 8. civil engineers 9. operating media 10. mechanical engineering a. отопление b. гидравлические приборы c. насосные машины d. средства работы e. гражданские инженеры f. охлаждающее оборудование g. механическая инженерия h. текстильного оборудования i. железная дорога j. отдельная ветвь

2. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. When has mechanical engineering been recognized as a separate branch of engineering? 2. What does mechanical engineering deal with? 3. Which prime movers do you know? 4. What enters into the work of all engineers? 5. What is the main idea of the text?

Выпишите из текста предложения в Present Perfect Passive Voice, Present Simple active Voice, подчеркните сказуемое.

Прочитайте следующие предложения, переспросите о происходящем действии и дайте отрицательный ответ.

Model:This engineer is working in the field of automaking.

Is this engineer working in the field of automaking?

No, he is not working in the field of automaking.

1. I am making a diagram now. 2. He is preparing for his report at the conference now. 3. He was doing an interesting work last week. 4. She will be working at our laboratory next year. 5. We are studying new drawings and specifications at present. 6. They were working on a new type of body fixtures last month.

Переведите на русский язык.

The millionth electric motor is rolling off the conveyer line of the plant now. Representatives of more than 80 professions took part in its manufacture. Next year the plant will be producing 1000 electric motors every day.

8. Ответьте на данные высказывания, употребив длительный вид и наречие still.

Model:Iknow he was working on his report about new kinds of engines last week.

— He is still working on it.

1. I know she was teaching chemistry last year. 2.1 know he was working at your laboratory last month. 3.1 know you were working a lot last year. 4. I know this plant was trying to expand the production of new tools. 5. I know he was preparing for a difficult experiment last week. 6. I know this scientist was developing a new theory last year.

9. Используйте следующие предложения для описания современного состоя­ния науки.

Model:— The volume of scientific information did not grow so rapidly in the 19th century.

— The volume of scientific information is growing very rapidly now.

1. Knowledge did not expand so rapidly in the 19th century. 2. Not so many people took part in research in the 19th century. 3. Scientists did not work in big research teams in the 19th century. 4. Not so many new branches of science appeared in the 19th century. 5. Research centres did not grow so rapidly in the 19th century. 6. Scientific thinking did not develop so rapidly in the 19th century. 7. Scientists did not publish so many papers in the 19th century.

10. Покритикуйте следующие заявления, употребив not... enough.

Model:— The situation is improving.

— Quite true, but it is not improvingrapidly enough.

1. We are using this technique effectively. 2. Scientific contacts are expanding. 3. He is doing this work well. 4. Research methods are improving. 5. This process is going rapidly. 6. Technology is developing. 7. Our knowledge of the world is growing.

TEXT STUDY

TEXT 2

Vocabulary


evolved[I'vOlv] эволюционировать, развиваться

arrow ['xrqu] стрела

spear [spIq'] копьё

forerunner ['fLrAnq']предшественник

craftsman['krRftsmqn] ремесленник

to refine [rI'faIn] очищать

ancestor ['xnsIstq'] предок

devise [dI'vaIz] разрабатывать

observation [qbzq'veISqn] наблюдение

to seek [sJk] искать

concept ['kOnsFpt]понятие

interaction [Intqr'xkSqn] взаимодействие

enormous [I'nLmqs] громадный

gasoline ['gxsqlJn] бензин

proportion [prq'pLSqn] часть



THE ENGINEERING PROFESSION

Engineering is one of the most ancient occupations in history. Without the skills included in the broad field of engineering, our present-day civilization never could have evolved. The first toolmakers who chipped arrows and spears from rock were the forerunners of modern mechanical engineers. The craftsmen who discovered metals in the earth and found ways to refine and use them were the ancestors of mining and metallurgical engineers. And the skilled technicians who devised irrigation systems and erected the marvellous buildings of the ancient world were the civil engineers of their time.

Engineering is often defined as making practical application of theoretical sciences such as physics and mathematics. Many of the early branches of engineering were based not on science but on empirical information that depended on observation and experience.

The great engineering works of ancient times were constructed and operated largely by means of slave labor. During the Middle Ages people began to seek devices and methods of work that were more efficient and humane. Wind, water, and animals were used to provide energy for some of these new devices. This led to the Industrial Revolution that began in the eighteenth century. First steam engines and then other kinds of machines took over more and more of the work that had previously been done by human beings or by animals. James Watt, one of the key figures in the early development of steam engines, devised the concept of horsepower to make his customers understand the amount of work his machines could perform.

Since the nineteenth century both scientific research and practical application of its results have escalated. The mechanical engineer now has the mathematical ability to calculate the mechanical advantage that results from the complex interaction of many different mechanisms. He or she also has new and stronger materials to work with and enormous new sources of power. The Industrial Revolution began by putting water and steam to work; since then machines using electricity, gasoline, and other energy sources have become so widespread that they now do a very large proportion of the work of the world.

 

 

DISCUSSION

Ответьте на вопросы по теме "The Engineering Profession".

1. Who were the forerunners of modern mechanical, mining and metallurgical, and civil engineers?

2. How is engineering often defined?

3. What kind of information were many of the early branches of engineering based on? Give some examples.

4. Name two important factors in the explosion of scientific knowledge in modern times.

5. What made people in the Middle Ages in Europe begin to experiment with new devices and methods of work?

6. What was the historical result of experimentation with different kinds of energy?

7. Who was James Watt? Why did he devise the concept of horsepower?

8. What advantages have scientific research and its applications given to the mechanical engineer?

9. What energy sources have come into common use since steam engines were developed at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?

 

 

TEXT STUDY

TEXT 3

Vocabulary


triangle ['traIxNgl] треугольник

pure scientist [pjuq'] ученый-теоретик

research engineer инженер-исследователь

generalization['GFnrqlaI'zeISqn] обобщение

design[dI'zaIn] проектировать, разрабатывать

concern[kqn'sWn]зд. Интересоваться

perhaps [pq'hxps] может быть, возможно

 


THE ESSENTIAL TRIANGLE

Technological and industrial progress depends on the scientist, the engineer and the technologist — an essential triangle. Each makes major contribution to progress. The engineer depends upon the scientist for new knowledge and upon the technologist for specialized assistance in translating engineering plans into operating reality.

The scientist can make his contribution to progress through the investigation of the unknown.

The interests of the research engineer are in the area of applied science and research. Scientists work in a world of generalizations and ab­stractions. The technologist, on the other hand, works in the real world of specific things and concrete objects. His problems are practical and they require practical solutions. He is more interested in how to do things. He must understand engineering tables and formulas and apply them in his work. The scientist, the research engineer, the technologist — all play an important role in the modern world.

The principal work of the engineer is design. He has to design products, machines and production systems. Like the research engineer, the engineer asks "why?" Like the technologist, he is also concerned with "how?"

The engineer must combine many of the characteristics of the scientist, research engineer and technologist. He must have a basic knowledge of the sciences, and understanding of the abstract techniques of the research engi­neer and he should know much of the technology employed by technologists.

Perhaps the most important function of the engineer is to integrate the work of the essential triangle. His interest must be in combining the abstract-theoretical world and the technical-practical world.

TEXT-BASED ASSIGNMENTS

LANGUAGE STUDY

1. а) Найдите в тексте существительные, образованные от приведенных ниже глаголов, и уточните их значения.

to know, to contribute, to assist, to investigate, to generalize

б) Найдите в тексте глаголы, от которых образованы приведенные ниже существительные, и уточните их значения.

requirement, combination, integration

в) Переведите предложения с найденными вами существительными и глаголами на русский язык.

TEXT STUDY

TEXT 4

TEXT A. ENGINEERING

Today machines have to withstand such tremendous stresses and to be able of such complex motions that complicated and specialized calculations taking hundreds of factors into account are needed in the design of even quite a simple machine like a motor-car engine.

So, as engineering progresses, engineers must become ever more scientific and specialized. Today the branches of engineering are so wide that it is impossible to classify them satisfactorily. But we may try to divide them into uses. The main divisions of engineering may be listed as follows:

1. Mechanical engineering.

Steam engines, internal combustion engines, turbines (steam, gas, water), pumps; compressors; machine-tools; mechanisms.

2. Electrical engineering.

a) Power: generators; motors; transformers; transmission (power lines and so on).

b) Electronics: radio, radar, television.

3. Civil engineering.

Dams; tunnels; roads, and so on.

4. Structural engineering.

The structural details of all large buildings and bridges.

5. Chemical engineering.

Any of these branches of engineering may require the special services of the following specialists: the metallurgist; the strength of materials expert; the thermodynamics of heat expert, the mechanics or machines experts; the various production engineering experts such as the engineering designer or the tool designer; the mathematician specializing in engineering problems and many more.

The engineer must also deal with the economists to assure himself that he is producing what is wanted, and economically.

GRAMMAR REVISION

Неопределенные местоимения

TEXT B.

So What is Engineering?

The engineering industry makes most of the things that are essential and useful: aerospace, cars, hospital equipment, telecommunications and even the humble kettle. Engineering also makes most of the things other industries need from cash dispensers and electronic mail for the banking industry to microphones and staging for the entertainment industry. In the production of everything from chocolates to the Channel Tunnel, the key individuals are the engineers. It's an industry that still contributes significantly to the wealth of the UK, the very diverse manufacturing industry sector alone generates around a third of the national wealth and employs approximately 32 percent of the working population.

In recent years, engineering has changed out of all recognition. The sheer speed of change in many manufacturing technologies is startling. Thanks to the introduction of computers and new technologies like Virtual Reality, people are more in control than ever. This also means the engineering employers are looking for people with a wider range of skills and personalities: from lone-theorists to more gregarious and practical individuals; from managers who can handle people, lead teams and solve problems, to creative designers with a keen sense of market realities. Engineering needs them all — women as well as men.

DISCUSSION

TEXT 5

 

TEXT A.


"unmanned" [An'mxnd] industries – полностью автоматизированное производство

reliability [rIlaIq'bIlItI] – надёжность

merely ['mIqlI] – просто; только

entire [In'taIq'] – весь

transfer – передача

to increase ['InkrJs] – увеличивать

blueprint ['blHprInt] – проект

promising ['prOmIsIN] – многообещающий

treatment – обработка

alloy ['xlOI] – сплав

compounds ['kOmpaund] –соединения

harvesters – комбайн

reinforcing [rJIn'fLs] – укреплять

vulnerable ['vAlnqrqbl] – уязвимый

quantity ['kwOntItI] – количество

mere [mIq'] – просто


 

LANGUAGE STUDY

TEXT STUDY

TEXT 6

TEXT A. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND AUTOMATION

Vocabulary


technique [tFk'nJk] техника

assembly [q'sFmbli] line сборочный конвейер

conveyer belt ленточный транспортер

automobile assembly[q'sFmbli] plant автосборочный завод

monotony [mq'nOtqnI] однообразие; монотонность

productivity [prOdAk'tIvItI] производительность, продуктивность

entail [In'teIl] влечь за собой

advance успех

valves [vxlv] клапан

continuous-process manufacturing непрерывный процесс производства

refining [rI'faIn] очистка


TEXT A. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND AUTOMATION

A major advance in twentieth century manufacturing was the development of mass production techniques. Mass production refers to manufacturing processes in which an assembly line, usually a conveyer belt, moves the product to stations where each worker performs a limited number of operations until the product is assembled. In the automobile assembly plant such systems have reached a highly-developed form. A complex system of conveyer belts and chain drives moves car parts to workers who perform the thousands of necessary assembling tasks.

Mass production increases efficiency and productivity to a point beyond which the monotony of repeating an operation over and over slows down the workers. Many ways have been tried to increase productivity on assembly lines: some of them are as superficial as piping music into the plant or painting the industrial apparatus in bright colours; others entail giving workers more variety in their tasks and more respon­sibility for the product.

These human factors are important considerations for industrial engineers who must try to balance an efficient system of manufacturing with the complex needs of workers.

Another factor for the industrial engineer to consider is whether each manufacturing process can be automated in whole or in part. Automation is a word coined in the 1940s to describe processes by which machines do tasks previously performed by people. The word was new but the idea was not. We know of the advance in the development of steam engines that produced automatic valves. Long before that, during the Middle Ages, windmills had been made to turn by taking advantage of changes in the wind by means of devices that worked automatically.

Automation was first applied to industry in continuous-process manufacturing such as refining petroleum, making petrochemicals, and refining steel. A later development was computer-controlled automation of assembly line manufacturing, especially those in which quality control was an important factor.

 

TEXT STUDY

TEXT 7

Vocabulary


property ['prOpqtI] свойство

ferrous metals черный металл

cast [kRst] iron['aIqn] чугун

alloy ['xlOI] сплав

carbon['kRbqn] углерод

improve [Im'prHv] улучшать

resist [rI'zIst] сопротивляться

tungsten ['tANstn] вольфрам

brass[brRs] латунь

undergo [Andq'gqu] подвергаться

harden твердеть

withstand [wIT'stxnd] выдерживать


 

TEXT A. ENGINEERING MATERIALS

Engineers have to know the best and most economical materials to use. Engineers must also understand the properties of these materials and how they can be worked. There are two kinds of materials used in engineering — metals and non-metals. We can divide metals into ferrous and non-ferrous. The former contain iron and the latter do not contain iron. Cast iron and steel, which are both alloys, or mixtures of iron and carbon, are the two most important ferrous metals. Steel contains a smaller proportion of carbon than cast iron. Certain elements can improve the properties of steel and are therefore added to it. For example, chromium may be included to resist corrosion and tungsten to increase hardness. Aluminium, copper, and the alloys (bronze and brass) are common non-ferrous metals.

Plastics and ceramics are non-metals; however, plastics may be machined like metals. Plastics are classified into two types — thermoplastics and thermosets. Thermoplastics can be shaped and reshaped by heat and pressure but thermosets cannot be reshaped because they undergo chemical changes as they harden. Ceramics are often employed by engineers when materials which can withstand high temperatures are needed.

 

TEXT-BASED ASSIGNMENTS

LANGUAGE STUDY

Model 1

(a) Copper does not rust.

(b) Copper corrodes.

(a + b) Copper does not rust; however it corrodes.

Model 2

(a) Cast iron is a brittle metal.

(b) Cast iron is not used to withstand impact loads.

(a + b) Cast iron is a brittle metal, therefore it is not used to withstand impact loads. Model 3

(a) Titanium is used for aircraft frames.

(b) Titanium is light and strong.

(a + b) Titanium is used for aircraft frames because it is light and strong.

 

1. Chromium resists corrosion. Chromium is added to steels to make them rust-proof.

2. Manganese steel is very hard. Manganese steel is used for armour plate.

3. Bronze has a low coefficient of friction. Bronze is used to make bearings.

4. Nylon is used to make fibres and gears. Nylon is tough and has a low coefficient of friction.

5. Tin is used to coat other metals to protect them. Tin resists corrosion.

6. Tin is expensive. The coats of tin applied to other metals are very thin.

7. Stainless steels require little maintenance and have a high strength. Stainless steels are expensive and difficult to machine at high speeds.

8. Nickel, cobalt and chromium improve the properties of metals. Nickel, cobalt and chromium are added to steels.

 

Соедините следующие предложения в одно сложное предложение с помощью данных коннекторов. Вы можете опускать слова и делать любые перестановки, необходимые для сохранения английской модели предложения.

Model:

because/and/however

Plastics are used widely in engineering. They are cheap. They have a resistance to atmospheric corrosion. Plastics are not particularly strong.

Plastics are used widely in engineering because they are cheap and have a resistance to atmospheric corrosion; however, they are not particularly strong.

1. and'. There are two types of plastics. Thermoplastics are plastics. Thermosets are plastics.

2. and/whereas/and: Thermoplastics will soften when heated. Thermoplastics will harden when cooled. Thermosets set on heating. Thermosets will not remelt.

3. from/to: Plastics are used to make a great variety of products. Plastics are used to make textiles. Plastics are used to make engineering components.

4. such as: Plastics are available in many forms. Plastics are available in the form of sheets, tubes, rods, moulding powders and resins.

5. to: Various methods are used. These methods convert raw plastic into finished products. Compression moulding is a common method. Compression moulding is used for shaping thermosets.

6. with/which: The equipment consists of a press. The press has two heated platens. The two heated platens carry an upper and a lower mould.

7. then: Powder is placed in the lower mould. This is moulding powder. The upper mould is pressed down on the lower mould.

8. to/which: The pressure and the heat change the powder. The powder becomes liquid plastic. The liquid plastic fills the space between the moulds.

9. when/and: The chemical changes have taken place. The mould is opened. The moulding is extracted.

10. by: Plastic bowls are made. The compression moulding method is used.

 

5. Запомните значения следующих компонентов сложных слов:

-tight — характеризует качество соединения

-proof, -resistant — характеризуют свойства материалов.

Например:

an air-tight connection — a connection which air cannot pass through

a heat-resistant material — a material which is not damaged by heat

a moisture-proof coating — a coating which moisture cannot pass through

an acid-proof cement — a cement which is not damaged by acid

DISCUSSION

• Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What kinds of materials are used in engineering?

2. How are metals classified?

3. What is the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals?

4. For what purpose are some elements (such as chromium and tungsten) added to steel?

5. What kinds of non-metals do you know?

6. What can you say about classification and properties of plastics?

7. In what cases are ceramics used?

TEXT 1

Vocabulary


formation [fL'meISqn] формирование, образование

mechanical engineer инженер-механик

machinery [mq'SJnqrI] оборудование

turbine ['tWbaIn] турбина

diversity [daI'vWsItI] разнообразие, многообразие

among [q'mAN] среди

turbine ['tWbaIn] турбина

hydraulic [haI'drLlIk] гидравлический

boilers ['bOIlq'] паровой котёл


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Mechanical engineering has been recognized as a separate branch of engineering since the formation of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in Great Britain in 1847. The development of the textile machinery, steam engines, machine-tools, pumping machinery, turbines and locomotives of that time made such a diversity interest for civil engineers and applied subjects were called mechanical engineering.

Mechanical engineering deals with the design, construction and operation of machines and devices of all kinds, and with research and sciences upon which these depend. Among these machines are prime movers such as engines and turbines using air, gas, steam and water as operating media; pumping machines and other hydraulic apparatus; steam boilers, heating, ventilating, air conditioning and refrigerating equipment, transportation structures used in aviation; automotive engineering, railroads and ships, machine-tools, special machines for industry and for construction of buildings, railroads and harbours. In fact, mechanical engineering enters into the work of all engineers whose machines are to be developed for the processes of specialists of the other branches of engineering.

Упражнения

1. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских слов и словосочетаний:

1. the textile machinery 2. hydraulic apparatus 3. a separate branch 4. refrigerating equipment 5. heating 6. railroad 7. pumping machinery 8. civil engineers 9. operating media 10. mechanical engineering a. отопление b. гидравлические приборы c. насосные машины d. средства работы e. гражданские инженеры f. охлаждающее оборудование g. механическая инженерия h. текстильного оборудования i. железная дорога j. отдельная ветвь

2. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. When has mechanical engineering been recognized as a separate branch of engineering? 2. What does mechanical engineering deal with? 3. Which prime movers do you know? 4. What enters into the work of all engineers? 5. What is the main idea of the text?

Выпишите из текста предложения в Present Perfect Passive Voice, Present Simple active Voice, подчеркните сказуемое.



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