Велика Британія. Географічне положення та політична система країни.



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Велика Британія. Географічне положення та політична система країни.



Велика Британія. Географічне положення та політична система країни.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The UK is situated on two large islands called the British Isles. The larger island is Great Britain, the smaller is Ireland. The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It consists of four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

The country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Irish Sea. The area of the UK is 84, 550 square miles. The population is 57 million people.

If you travel to Great Britain from Ukraine, it will take you two days to pass through several countries on the continent by train, and six more hours to cross the English Channel by boat. If you fly to Great Britain, it will take you only three and a half hours.

There are also mountain chains in Scotland, Wales and North-West England, but they are not very high. North-West England is also famous for its beautiful lakes. The longest river in England is the Severn and the deepest is the Thames. London stands on the river Thames. London is the capital of England.

The sea enters deeply into the land. It has a great influence on the climate. The climate is damp, but mild. The winter is not very cold and the summer is not very hot. The winds are very warm: refreshing breezes come from the sea. There is much rain during the year. In fact, no region in the country is dry for three weeks. England is also famous for its fogs. Englishmen call them "pea soups". But, in fact, there is no fog in England now. Antipollution helped.

Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. The formal head of the state is Queen Elizabeth II. But the prime minister is the real head of the state. He is the head of the government. Ministers govern Great Britain. And queen doesn’t have any power at all. She is only a symbol of Great Britain.

Parliament makes laws. It consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords. People elect the members of the House of Commons (MPs). The members of the House of Lords inherit their titles. MPs receive a salary, and the members of the House of Lords do not receive a salary. The UK doesn't have any written constitution.

Great Britain has a very powerful economy. It is a manufacturing and trading nation. It exports cars, buses, trucks, motorcycles. But it doesn't produce enough food. The UK imports food. Englishmen raise sheep for meat and wool. They grow potatoes, sugar beets and wheat. Apple and cherry orchards in spring are very beautiful. Natural resources of the UK are gas, coal and oil.


Інтеграція України до Європейського Союзу.

Переваги Болонського процесу в Україні.

Bologna process

The purpose of the Bologna processis to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. It is named after the place it was proposed, the University of Bologna with the signing, in 1999, of the Bologna declaration by ministers of education from 29 European countries in the Italian city of Bologna.

The basic framework adopted is of three cycles of higher education qualification. As outlined in the Bergen Declaration of 2005, the cycles are defined in terms of qualifications and ECTS credits:

1st cycle: typically 180-240 ECTS credits, usually awarding a Bachelor's degree.

2nd cycle: typically 90-120 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 on 2nd-cycle level), usually awarding a Master's degree.

3rd cycle: Doctoral degree. No ECTS range given.

In most cases, these will take 3, 2, and 3 years respectively to complete. The actual naming of the degrees may vary from country to country.

With the Bologna process implementation, higher education systems in European countries should be organized in such a way that:

- it is easy to move from one country to the other (within the European Higher Education Area) - for the purpose of further study or employment;

- the attractiveness of European higher education is increased so many people from non-European countries also come to study and/or work in Europe;

- the European Higher Education Area provides Europe with a broad, high quality and advanced knowledge base, and ensures the further development of Europe as a stable, peaceful and tolerant community benefiting from a cutting edge European Research Area;

- there will also be a greater convergence between the U.S. and Europe as European higher education adopts aspects of the American system.


ХДУ

Kherson State University

Kherson State University is the biggest institution of higher education in Kherson, of the IVth ac­creditation level. Our educational establishment is the oldest in the Southern Ukraine. This year the University is going to celebrate its 90-th anniversary.

It prepares qualified specialists in 36 specialties, professionals in their work. These are teach­ers of all subjects which are taught at school, teachers for preschool child, engineer teachers, biologists, speech therapists, chemists, historians, lawyers, economists, environmentalists, psychologists, social workers, journalists, transla­tors and others. Such task is accomplished by our tight-knit teaching stuff comprising 56 professors, doctors of sciences; 228 associate professors, candidates of sciences; 105 senior teachers, assistants.

Forty five chairs provide training of students and supervise their scientific activities. Alto­gether there are about 8 thousand of full-time, part-time and external students studying at the Univer­sity, almost 1400 of them annually graduate as diploma professionals with bachelor's, specialist's or master's degree.

Besides the 5 educational buildings the University has a sporting health-improving camp "Burevestnik" on the Black Sea coast, training center on the river Dnieper, botanic garden - agro biological station in the city of Kherson.

1500 students from other cities and towns live in University dormitories. University library with 5 reading-rooms, containing 400000 units of book storage, works all days of week.

One of the principal directions in the University work is preparation and realization of interna­tional projects in the field of science and education. Today higher education in the whole world is characterized by mutual integration and interna­tionalization of educational process. Integration objectives are brought to the forefront in Bologna Declaration. For this reason the development of international relations belongs to primary aims of Kherson State University. Cooperation with the foreign partners is realized on substantive directions by means of differ­ent organizational forms - from students and stuff exchanges, to participation in international confer­ences, seminars, "round tables" for realization of joint complex educational projects.


8. Я – студент факультету біології, географії та екології

I am a student of the faculty of Biology, Geography and Ecology. Our faculty is one of the largest in the University. We study different subjects: Biology, Geography, Ecology, Psychology, Sociology, Physiology, Mathematics and many others. Besides these subjects we study Ukrainian, Philosophy and English. We study English to be able to read scientific books on biology, geography or ecology.

There are many departments in our faculty: of biology, geography, ecology. Besides them there are research laboratories and museums. Every student has an opportunity to work in modern, well-equipped labora­tories, where different problems of biology, geography or ecology are under in­vestigation.

Students are acquainted with all branches of biology, geography or ecology. They are lectured in various subjects of this science. During the first two years we attend lectures on ma­thematics, political subjects and foreign languages. In the third year more narrow specialization begins. We have several specialized courses and addi­tional practical and research work in the subject they have chosen as their future specialty. Besides attending lectures we may join some scientific circle and choose a problem to work on according to our bents. All of us know that biology, geography and ecology are the sciences of glorious past and great future. We do our best to acquire as much knowledge as possible.


Подорожі

In the streets, roads and squares of the town we see people walking and vehicles driving. The vehicles are: trams, buses, trolley-buses, taxis and motor-cycles, motor-scooters and bicycles.

Along the streets there are street lamps, at the corners of the streets there are traffic lights. The street lights are switched on when it gets dark; they are switched off when it gets light. When the red traffic light is switched on, the traffic stops: when the green light is switched on, the vehicles drive on.

Along the streets we also see bus, trolley-bus and tram stops. This is where get on and off. People wait for buses at the stops. They get on and of public transport there. In the streets there are also Tube stations where people get on and off the underground electric railway.

At big crossroads in large towns and cities there are subways for pedestrian, and fly-over for vehicles. There are sometimes subways for traffic too. At nearly all street corners there are pedestrian crossings for people to cross the road.

In England vehicles drive on the left. In Ukraine the traffic drives on the right.

Outside the towns, we travel from one place to another by train, plane or boat

2 . Ask your friend:

1) what means of transport he prefers:

2) where one should cross the street:

3) what he thinks of the underground in Kyiv/ Moscow?

4) If he has ever used the underground in London or other towns abroad:

5) If he is fond of sightseeing in new towns/ports

Topical words:

to get about town пересуватися містом

toget on the bus сідати на автобус

to get off the bus виходити з автобуса

to go by tube / subway (Am) їхати на метро

to go on foot йти пішки

to change a bus пересідати на інший автобус

fare платня за проїзд

to cross the street переходити через вулицю

traffic lights світлофор

rush hours години пік

parking place місце для стоянки

How could I get to ...? Як мені дістатися до ...?

Could you show me the way to ...? Покажіть мені дорогу до ...

Am I right for ...? Чи я правильно йду до ..?

go straight [streit] йдіть прямо

turn round the corner поверніть за ріг

turn to the right / left поверніть праворуч / ліворуч

is it far from here? Це далеко звідси?

How long will it take me to get there? Скільки часу необхідно,


Мовний етикет і діловий

Business Etiquette

Read this text and choose one of these titles for it.

When in Rome… Problems that business people face

Travelling abroad Good manners, good business

Doing business in Europe I didn’t mean to be rude!

Nobody actually wants to cause offence but, as business becomes ever more international it is increasingly easy to get it wrong. There may be a single European market but it does not mean that they behave the same in Greece as they do in Denmark.

In many European countries handshaking is an automatic gesture. In France good manners require that on arriving at a business meeting a manager shakes hands with everyone present. But Northern Europeans, such as the British and Scandinavians, are not quite so fond of physical demonstration.

In France it is not good manners to raise tricky questions of business over the main course. Business has its place: after the cheese course. In Germany, as you walk sadly back to your hotel room, you may wonder why your apparently friendly hosts have not invited youout for the evening. Don't worry, it is probably nothing personal. Germans do not entertain business people with quite the same enthusiasm as some of their European counterparts.

The Germans are also notable for the amount of formality they bring to business. As an outsider, it is often difficult to know whether colleagues have been working together for 30 years or have just met in the lift. If you are used to calling people by their first names, this can be a little strange. To the Germans titles are important. Forgetting that someone should be called Herr Doktor or Frau Direktorin might cause serious offence. It's equally offensive to call them by a title they do not possess.

In Italy the question of a title is further confused by the fact that everyone with a university degree can be called Dottore - and engineers, lawyers and architects may also expect to be called by their professional titles.Italians give similar importance to the whole process of business entertaining. In fact, in Italy the biggest fear, as course after course appears, is that you entirely forget you are there on business. If you have the energy, you can always do the polite thing when the meal finally ends and offer to pay. Then after a lively discussion you must remember the next polite things to do - let your hosts pick up the bill.

These cultural challenges exist side by side with the problems of doing business in a foreign language. Language, of course, is full of difficulties - disaster may be only a syllable away. But the more you know of the culture of the country you are dealing with, the less likely you are to get into difficulties. It is worth the effort. It might be rather hard to explain that the reason you lost the contract was not the product of the price, but the fact that you offended your hosts in a light-hearted comment over on aperitif. Good manners are admired: they can also make or break the deal.


В готелі.

AT THE HOTEL

Nowadays people travel on business and as tourists much more than in the past. Accommodations as well as rates vary from hotel to hotel. There are deluxe hotels, the most luxurious and more expensive. There are resort hotels used for entertainment or recreation. There are also a lot of motels which grew with the development of highways in America. They provide accommodation with parking space near the guests' rooms. There are hotel chains, consisting of several hotels controlled by one company having its own trademark, or logo.

Most hotels offer single and double rooms, for one and two people respectively. Of course rollways (collapsible beds on roller) can be placed in a room for other family members. If a guest requires more than one room, some hotels have fine suites consisting of several rooms.

At a Hotel

Service is supposed to begin at the door. So an employee who is important during the reception procedure is the doorman. He is stationed at the entrance to the hotel and assists the guests in and out of taxis and cars, calls for cabs. etc. Very often guests will ask him for directions to restaurants, nightclubs, cafes, shops, or other hotels.

In the lobby of a hotel there is a registration desk, where guests check in and out, pick up and deposit keys, and so on. The check-in procedure takes a few minutes. The guest is given a registration card to fill in: the name and address, the passport number for foreign nationals. The desk clerk, or receptionist, enters the guest's room number, the room rate, and the arrival and departure dates into the computer. When all formalities are over, the bellman shows the guests to their rooms and assists them with their baggage, he shows them where the light switches are and explains the use of the room appliances, such as the TV set, cooking facilities, if any, and the air conditioning. He can also run errands for you. For each service rendered the bellman will expect a tip.

If any information is required, it can be received at the hotel's information desk which is supervised by a concierge. Concierges are always ready to help the guests. They can make reservations for theatres or flights, arrange sightseeing tours, mail letters and, in general, provide all kinds of useful information. The hotel bill can be paid in several ways. Besides cash, credit cards are universally accepted. In fact, many hotels require their guests to produce a credit card when registering. Otherwise, a cash deposit is required. The guests may also pay with traveler’s checks when checking out. Hospitality is of greatest importance for hotel. Hospitality is not an abstraction - it is a clean room, a comfortable bed, a hot shower, a good meal, a courteous doorman and - last but not least - a good profit!

Guest Service

Hotels offer a variety of services to their guests. The most traditional are laundry service (clothes washing) and valet service (shoe shining and clothes dry-cleaning and pressing), although some hotels run them on the do-it-yourself basis. A big hotel will also have a restaurant, a bar and a coffee shop, a bookstore or a newsstand, a gift shop selling a variety of souvenirs, and a drugstore providing the guests with medicine and cosmetics. At a luxury hotel one can often find a barber's shop and a beauty salon. The guests might also need the services of a car rental agency, to be able to rent a car through the hotel. Many hotels provide a free morning paper and free drinks ("cocktails") in the afternoon.

Local phone calls are usually free, long distance calls are added to the room bills, and are 2 to 3 times more expensive than from a pay-phone down in the lobby. You can also order various services from the front desk by dialing "0".

A number of hotel staff relies on tips to raise their wages. The bellman expects up to $1 per bag for taking your baggage to your room. The hotel doorman gets at least 50 cents if he summons a taxi (and of course your taxi driver should be given 15 per cent of fare!). Chambermaids usually receive a few dollars if you stay at a hotel for several days, or else you may leave a dollar note under an ash-tray as you leave the room every morning. In restaurants and nightclubs you are expected to tip 15 to 20 per cent of the bill (before taxes are added). No tipping is required for elevator operators or hotel desk clerks.

Tipping allows you to reward good service. On the other hand, if the service has been bad no tip need be left. It is a good idea to consider all these expenses when you are anticipating the cost of your stay at a hotel.


14. Їжа. Заклади харчування

Breakfast in Britain

All people in the world have breakfast, and most people eat and drink the same things for breakfast. They may eat different things for all the other meals in the day, but at breakfast time, most people have the same things to eat and drink - Tea or Coffee, Bread and Butter, Fruit.

Some people eat meat for breakfast. English people usually eat meat a1 breakfast time, but England is a cold country. It is bad to eat meat for breakfast in a hot country. It is bad to eat too much meat; if you eat meal for breakfast, you eat meat three times a day; and that is bad in a ho1 country. It is also bad to eat meat and drink tea at the same time, for te; makes meat hard so that the stomach cannot deal with it.

The best breakfast is Tea or Coffee, Bread and Butter, Fruit. That it the usual breakfast of most people in the world.

Кухня світу.

Типи компаній

Company Types in Ukraine

Ltd.Company is a business organization selling goods or services. The most popular business legal form in Ukraine is Ltd. This type of companies is registered on a standard chart and in the earliest possible dates. The founders of Ltd. can be naturals persons or/and legal persons (residents or/and non-residents). Thus founders do not carry responsibility for a company and actions of its public servants, and their possible losses are limited to the size of part in share capital. Limited companies can conduct practically any types of activity, including licensed. Alike types of companies in Europe is GMBH (in Germany, Switzerland, Austria) and Ltd. (in England). From recent time, the Ukrainian legislation does not select CFI (company with foreign investments) (no less than 10 % foreign capital) and FC (foreign company), as a separate legal form of business too.

Joint-stock company. Joint-stock companies in Ukraine can be public (PJSC) and private (PrJSC) types. This type of companies has a great number of analogues in the whole world. Mainly, JSC are created for a bank, insurance and other financial types of activity, and also for organization of activity of large production capacities and enterprises with the closed loop of production.

Representative office. It is separately possible to select such form of business in Ukraine, as a representative office of foreign company. Status of representative offices allows to get the row of additional tax and custom deductions, and also to use other advantages for work in Ukraine.

Планування діяльності підприємства

A business (also known as a company, enterprise, and firm) is a legally recognized organization designed to provide goods or services, or both, to consumers, businesses and governmental entities. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies. Most businesses are privately owned. A business is typically formed to earn profit that will increase the wealth of its owners and grow the business itself. The owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation of a financial returns in exchange for work and acceptance of risk. Notable exceptions include cooperative enterprises and state-owned enterprises. Businesses can also be formed not-for-profit or be state-owned.

The etymology of "business" relates to the state of being busy either as an individual or society as a whole, doing commercially viable and profitable work. The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the singular usage (above) to mean a particular company or corporation, the generalized usage to refer to a particular market sector, such as "the music business" and compound forms such as agribusiness, or the broadest meaning to include all activity by the community of suppliers of goods and services. However, the exact definition of business, like much else in the philosophy of business, is a matter of debate and complexity of meanings.

 

Don't know where to start with your plan? What is a business plan?

Your business plan should be a living roadmap to success, not just a one-time document.

Business advisors, bankers, and investors generally agree that you should develop a business plan before you start a business. A plan can help you move forward, make decisions, and make your business successful. However, not all business plans are the same, not every business needs the same level of detail. You might develop a fairly simple plan first as you start a small business, and that might be enough for you. You can also start simple and then elaborate as you prepare to approach bankers or investors.

Сучасна людина і комп’ютер.

Internet in the Modern Life

 

The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundreds of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was called packet switching.

Invention of modems, special devices allowing your computer to send the information through the telephone line, has opened doors to the Internet for millions of people.

Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States of America. It is clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are hundreds of millions of users and their number is growing.

Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.

In many countries, the Internet could provide businessmen with a reliable, alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems its own system of communications. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for international calls around the world, when you pay a good deal of money.

But saving money is only the first step and not the last one. There is a commercial use of this network and it is drastically increasing. Now you can work through the internet, gambling and playing through the net.

However, there are some problems. The most important problem is security. When you send an e-mail, your message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. But there are many encoding programs available. Not with-standing, these programs are not perfect and can easily be cracked.

Another big and serious problem of the net is control. Yes, there is no effective control in the Internet, because a huge amount of information circulating through the net. It is like a tremendous library and market together. In the future, the situation might change, but now we have what we have. It could be expressed in two words— an anarchist's dream.

 


Реклама і суспільство.

Advertisement

Although the average citizen is usually annoyed by all the advertisements printed in newspapers and magazines and the commercials broadcast on TV, the impact of the whole advertising industry on a single person is immense and plays a very important role in our lives. Advertising absorbs vast sums of money but it is useful to the community. What are the functions of advertisements? The first one to mention is to inform. A lot of the information people have about household devices, cars, building materials, electronic equipment, cosmetics, detergents and food is largely derived from the advertisements they read. Advertisements introduce them to new products or remind them of the existing ones. The second function is to sell. The products are shown from the best point of view and the potential buyer, on having entered the store, unconsciously chooses the advertised products. One buys this washing powder or this chewing gum, because the colorful TV commercials convince him of the best qualities of the product. Even cigarettes or sweets or alcohol are associated with the good values of human life such as joy, freedom, love and happiness, and just those associations make a person choose the advertised products. The aim of a good advertisement is to create a consumer demand to buy the advertised product or service. Children are good example as they usually want the particular kind of chocolate or toy or chewing-gum. Being naive they cannot evaluate objectively what is truthful and what is exaggerated and select the really good products unless they buy the goods and check for themselves. Thirdly, since the majority of advertisements are printed in our press we pay less for newspapers and magazines, also TV in most countries in cheap. The public advertising seen on street hoardings, railway stations and buildings makes people's life more joyful. Moreover, all those small ads in the press concerning "employment", "education" and "For sale and wanted" columns, help ordinary people to find a better job or a better employee, to sell or to buy their second-hand things and find services, or learn about educational facilities, social events such as, concerts, theatre plays, football matches, and to announce births, marriages and deaths. Thus despite our dissatisfaction when being bombarded by all the advertisers' information we must admit that they do perform a useful service to society, and advertisements are an essential part of our everyday life.


Internet Facts


The prototype for the Internet was created in the sixties by the US Defense Department. To ensure that communication could be kept open in the event of a nuclear attack, it created a computer network known as Arpanet — the Advanced Research Project Agency Network.
The first attempt to connect two computers and allow them to communicate with one another was made by researchers at the University of California in Los Angeles and the Stanford Research Institute on 20 October 1969.The first people to coin the term 'internet' were two scientists, Vinton Cerf (known as 'father of the Internet') and his collaborator Bob Kahn, who in 1974 devised a means by which data could be transmitted across a global-network of computers. An Oxford graduate, Tim Berners-Lee, set up the first 'www server' (a Server receives and sends messages) to store the archive of the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland. The first e-mail ever sent was in 1972 between computers in two American universities. The most frequently used search word on the net is "sex", typed in 1,550,000 times every month.

A news website contains as much information as a person of the 18th century could learn. According to the researcher Marting Gilbert from university of Southern California, 18th century person could master no more than 50 books in a lifetime.
Whereas today, an average person is able to absorb the information stored in 600 000 books. Hong Kong is the world’s fastest internet place. It has blazing fast internet, an average peak speed of 54.1 megabits per seconds. At this speed you can download HD movie in about 4 minutes.

The first electronic smiley appeared in 1979 when Kevin McKenzie tried expressing his emotion by electronic means. The very first electronic look like -) then 3 years later Scott Fahlman added colon “:)-” and it took form - as we use to do now a days. Today 81% of emails are spam. And what interesting facts about Internet do you know?


Есе типа

I am sure every well-educated person should speak English, because it is the language of communication, business, science and culture. English is now the most important and widespread language in the world. It is spoken practically all over the world. So to my mind English is worth studying. There is a proverb: "A new language is a new world". "Knowledge is a power", one great man said. Speaking a foreign language one can not only read the papers, magazines and original books by outstanding writers, but as well watch satellite programs, travel easily to different parts of the world. Besides, understanding and speaking a foreign language became necessary while applying for a good and well-paid job.

So about the job. Learning English now would help me to know the correct translation and pronunciation of chemical terms and specialized texts and give me some communicative skills in the field of chemistry. What would give me skills of independent reading original literature by specialty, conducting scientific conversation, writing and presentation of poster presentations and reports related to the research interests of students in the future.

Велика Британія. Географічне положення та політична система країни.



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