ТНЕ UNCERTAIN FUTURE OF ТНЕ AMERICAN SKYSCRAPER



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

ТНЕ UNCERTAIN FUTURE OF ТНЕ AMERICAN SKYSCRAPER



 

Just at а time when the building of skyscrapers is moving ahead, attacks on these "megastructures" are spreading on а wide variety of fronts.

In San Francisco, officials set а 404-foot height limit on buildings in more than 95 per cent of residential areas in the city.

In Washington, efforts by builders to raise а height limit of 130 feet have been unsuccessful.

200 Storeys? Many builders are convinced that high-rise structures are an economic necessity in cities because of space shortage.

Engineers believe that tall buildings will rise to 200 storeys or more. In Chicago the Hancock Centre - or "Big John" as it’s known among architects - is а 95-million-dollar vertical city 1,127 feet high. Its 100 storeys contain department and grocery stores, 705 apartments, office space for 4,000 workers, restaurants, bank and recreational and parking facilities.

The management says its "megastructure" provides а complete living arrangement for more than 1,700 tenants - а place where people can live comfortably, without ever leaving the house. But some residents have complained of tedious elevator delays, "living above the weather", and "а sense of isolation from street life."

Experts in the field agree there are no structural limits to the potential height of buildings.

Effects on People. Some scientists think that the sway and vibrations caused in the upper storeys of tall buildings by high winds or minor earthquakes - cause discomfort and tension. Some tall building sway as much as 15 inches in strong winds.

Another structural problem has been to provide adequate foundation support for massive buildings.

What effect а tall building will have on the rest of а city is а question city planners should ask themselves before the building goes up. Architects and engineers should enter the political arena where questions about а building's effect on the ecology and the environment are asked. "Too often we get into the picture after it is too late", said one of the statesmen.

Now many people are beginning to feel that skyscrapers should not be considered the only option available in growing cities because skyscrapers have always been put up for reasons of advertisement and publicity.

 

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

What do you call a skyscraper?

Which is the tallest skyscraper in the world?

Are there advantages or disadvantages of skyscrapers?

How do these tall buildings effect on people?

Do you want to live a skyscraper and why?

Составьте словарь профессиональных терминов (15 слов и выражений)

 

Вариант 7

1. В каких из следующих слов звук, передаваемый буквосочетанием "еа", отличается от остальных?

a)head, b) dead, с) thread, d) breath, e) beat, f) break, g) instead.

2. Отметьте существительные во множественном числе:

a) feet, b) children, с) tooth, d) data, e) news, f) advice, g) money, h) phenomena, i) postmen, j) woman, k) time, e) watch.

3. Выберите правильное местоимение:

1) Make... a cup of coffee.

a) your

b) yourself

2) Take... cup of coffee.

a) your

b) yourself

3) Look behind...!

a) you

b) yourself

4) You don't have to worry. He can take care of__

a) him

b) himself

4. Выберите правильный предлог:

1) She doesn't like noisy parties. She prefers to stay... herself.

a) by

b) for

2) Let's hear Harris singing a comic song and then you can judge ... yourselves.

a) by

b) for

3) I don't believe it unless I see... myself.

a) by

b) for

5. Выберите правильный вариант:

1) Tom is their ... son.

a) older

b) elder

2) Kiev is ... than Kursk.

a) farther

b) further

3) Her baby is ... than mine.

a) less

b) smaller

4) The situation changed from bad to....

a) well

b) worse

5) Her husband is twice as... as she is.

a) old

b) older

6) The more she knew this man the... she liked him.

a) little

b) less

6. Выберите правильную форму глагола:

1) We ... five days a week.

a) work

b) works

c) are working

2) She ... in the suburbs of Moscow.

a) live

b) lives

c) is living

7. Определите, в каком из предложений глагол "to be" является модальным:

a) She is a secretary.

b) She is in the office now.

c) She is working.

d) She is to start work at 9 tomorrow.

8. Выберите правильный вариант:

1) ... is never late to study.

a) it

b) there

2)... is no place like home.

a) it

b) there

3) ... is pleasant to walk in the woods.

a) it

b) there

4) Once upon a time... lived a beautiful princess.

a) it

b) there

5)... is nothing but your imagination.

a) it

b) there

9. Соотнесите глагол и существительное:

a) sign b) make c) become d) get e) post f) diagnose   a) model b) illness c) job d) appointment e) contract f) letter  

 

10. Выберите правильный модальный глагол:

1) The weather…change tomorrow.

a) may

b) must

c) should

2) The water is cold, you…swim.

a) can

b) can’t

c) must

3) I…to cover the whole distance on foot.

a) can

b) have

c) must

11. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст:

FOUNDATIONS

 

 

Why does the Leaning Tower of Pisa lean? The answer is that its foundations were not soundly laid. From earliest times, architects and engineers have been aware of the problems involved in laying а building's foundations; but they have not always realized to what extent the earth can be pressed down by the; weight of а building. Too little allowance has sometimes been made for the possibility of а heavy structure's sinking unevenly.

If the earth is stable, laying the foundations of small buildings possess few problems. But in а tall modern structure the load may be very heavy indeed; and the foundation engineer has an extremely important job to do. To begin with, he must have а thorough understanding of soil mechanics, which entails а scientific study of the ground to see what load it can bear without dangerous movement.

Trial pits are dug, or holes are bored, in order to collect undisturbed samples of earth from various depths. By examining these, the engineer can forecast the probable shifts in the earth during and after building, according to the sort of foundation he designs. Thus he comes to the most important decision of all in the building's construction: He decides whether the earth is of the type that can best support each column on а separate solid block, or whether he must aim at lightness and, as it were, "float" the building on. hollow foundations.

If firm ground has been found only at great depth, the foundation engineer may use piles. These are solid shafts made either by driving reinforced, precast concrete deep into the ground, or by boring holes in the earth and pouring in the concrete. Each pile supports its load in one, or both, of two ways. It may serve as а column with its foot driven into solid earth or rock or it may stand firm because friction along its sides "grips" the column and prevents it from sinking.

But when it is а question of floating а building, the foundations take the form of а vast, hollow concrete box. This box is divided into chambers that will house heating and ventilating plants as well as provide garage and storage space for the building.

Luckiest of all are those foundation engineers whose buildings stand on hard rock like granite or ironstone. For them neither piles nor flotation need be used.

 

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

Why does the Leaning Tower of Pisa lean?

What must the foundation engineer do before laying the foundations?

Is it difficult to be a foundation engineer and why?

What does each pile support? And how??

Describe the hollow concrete box.



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