Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
IV. ТЕКСТЫ НА ПОНИМАНИЕ. ЛЕКСИКА
LINE AND STAFF POSITIONS
In business, organization structure means the relationship between positions and people who hold the positions. Organization structure is very important because it provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication.
Historically, line structure is the oldest type of organization structure. The main ideas of it is direct vertical relationships between the positions and tasks of each level, and the positions and tasks above and bellow each level. For example, a sales manager may be in a line position between a vice-president of marketing and a salesman. Thus a vice president of marketing has direct authority over a sales manager. A sales manager in his turn has direct authority over a salesman. This chain of command simplifies the problems of giving and taking orders.
When a business grows in size and becomes more complex, there is a need for specialists. In such case administrators may organize staff departments and add staff specialists to do specific work. These people are usually busy with services, they are not tied in with the company product. The activities of the staff departments include an accounting, personnel, credit and advertising. Generally they do not give orders to other departments.
Accounting shows a financial picture of the firm. An accounting department records and measures the activity of a business. It reports on the effects of the transactions on the firm's financial condition. Accounting records give a very important data. It is used by managers, stockholders, creditors, independent analysts, banks and government.
Most businesses prepare regularly the two types of records. That is the income statement and balance sheet. These statements show how money was received and spent by the company.
One major tool for the analysis of accounting records is ratio analysis. A ratio analysis is the relationship of two figures. In finance we operate with three main categories of ratios. One ratio deals with profitability, for example, the Return on Investment Ratio. It is used as a measure of a firm's operating efficiency.
The second set of ratios deals with assets and liabilities. It helps a company to evaluate its current financial position. The third set of ratios deals with the overall financial structure of the company. It analyses the value of the ownership of the firm
Corporations need financing for the purchase of assets and the payment of expenses. The corporations can issue shares in exchange for money or property. Sometimes it is called as equity funding. The holders of the shares form the ownership of the company. Each share is represented by a stock certificate, which is negotiable. It means that one can buy and sell it. The value of a share is determined by the net assets divided by the total number of shares outstanding. The value of the share also depends on the success of the company. The greater the success, the more value the shares have.
A corporation can also get capital by borrowing. It is called debt funding. If a corporation borrows money, they give notes or bonds. They are also negotiable. But the interest has to be paid out whether business is profitable or not.
When running the corporation, management must consider both the outflow and inflow of capital. The outflow is formed by the purchase of inventory and supplies, payment of salaries. The inflow is formed by the sale of goods and services. In the long run the inflow must be greater than the outflow. It results in a profit. In addition, a company must deduct its costs, expenses, losses on bad debts, interest on borrowed capital and other items. It helps to determine if the financial management has been profitable. The amount of risk involved is also an important factor. It determines the fund raising and it shows if a particular corporation is a good investment.
BANKS AND BUSINESS
Banks are different in different countries. Let's speak about the banks in the United States of America. There, commercial banks are classified into two main groups. First, there are national banks. They are charted and supervised by the Federal Government. Secondly, there are state banks. They are charted and supervised by the state in which they arc operated. All commercial banks can make loans to borrowers.
Major commercial banks in such cities as Tokyo, Paris, Rio и cooperate with each other. In this way they finance imports and exports between countries.
An importer buys merchandise from another country using the currency of that country. For that purpose he buys this currency from the foreign exchange department of his bank.
And in the same way if an exporter receives foreign money from sales to other countries, he sells this currency to his bank. By this method the currency of any country can usually be exchanged
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