Ex. Point out the main idea of the text and discuss it.



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Ex. Point out the main idea of the text and discuss it.



АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

 

EDUCATION

Методические указания

по развитию навыков устной речи

для студентов I-II курсов

 

 

Иваново 2007


Составители: Е.Н. Жукова, Л.А. Наградова

 

УДК 802 (076)

 

Английский язык. Education:Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов I-II курсов / Иван. гос. архит.-строит. ун-т.; Сост.: Е.Н. Жукова, Л.А. Наградова. – Иваново, 2007. – 32 с.

 

Методические указания содержат лексический минимум, иллюстративные диалоги, тексты и комплекс упражнений, направленных на освоение темы. Цель указаний – способствовать развитию навыков устной речи.

Предназначены для студентов I-II курсов всех специальностей и могут быть использованы как на занятиях, так и для самостоятельной работы.

 

 

Рецензент

старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков О.Н. Тарасова

 

Составители:

Жукова Елена Николаевна,

Наградова Лидия Алексеевна

 

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. EDUCATION

Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи

для студентов I-II курсов

Печатается в авторской редакции

Подписано в печать 10.12.2007. Формат бумаги 60х84 1/16.

Печать трафаретная. Печ. л. 2. Тираж 50 экз. Заказ

 

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

«Ивановский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет»

153037, г. Иваново, ул. 8 Марта, 20

 

Тираж отпечатан на копировальной технике частного предприятия. ОГРН 304370230300436.


PART ONE

TEXT I

 

EDUCATION

 

Education at a university level must necessarily provide the student with a body of positive knowledge which equips him for his career in later life. But it also has another and more notable attribute. It develops in the student an attitude of mind which regards the critical assessment of facts and values as more important than dogmas and which holds that a grasp of underlying principles is more valuable than the accumulation or information or acquisition of skills and techniques. A university expects that at the end of their courses its students will not merely be able to comprehend the extent and significance of what is already known within their own field, but will be receptive to what is new, eager to explore it, show the ability to cope with it and above all — be able to work confidently on their own. By entering a university a student has undertaken to accept a rigorous intellectual discipline and to be more than a passive receptacle for information, much of which in many subjects may be out of date within many years. To the limit of his capacity he is trained to collect evidence for himself and form a balanced judgement about it and he fortifies his ability to think for himself. This is what good teaching achieves in a university.

 

Ex. Point out the main idea of the text and discuss it.

 

TEXT II

RESPONSIBILITY FOR YOUR OWN EDUCATION:

SELF-EDUCATION

You have no doubt already discovered that the only effective learning is the learning you do yourself. University work is much more than school work a process of self-education. At university you will have to plan your work for weeks, even months ahead. You will probably have an examination at the end of your first term, but no further examination until the end of the third term of your first year. You will have essays or laboratory work, or translations, or papers to prepare for seminars in the interim1, but the major test by which your academic progress is assessed may seem to you remote. You have therefore to plan work for some time ahead. Hence the need for developing good habits and methods of study.

Now it is the time, then, to consider the most effective ways of studying, and whether the habits and methods of study you have so far2 acquired at school are likely to measure up to3 the heavy demands which university work is going to make upon you4.

What study involves.Many students mistakenly think that study is simply the memorizing of subject-matter and its reproduction in the examination papers. Of course, there are in every subject elements to be memorized, but study involves a great deal more than that. It involves the mastery and practice of the methods of thinking, of experiment and appreciation, the understanding of theories, the solution of problems analysis and criticism of lectures, books and articles, the making of summaries and extracts, the writing of essays, reports and theses. In short you have to digest knowledge from a wide variety of sources and make it part of you — living and ever growing part of you.

 

Notes

1 in the interim — тем временем, в промежутке

2 so far — до сих пор, пока

3 are likely to measure up (to) — вероятно, будут соответствовать

4 is going to make upon you — предъявит вам

 

Ex. I. Answer the following questions:

1. Can you say that you have already developed good habits and methods of study? What are they?

2. Do you generally plan your work in advance?

3. Are you in the habit of assessing the work done by you during a week/month?

4. How do you sort out priorities in your studies?

5. What are the most time-consuming (трудоемкие) subjects in your opinion?

6. Do you agree that the only effective learning is the learning you do yourself? 7. How can you assess your progress in education?

8. What good habits and meth­ods of studying can you name?

9. Why do many students think that study is simply the memorizing of subject-matter and its repro­duction in the examination papers?

10. In what way does university work differ from school work?

11. What are the purposes of higher education?

 

Ex. II. Translate the following sentences:

1. Обучение в университете во многих отношениях отли­чается от обучения в школе. 2. Многие студенты ошибочно думают, что запоминание — это чисто механический про­цесс. 3. Студенту следует понимать, что он должен сам пла­нировать свою работу на много месяцев вперед. 4. Процесс самообразования крайне важен для студентов университета. 5. Когда вы будете учиться в университете, вам придется готовить письменные работы, составлять резюме, анализи­ровать книги и лекции. 6. Студенты должны уметь пользо­ваться информацией из различных источников.


TEXT III

Ex. II.

a) Join suitable parts:

1. In all higher educational institutions there are some optional courses...

a) ... which provide all citizens with equal opportunities for higher education.

b) ... which in several cases are polytechnical in a specific field of engineering.

c) ... which are divided into two basic groups: the universities and specialized institutions.

d) ... which provide students with an opportunity to study subjects they arе most interested in.

2. the equal right to education for all citizens.

a) The system of public education includes ...

b) The system of public education provides ...

c) The system of public education is free of charge throughout the system and all schools belong to ...

d) The system of public education is the most progressive in the world, its basic principles were proclaimed ...

b) Find the correct answer to the following question:

What chief types does the system of public education in Russia include?

1. It includes obligatory and optional subjects.

2. The basic principles of public education are as follows:

a) the equal right to education for all citizens;

b) free tuition throughout the system;

c) co-education;

d) The majority of schools belong to the state.

3. There are two types of higher educational institutions both of which train specialists for the national economy of our country.

4. They are as follows:

a) compulsory general secondary education;

b) specialized secondary education;

c) technical vocational education;

d) higher education.

 

Ex. III. Insert prepositions wherever necessary:

1. Our universities train specialists ... many fields ... national economy. 2. The schools … belong ... the state ... our country. 3. Our group was divided ... two.

4. They are good specialists ...many fields. 5. Translate these words ... English and pay attention ... the suffixes.

 

Ex. IV. Translate into English:

1. Любой студент имеет право изучать некоторые предметы факультативно. 2. Некоторые студенты нашей группы окончили университет с отличием. 3. Любой гражданин, живущий в любом месте России, имеет право учиться заочно в любом высшем учебном заведении. 4. Общее число студентов некоторых университетов значительно увеличилось за последнее время. 5. Никто еще не написал эту работу. 6. В этой стране произошли некоторые изменения в системе народного образования за последнее время, изменения происходят и сейчас. 7. Курс обучения в университете продолжается пять или шесть лет. 8. Все наши выпускники – высококвалифицированные специалисты. 9. Эти студенты будут сдавать экзамены на следующей неделе. 10. Уровень преподавания в российских высших учебных заведениях очень высок. 11. Каждый год в конце семестра студенты нашей группы пишут контрольную работу по английскому языку.

 

Ex. V. Read the text in 3 minutes without a dictionary and title it:

Part-time and correspondence higher institutions of Russia train specialists in most fields. The overwhelming majority of evening and correspondence students study professions they are engaged in. For example, industrial and transport workers join correspondence technical higher schools, elementary school teachers study in pedagogical higher schools, farm workers study in agricultural schools, etc. This fact makes it possible for the correspondence and evening higher institutes to train highly qualified specialists.

The curricula of correspondence, part-time and full-time higher schools do not differ essentially in the subjects taught, but they differ in the system inwhich studies are organized.

The basic form of study for correspondence students is independent work at home.


TEXT IV

 

TEXT V

 

AT THE INSTITUTE

 

Helen:Hello, Pete! What are you doing here?

Pete:Hello, Helen, I'm reading for my English exam.

Helen:But your group has passed it already, hasn't it?

Pete:Yes, it has, but I was ill at that time. So, I'll take my exam tomorrow.

Helen:You are afraid of this exam, aren't you?

Pete:No, I'm not. I finished a special school, where some subjects were taught in English and besides I've been to England.

Helen:Really? Have you? When were you there?

Pete:I was there last summer with a group of the best pupils of our class.

Helen:What have you seen there?

Pete:Oh, I've seen a lot. I've been to Oxford and Cambridge, the two oldest universities of England, and to many other places of interest. But most of all I liked London with its parks and gardens. I'll tell you some day about them.

Helen:How very interesting! I think you enjoyed your trip tremendously, didn't you?

Pete:Of course, I did. Well, Helen, and what are you doing here, in the reading-hall? Are you reading for your exam too?

Helen:No, I'm not. I've passed all my exams and so holidays have already started for me. I'm waiting for Mike here.

Pete:Hasn't he graduated from the University yet?

Helen:He has graduated and with honours. Now he is a post-graduate. I'd like to speak with him.

Pete:Oh, Helen. I've just seen him in the canteen. He is having his dinner there.

Helen:Then, I'll go there at once.

 

Ex. I. Find the equivalents:

to read for an exam сдавать экзамен

to pass an exam готовиться к экзамену

to take an exam студент последнего курса

undergraduate курсовая работа

term-paper на третьем курсе

dean's office сдать экзамен

in the third year аспирант

optional subject деканат

full-time student студент дневного отделения

post-graduate предмет, изучаемый факультативно

 

Ex. II. Find the wrong statements:

1. Helen has passed all her exams.

2. Helen met Mike in the reading-hall.

3. Pete studied in Oxford.

 

Ex. III. Insert prepositions wherever necessary:

1. Whom are you waiting ...? – I am waiting ... Pete. – But Pete is reading ... his exam ... the strength ... materials. 2. Have you passed your exam ... mathematics? – Yes, I have. – What is your mark ... this subject? – I have got five ... mathematics.

3. Has Helen graduated ... the University? – No, she hasn't. She is ... her fifth year now. She will graduate ... the University next year and I hope she will graduate ... honours.

 

Ex. IV. Translate into English:

1. Над чем ты работаешь? – Я работаю над своей курсовой работой. – А я ее закончил. Моя тема легче, чем твоя, поэтому я написал свою работу скорее, чем ты. – Когда ты ее закончил? – Я закончил ее два дня тому назад. 2. Твоя сестра уже окончила университет? – Нет. Она еще на пятом курсе. – А моя сестра уже окончила университет. Она окончила университет с отличием. Она окончила университет в прошлом году. 3. Студентка А. работает над этой проблемой уже 2 семестра, поэтому ее курсовая работа самая лучшая. 4. Он изучал этот предмет факультативно, поэтому он знает об этой проблеме больше. 5. Он хуже и меньше всех работает, поэтому он самый плохой студент в группе. 6. Ты поступил в университет? – Да, я уже неделю учусь там. Где ты учишься? – Я учусь в строительном университете.

 

Ex. V. Correct the following wrong statements in not less than 3 sentences as in the pattern:

Pattern: Helen is in the dining-hall. She is having her dinner when Pete comes up to her.

a) Helen is not in the dining-hall. b) Helen is in the reading hall, c) She is not having her dinner, d) She is waiting for Mike, e) Pete does not come up to Helen, f) It is Helen who comes up to Pete.

1. Pete has passed all his exams and he is free now.

2. Helen has graduated from the University with honours. She is a post­graduate now.

 

Ex.VI. Work in pairs.

Find out: if (whether) your partner is afraid of exams.

Pattern: Are you afraid of exams? (or You are afraid of exams, aren't you?)

1. he was afraid of his (her) entrance exams; 2. the exams were difficult; 3. he passed them well; (change roles) 4. he finished school this year; 5. he took four entrance exams; 6. he has been studying English for 5 years; 7. he will graduate from the University in five or four years; (change roles) 8. he will work hard; 9. he has always been working hard; 10. he will get only good marks; 11. he has written any term-paper already; (change roles) 12. he studied any optional subjects at school; 13. he is interested in mathematics; 14. he will study it in future; 15. he likes to study here.


TEXT VI

TEXT VII

ENGLISH UNIVERSITIES

 

In Great Britain there are universities in London, Oxford, Cambridge, Bristol and some other towns. Of these, Oxford is the oldest for its history goes back to the 12th century. Cambridge University began in the 13th century. So Oxford and Cambridge are the two oldest universities in Great Britain. They are most highly thought of and well known not only because they are the oldest universities in the United Kingdom, but also because the standard of teaching there is very high.

The cost of education at these universities is so high that only the sons of the wealthiest classes can afford to attend them. Cambridge University has twenty-eight colleges. Women do not take a very active part in University life at Cambridge, they work harder than men do, and one seldom sees them outside the classrooms.

All the colleges at Cambridge are built on the same plan. There is a chapel, a library and a large dining-hall. The colleges join one another along the river. There is a court in the middle. On all sides of the court there are buildings where the students live.

Life in Cambridge and Oxford in the past was strict, students were for-bidden to play games, to sing (except church music), to hunt or fish or even to dance. Books were very scarce and all the lessons were in the Latin language. The students studied Grammar, Logic and Rhetoric.

 

Ex. Find what information is given in the text:

1. In the 13th century some students left Oxford.

2. There had been constant trouble between Church and townsfolk.

3. The standard of teaching in these two oldest universities is very high.

4. The story of Cambridge begins in 1209.

5. The number of teacher-training colleges is growing now.


TEXT VIII

THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

In 1836 the University of London was created to conduct the examination and to grant degrees upon the students from any institution situated anywhere in the British Empire.

Up until 1900 the University of London was only an examining and degree-awarding body, but in that year an Act of Parliament permitted to provide lecture rooms, museums, laboratories, work shops, etc. for both teaching and research. Today the University of London is a federation of colleges, each largely independent. There are faculties of Theology, of Arts, of Medicine, of Science etc.

The University of London grants degrees to all who satisfy its examinations, with the exceptions of engineering and medical degrees (for which the study at an approved institution is required). The London external degree has been of great importance in the development of the university system.

Many of the new independent universities were at first university colleges (i. e. university institutions which could not award their own degrees) and for them the University of London became the degree-awarding body. The London external degree is very important to students in technical colleges and some teacher-training colleges, as well as for private students working on their own, away from educational centres.

The development of new qualifications (e. g. the new Diploma in Tech-nology) and increasing enrolments in regular university courses have made the external degree less important.

 

Ex. I. Find the English equivalents to the following:

1. ... был только органом, принимавшим экзамены и присваивавшим степени … 2. Лондонский университет присваивает степени всем, кто выдерживает экзамены. 3. ... степень, присваиваемая заочно, имеет очень большое значение.

 

Ex. II. Point out what information is given in the text:

1. One of the characteristic features of our public education is the equal right to education for all citizens.

2. The specialized institutes train specialists for one of the fields of culture or national economy.

3. The development of new qualifications (e. g. the new Diploma in Technology) has made the external degree of the University of London less important.

4. Oxford and Cambridge are the two oldest universities in Great Britain.


TEXT IX

Stages of Education

 

The divisions or stages a child passes in his educational ladder are elementary, junior high school or middle school, and high schools American children begin to attend school by the age of five or six. There are also pre-school classes called kindergarten. Before this they may attend nursery school or a day care center. Schooling is divided into twelve academic levels or grades, each of which lasts one year. Elementary school usually covers grades one through six or seven. Middle school or junior high school is from grades seven to nine or seven to eight. The concluding three or four grades form high school.

After high school over 40 per cent of the graduates pursue higher education in colleges and universities. Nearly every state has at least one university supported by public funds which offers training through the Doctor of Philosophy Degree (PhD). There are also public community colleges, also called junior colleges which offer a two-year program in a variety of disciplines, and state teacher colleges which specialize in training school teachers. The word "college" refers either to an independent institution offering undergraduate education or to a part of a university, such as a College of Arts and Sciences or a College of Engineering.

The idea of giving a child practical skills comes from John Dewey who became the apostle of American schools. This philosopher and educator believed that conveying factual information to students is secondary to teaching them thinking processes and skills which they will use in the future. He also greatly influenced teaching techniques by stressing that activity and experimentation should come first. So, in American schools much attention is given to creative activities. Students are encouraged to be creative both during class time and extra-curricular hours.

American high schools try to adapt to the needs of society. Learning computer skills starts early. As life is becoming more complex, new subjects are introduced. Schools are initiating programs previously viewed as a part of home education. These include subjects such as driver's education, sewing and cooking classes called home economics, consumer education, and health and sex education, where issues like drug and alcohol abuse and smoking may be treated.

American high schools offer different branches of education for their students. For the college-bound, high schools offer classes in math, sciences, social sciences, English, and foreign languages. Other students take vocational courses such as shorthand and mechanical drawing, and some do work/study programs which enable them to get high school credit for on-the-job training in various occupations.

 

TEXT X

ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION

 

Education for young people has always been a leading social task. In all industrial societies young people from the age of 5 to 16 and sometimes older go to school. A lot of young adults then take jobs, but some go to college and a fewmore take advanced studies.

Education varies from country to country but it has the same economic characteristics in all countries. It improves skills which make people more productive. By means of education people are made stable members of society. Some teachers also do creative research which helps to improve technology. So education creates large economic values varying from technical productivity in factories and offices to progress of knowledge.

Various values of education are of two classes: private and social. Each student gets private benefits when he or she learns new skills which will allow them to get higher pay on the job. Besides, the job will probably be more pleasant and the person will cope with problems of modern life better.

There are also public benefits of education. First, it provides more productive workers for society; economy becomes more efficient and profitable. Without education many people do not cope with difficulties of life and turn to crime or require public support. Second, people understand social life better and they will deal with public problems more intelligently and avoid extremism. Third, greater productivity of population provides more taxes in order to pay for public needs.

The task of economics of education is to evaluate public and private benefits and make decisions how much a government is going to invest in every type of school and how the government is going to do it. As productivity and stability of population is mainly increased at school level, total public subsidies for schools are justified. For education at the college level, however, the public benefits are weaker than private benefits and full public subsidies are considered less justified than at the school level.

Education is being financed by subsidies or scholarships. Which of them are more effective is also a problem studied by economics of education.

Technologies are becoming more complex and demand for education as well as a number of qualified specialists will grow in future. With it, the role of economics of education and the scope of problems studied by it is growing in the years to come.

 

Ex. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the characteristics of education which are the same in all countries?

2. What is the role of education in social progress?

3. What are the private benefits of education?

4. What are the public benefits of education?

5. What is the task of economics of education?

6. Why are total subsidies for schools justified? What about subsidies for colleges?

7. How is education financed?

8. Is economics of education going to become more important in the near future? Why?

 

PART TWO

OUR UNIVERSITY

Topical Vocabulary

education— образование, обучение

higher education — высшее образование

self-education —самообразование

to take en­trance exams —сдавать вступительные экзамены

to enter the university — посту­пить в университет

the University of Civil Engineering and Architecture — архитектурно-строительный университет

department (faculty) — факультет

Faculty of Architecture and Design — факультет архитектуры и дизайна

Civil Engineering Faculty — строительный факультет

Faculty of Engineering Systems — факультет инженерных сетей

Highway Engineering Faculty — автодорожный факультет

Faculty of Economics and Management — факультет экономики и управления

to last — продолжаться

complete course of study — полный курс обучения

full-time student — студент дневного отделения

correspondence department — заочное отделение

first-year (second-year, third-year) student — первокурсник (второкурсник, третьекурсник)

to be in one's first (second, third) year — быть на первом (втором, третьем)

курсе

undergraduate — студент (последнего курса)

graduate — выпускник

to graduate from the University — окончить университет

high school diploma — диплом о высшем образовании

post-graduate — аспирант

standard of teaching — уровень преподавания

to be well equipped — быть хорошо оборудован­ным

laboratory — лаборатория

classes — занятия

lecture — лекция

to take notes — записывать

to deliver a lecture — читать лекцию

to attend lectures on — посещать лекции по

to miss lectures — пропускать лекции

to be good (poor) at — хорошо (плохо) знать какой-либо предмет

to receive credit — получить зачет

to read up for examinations — готовиться к экзаменам

to take an examination — держать экзамен

to take the finals — сдавать выпускные экзамены

to pass an examination — сдать экзамен

to fail in an examination — не выдержать экзамен

term — семестр

paper — письменная работа

examination-paper — экзаменационная работа

term-paper — курсовая работа

to present a graduation thesis — защищать дипломную работу

excellent mark — отличная оценка

grant (stipend)— стипендия

to get grant — получать стипендию

basic grant — обычная стипендия

supplementary grant — повышенная стипендия

scholarship — именная стипендия

foreign language — иностранный язык

subject — предмет (учебный)

optional subject — факультативный предмет

sciences and humanities — естественные и гуманитарные науки

engineering — технические специальности

time-table — расписание

industrial training — производственная практика

dean — декан

dean’s office — деканат

assembly hall — актовый зал

gym — спортивный зал

hostel — общежитие

to train — подготавливать

specialist — специалист

qualified — квалифицированный

to be active in all spheres of the university life — участвовать в общественной жизни университета

profound knowledge — глубокие знания

to put one’s knowledge into practice — применять знания на практике

 

ILLUSTRATIVE DIALOGUES

I.

A: Have you written your term-paper, Ben? It's due today.

B: Of course. And what about you?

A: Not yet. I didn't think it would be so difficult and started it only a week ago.

B: Well, it will teach you a lesson. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today, you know.

 

II.

A: Paul wouldn't like to fail in his exam, would he?

B: Of course he wouldn't. Who would!

A: But he hasn’t been working very hard. He thinks he is clever enough to pass his exams without much work, doesn't he?

B: Yes, he relies too much on his memory but I doubt it can carry him out when doing physics.

 

III.

A: As sure as eggs is eggs, Bob won't do well at the exam.

B: Why do you think so?

A: He has missed much and doesn't attend the extra lessons now.

B: No fear. He's quite at home in the subject.

 

IV.

A: How about reading up for the exams together?

B: Fine. And let's ask Jane to join us too, she is an excellent student.

A: I don't mind. But she thinks too much of herself, doesn't she?

B: Not in the least. She is a good friend and never refuses to help anybody.

 

V.

A: Hallo, Harry! Why didn't you come to us yesterday? We had a nice time.

B: You see, my brother took me to a lecture on higher mathematics.

A: Was it interesting?

B: Frankly speaking, not. It was all Greek to me and went over my head.

 

VI.

A:What subjects do students take at the university?

B:It depends on the faculty and the year they are in.

A:Well, let's say the first year at the civil engineering faculty.

B:Among the subjects studied in the first year are: mathematics, chemistry, physics, geodesy, foreign language, histo­ry, physical training.

 

 

VII.

A:Did you pass all your sessional exams?

B:Yes. I could hardly manage them. I was sure I would fail at least two of them.

A:The trouble is that you burn the candle at both ends. You can't work all day and play all night.

B:But I don't. I sat up late and worked at night for the last two weeks.

A:Studying all night isn’t good either. You need your rest, too.

B:I took a short sleep every few hours.

A:Well, well. You should be serious about your studies at the university. It isn't a playground or a kind of a pastime, you know.

 

VIII.

A:I enjoyed yesterday's lecture very much. The speaker really knew his subject, didn't he?

B:Yes, he covered it from A to Z, giving the audience convincing arguments and examples.

A:We're lucky we can listen to such lecturers – people who aren't afraid to come out with new ideas.

B:Yes, there mustn't be any calm in such an important science as philosophy.

 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES

 

Ex. I. Ask student A:

when he finished school; whether he entered the University this year or last year; how many entrance exams he took; when he took his entrance exams; what year he is in; if he got good and excellent marks in all the exams; when he began his studies at the University; how many lectures a day he usually has; how many English lessons a week he usually has; how many departments are there at the University; if he studies at the correspondence department; what faculty he studies at; how many faculties are there at the University; when the first term will be over; if he will take his exams in January; how many exams he will take; whether he is afraid of the exams; what exams he is afraid of; whether he will receive grant, if he gets good and excellent marks; if he has already written any term-paper; whether all students of the University write graduation papers (diplomas); when he will write it; if he wants to graduate from the University with honours; what field he will work in after graduating from the University.

 

Text A

The academic year in the Russian educational establishments starts on the first of September. In full-time departments the course usually lasts four or five years. Students usually have three or four lectures a day. Twice a year they sit for exams. There are usually not more than five exams in a session. If the results of the exams are good, students get grants.

Twice a year students have vacations. Some of the students go to the country to have a rest, some of them work in different branches of our economy. This work is usually connected with their future speciality. Students are paid for their work.

Text В

Yesterday was not a very difficult day for group 4. They had only 2 lectures and a test in physics. There were not very many students in the lab; it was not difficult to do the work properly. The results of the test were very good. The students of group 4 hope that the results of their next test will be good too. Their next test will be in chemistry. It will be next week. Group 4 is a good one, the students of it are always prepared for their tests, and they will be ready to write their next test as well.

 

Ex. III. Translate into English:

1. Я поступил в университет в 2007 году.

2. Наш вуз сравнительно молодой. Он был основан в 1981 году.

3. Университет расположен недалеко от центра города.

4. Строительный университет размещается в четырех корпусах.

5. Наш университет готовит инженеров по различным специальностям.

6. Я – студент первого курса строительного факультета.

7. Полный курс обучения в университете продолжается пять лет.

8. Учебный год делится на два семестра.

9. Студенты посещают лекции и практические занятия по различным предметам.

10. В конце каждого семестра студенты сдают зачеты и экзамены.

11. Студенты, которые успешно сдают экзамены, получают стипендию.

12. Студенты старших курсов пишут курсовые работы по специальным предметам.

13. По окончании учебы каждый студент защищает дипломную работу и сдает выпускные экзамены.

14. Нашей стране требуется все больше и больше специалистов с высшим образованием.

15. Выпускники нашего университета работают в различных сферах национальной экономики.

 

Ex. IV. Form sentences using the following word combinations:

to enter the University, to train specialists, to take examinations, to attend lectures on, a graduation thesis, well-equipped laboratories, major construction sites, to prepare for, the academic year, complete course of study, to require specialists, to get grant, to graduate from, first-year students.


Ex. V. Answer the questions:

1. Where do you study? 2. When did you enter the University? 3. When was the University of Civil Engineering and Architecture founded? 4. Where is your University situated? 5. How many and what faculties are there at your University? 6. What faculty do you study at? 7. What specialists does the University train? 8. How long does the course of study at your University last? 9. When does the academic year begin? 10. How many terms are there in the academic year? 11. What subjects do the first-year students study? 12. What do students do at the lectures and practical hours? 13. When do students take examinations? 14. How are grants paid to students? 15. When do students begin independent research work? 16. Do most of your fellow-students live in a hostel or rent a room in town? 17. What profession will you go into after you graduate from the University? 18. Do you like your future speciality? 19. Where do the graduates from your University work? 20. What degree or document is given to those who graduate from Russian Universities and Insti­tutes? 21. Who can take a post-graduate course?

 

Ex. VI. Make up dialogues using the given situations:

1. Planning to enter the University you ask your friend who studies there all about it.

2. You discuss with your friend your first day at the University

3. You talk with your friend about your favourite subjects.

4. You talk with your friend about the examination you have failed at.

5. You want your friend to help you in the subject you are not good at.

6. You talk with an extra-mural student about his methods of self-education.

7. You and your friend change your views on education.

Ex. VII.Let's discuss the prob­lem of the grant from the following points of view:

1. Should all students get grants? Why? What about schoolchildren?

2. What students should get grants? What marks should they have (and what marks shouldn't they have) to get grants?

3. And what about those students who can't afford to study but want to? Should they be helped somehow?

4. How much money should be paid? Should the sum be always the same or should it vary?

Perhaps there are some other things you would like to speak about. Let's listen to different points of view and discuss this problem.

Ex. VIII. Translate into English. Make up a dialogue and perform it:

В прошлом году я встретил одного из студентов нашего курса. Я спросил его, что он сейчас делает. Он ответил, что учится в аспирантуре. Я спросил его, когда он поступил и кто его научный руководитель. Он сказал, что учится в аспирантуре уже год и его научный руководитель – заведующий кафедрой. Меня интересовало, сдал ли он какие-либо экзамены и опубликованы ли у него статьи по теме диссертации. Он ответил, что одна статья напечатана, две другие печатаются сейчас, и он надеется, что они будут напечатаны к концу года. Он добавил, что уже сдал два экзамена по языку и философии.

Highway Engineering

 

I am a second-year student of Highway Engineering Faculty in Ivanovo State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture. Our department trains qualified experts on specialities and specializations for motor transport and road facilities. The course of training offers the future highway engineers such fields as: highway construction; automobiles and automobile equipment; lifting-transport, constructional, road machinery; road safety; road maintenance and traffic control.

My speciality is highways and aerodromes construction. The building of the roads is a major branch of engineering. To ensure maximum safety for the transportation system it is very necessary to plan and design highways on sound engineering techniques. Modern highway design entails careful study of soil, the topography of the intended route and the drainage systems around the roadway. To build safe roads engineers consider such factors as road foundations and surfaces, lighting, safety barriers and grading. They carefully plan bypasses, road junctions, slip roads leading into major motorways, traffic signals. Road engineers are responsible for the design, construction and repair not only of highways, city streets and pavements, but also for numerous auxiliary structures such as bridges, fly-overs, tunnels and underpasses.

To succeed in my future career I must have good knowledge of mathematics, physics, geodesy, strength and properties of building materials and also should be well aware of such special and serious disciplines as road economy, management of road economy enterprises, accounting, planning and economical analysis.

Highway engineers have good career prospects. Graduates from this speciality can work in any motor transport organizations: road-building, road maintenance enterprises; design offices; traffic inspection service; road, industrial and residential construction plants. The profession of highway engineer is prestige and is of great demand now. It is very important for safety of roads and people. I think that the aim of future road specialists is to solve traffic problems, to make city life more pleasant and to develop transport systems which are cheaper to install, cheaper to operate and aesthetically more acceptable. That is why I should study hard to put my knowledge in practice.

 

Economics

 

I am a second-year student of the Faculty of Economics and Management in Ivanovo State University of Civil Engineering and Architecture. I'd like to tell you about the profession of an economist and why I chose it as my future occupation in life.

Choosing the right career is very important. Most of us spend a great part of our life at our jobs. That's why we should try to find out what our talents are and how we can use them.

I think economics is a very interesting field of activity because it deals with the economy. The state of the economy affects both people and business. Every day all of us are to make economic decisions. Our economy is rapidly changing and developing. Many people need professional advice of an economist. There are many new fields of activity now: business, banking, marketing, etc. There are new forms of property in our society. A person must be a very competent specialist to understand the economic environment.

That is why I would like to study economics. Economics is the study of how people use resources to produce and distribute goods and services. So there are more types of jobs for an economist than for any other profession.

To succeed in my future career, I must have good knowledge in the sphere of economics. At the University we study not only general-education subjects like history, philosophy, sociology, but also disciplines we should be well aware of- higher mathematics, economic theory, management and so on. An efficient economist must also be able to operate the computer.

To my mind, nowadays nobody can be considered a good specialist without having a sufficient command of a foreign language. So I try to master English to be able to read English books in the original and to speak with my future foreign partners.

I've made up my career decision and I'll do my best to contribute to the welfare of our country. That's my idea of a good job.

 

Architecture

 

Choosing a career isn’t a simple matter. When making a decision about your future career, you must be realistic about your interests and abilities. It’s an advantage to choose your future career while at school. It gives a goal to work towards and enables you to choose a right, suitable course of study. As for me, I’ve determined to enter the University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, because my dream has always been to become an architect.

An architect is a person who designs buildings, coordinates and supervises all aspects of the construction of buildings. He tries to make houses comfortable to live in, and convenient for carrying out domestic duties. The structure an architect creates should give us pleasure, a sense of beauty.

An architect must receive a great deal of scientific training connected with his profession. He must know mathematics, as well as many facts concerning materials — for example what loads different materials may safely carry — so that there will be no danger of his building falling down. Architects must need some knowledge of sculpture, painting, design, mechanical engineering, geography, city planning, etc. The architect’s sphere of knowledge is constantly expanding. He has to combine art, advanced technology, science and economics in his work. So, an architect has the task of being an artist as well as an inventive engineer, he must continuously see each element not as an isolated detail but as an individual note in a great composition.

Architects should preserve and enrich the best traditions of national and foreign architecture. Their chief task is to improve the quality of structures, to make buildings comfortable, lasting, economical and attractive.

To be a good architect means to be a highly educated person and have a strong desire to serve people. I consider the profession of an architect to be a good career for me. I suppose I’ve got enough time to receive a great deal of training, to develop my abilities, to learn more about modern trends in architecture and design and to prepare myself for interesting, creative and well-paid job.

 

HUMOUR

 

A Minute for a Joke

The more we learn, the more we know.

The more we know, the more we forget.

The more we forget, the less we know.

The less we know, the less we forget.

The less we forget, the more we know.

So why study?

He Must Go

Two men were going in a train. One of them asked the other:

"Are you going to Brown's lecture today?"

"Yes, I am," said the other.

"Take my advice and don't go," said the first, "I hear he is a very bad lecturer".

"I can't help it," said the other. "I must go, I'm Brown".

 

A Question to the Point

The professor was delivering the final lecture of the term. He put much emphasis on the fact that each student should devote all his time to preparing for the final examination. He said: "The examination papers are now in the hands of a printer. Are there any questions?" Silence prevailed. Suddenly a voice from the rear inquired: "Who is the printer?"

 

The Sense of Humour

Once Professor Thomson (Lord Kelvin) was unable to stay for the class, so he placed a sign on the door which read as follows: "Professor Thomson will be unable to meet his classes1 today."

Some college student, seeing his chance to display his sense of humour2 after reading the notice came up and erased the letter "c" in the word "classes".

The professor noticing the laughter wheeled around, came back, looked at the student, then at the sign with the "c" erased — calmly erased the "1" in "lasses"3, looked at the student and proceeded on his way4.

 

Notes

1. to meet one's classes — зд. прийти на занятия (букв. встретиться)

2. to display his sense of humour — показать свое чувство юмора

3. lass — девушка; ass — осел

4. to proceed on one's way — продолжать свой путь

 

Be Careful

The chemistry professor wrote the formula HNO3 on the blackboard. Addressing one of the students he said: "Identify that formula, please." "Just a moment," answered the student, "I've got it on the tip of my tongue, sir." "Then," said the professor softly, "you'd better spit it out. It is nitric acid".

 

A Good Student

Professor: Can you tell me anything about the great scientists of the 17th century?

Student: Yes, sir, they are all dead.

PART THREE

Библиографический список

1. Андрианова Л.Н. и др. Английский язык для заочных технических вузов: Учеб. М., 1988.

2. Глушенкова Е.В., Комарова Е.Н. Элементарный английский для экономистов: Учеб. пособие. М., 2006.

3. Дубровкая С.Г и др. Английский язык: Учебник для технических вузов. М., 2002.

4. Карачарова Н.М. Английский язык: Учеб. для гуманитарных факультетов. СПб., 1997.

5. Клементьева Т.Б. Повторяем времена английского глагола: Учеб. пособие. М., 1990.

6. Орлова Е. Тесты, тексты, темы. Экспресс-курс для поступающих в вузы. М., 2002.

7. Ощепкова В.В. The USA: Geography, History, Education, Painting (a reader): Книга для чтения на англ. языке. М., 1998.

8. Скалкин В.Л. Английский язык для общения. М., 1986.

9. Токарева Н.Д., Пеппард Виктор. What is it like in the USA: Учеб. по страноведению. М., 1998.

 

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

 

EDUCATION

Методические указания

по развитию навыков устной речи

для студентов I-II курсов

 

 

Иваново 2007


Составители: Е.Н. Жукова, Л.А. Наградова

 

УДК 802 (076)

 

Английский язык. Education:Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов I-II курсов / Иван. гос. архит.-строит. ун-т.; Сост.: Е.Н. Жукова, Л.А. Наградова. – Иваново, 2007. – 32 с.

 

Методические указания содержат лексический минимум, иллюстративные диалоги, тексты и комплекс упражнений, направленных на освоение темы. Цель указаний – способствовать развитию навыков устной речи.

Предназначены для студентов I-II курсов всех специальностей и могут быть использованы как на занятиях, так и для самостоятельной работы.

 

 

Рецензент

старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков О.Н. Тарасова

 

Составители:

Жукова Елена Николаевна,

Наградова Лидия Алексеевна

 

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. EDUCATION

Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи

для студентов I-II курсов

Печатается в авторской редакции

Подписано в печать 10.12.2007. Формат бумаги 60х84 1/16.

Печать трафаретная. Печ. л. 2. Тираж 50 экз. Заказ

 

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

«Ивановский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет»

153037, г. Иваново, ул. 8 Марта, 20

 

Тираж отпечатан на копировальной технике частного предприятия. ОГРН 304370230300436.


PART ONE

TEXT I

 

EDUCATION

 

Education at a university level must necessarily provide the student with a body of positive knowledge which equips him for his career in later life. But it also has another and more notable attribute. It develops in the student an attitude of mind which regards the critical assessment of facts and values as more important than dogmas and which holds that a grasp of underlying principles is more valuable than the accumulation or information or acquisition of skills and techniques. A university expects that at the end of their courses its students will not merely be able to comprehend the extent and significance of what is already known within their own field, but will be receptive to what is new, eager to explore it, show the ability to cope with it and above all — be able to work confidently on their own. By entering a university a student has undertaken to accept a rigorous intellectual discipline and to be more than a passive receptacle for information, much of which in many subjects may be out of date within many years. To the limit of his capacity he is tr



Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-12-12; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 3.238.235.155 (0.141 с.)