Synonyms and Words Usually Confused by Russian Learners



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Synonyms and Words Usually Confused by Russian Learners



 

TRAINING — EDUCATION

training:the act of systematical teaching, drilling; the state of being trained, usu. to become a specialist in some special field. e. g. He had much training before he became a good teacher (soldier, nurse, etc.)

education is used in a wider sense than the word training. Train­ing means education as a part of a whole. Education is 1) the teaching and training of the young. e. g. No country can neglect education. 2) the knowledge and abilities developed through teaching and training. e. g. He received a good education.

 

TO STUDY — ТО LEARN

Study and learn are rather close synonyms. In a general sense they both mean "to get knowledge, to acquire information".

To study is used mainly when we mean the process itself; it is used in a wider and more general sense than to learn.

To learn may have an additional shade of meaning, namely, "to master something", e. g. I studied the rules for reading but I haven't learnt them yet.

It means: "I have worked on these rules, but the result is not yet satisfactory, I must study more before I can learn them." So to learn, as a rule, means the result of the process of studying. To learn may also mean "to make progress", e. g. The child learns quickly.

To study may have an additional shade of meaning, namely, "to investigate, to examine closely", e. g. He studied her face very carefully in the hope that it would tell him her thoughts.


ILLUSTRATIVE DIALOGUES

I.

A: Have you written your term-paper, Ben? It's due today.

B: Of course. And what about you?

A: Not yet. I didn't think it would be so difficult and started it only a week ago.

B: Well, it will teach you a lesson. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today, you know.

 

II.

A: Paul wouldn't like to fail in his exam, would he?

B: Of course he wouldn't. Who would!

A: But he hasn’t been working very hard. He thinks he is clever enough to pass his exams without much work, doesn't he?

B: Yes, he relies too much on his memory but I doubt it can carry him out when doing physics.

 

III.

A: As sure as eggs is eggs, Bob won't do well at the exam.

B: Why do you think so?

A: He has missed much and doesn't attend the extra lessons now.

B: No fear. He's quite at home in the subject.

 

IV.

A: How about reading up for the exams together?

B: Fine. And let's ask Jane to join us too, she is an excellent student.

A: I don't mind. But she thinks too much of herself, doesn't she?

B: Not in the least. She is a good friend and never refuses to help anybody.

 

V.

A: Hallo, Harry! Why didn't you come to us yesterday? We had a nice time.

B: You see, my brother took me to a lecture on higher mathematics.

A: Was it interesting?

B: Frankly speaking, not. It was all Greek to me and went over my head.

 

VI.

A:What subjects do students take at the university?

B:It depends on the faculty and the year they are in.

A:Well, let's say the first year at the civil engineering faculty.

B:Among the subjects studied in the first year are: mathematics, chemistry, physics, geodesy, foreign language, histo­ry, physical training.

 

 

VII.

A:Did you pass all your sessional exams?

B:Yes. I could hardly manage them. I was sure I would fail at least two of them.

A:The trouble is that you burn the candle at both ends. You can't work all day and play all night.

B:But I don't. I sat up late and worked at night for the last two weeks.

A:Studying all night isn’t good either. You need your rest, too.

B:I took a short sleep every few hours.

A:Well, well. You should be serious about your studies at the university. It isn't a playground or a kind of a pastime, you know.

 

VIII.

A:I enjoyed yesterday's lecture very much. The speaker really knew his subject, didn't he?

B:Yes, he covered it from A to Z, giving the audience convincing arguments and examples.

A:We're lucky we can listen to such lecturers – people who aren't afraid to come out with new ideas.

B:Yes, there mustn't be any calm in such an important science as philosophy.

 

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES

 

Ex. I. Ask student A:

when he finished school; whether he entered the University this year or last year; how many entrance exams he took; when he took his entrance exams; what year he is in; if he got good and excellent marks in all the exams; when he began his studies at the University; how many lectures a day he usually has; how many English lessons a week he usually has; how many departments are there at the University; if he studies at the correspondence department; what faculty he studies at; how many faculties are there at the University; when the first term will be over; if he will take his exams in January; how many exams he will take; whether he is afraid of the exams; what exams he is afraid of; whether he will receive grant, if he gets good and excellent marks; if he has already written any term-paper; whether all students of the University write graduation papers (diplomas); when he will write it; if he wants to graduate from the University with honours; what field he will work in after graduating from the University.

 



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