The History of Food Service Management



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The History of Food Service Management



Early History

In the Middle Ages, the cooks employed by nobles and religious orders served large numbers of people every day, and medieval travelers ate at inns, taverns, monasteries and hostelries. The earliest recorded guild for cooks was formed around 1311 to protect the cooks' secrets. The tricks of the trade were only taught to guild members. West and Wood's Introduction to Foodservice notes that "strict cost accounting was necessary, and here, perhaps, marks the beginning of the present-day scientific foodservice cost accounting...."

The Industrial Revolution

During the thousands of years when most of the population lived in or very near farming communities, food did not travel far to reach the people who ate it. The Industrial Revolution and the mass migration of workers to cities meant there was increased demand to ship food longer distances. Trains, automobiles and trucks provided transport, while new preservation treatments and better storage devices such as refrigeration made it possible for the food to stay fresh longer.

Food Regulation

Scandals in the food processing industries brought demands for new laws. The public outcry that arose when Upton Sinclair's novel, "The Jungle," exposed unsanitary conditions in the U.S. meat-packing industry led to the 1906 passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.

World War II

Cooks employed by armies, hospitals and prisons have been serving up large quantities of foods for hundreds of years. However, World War II brought the urgent need to feed troops all over the globe and produced innovations in large-scale food transport, preservation and the packaging of rations. Between 1943 and 1944, the Army purchases of food alone grew by 80 percent, and 1945 saw another 20 percent growth.

Nutritional Standards

When the troops came home after World War II, developing nutritional minimum standards led to reform in institutional food service and efforts to educate the public about healthy foods. The National School Lunch Program, begun in 1946, aimed to protect children from malnutrition.

Potential

Foodservice sales to restaurants and institutions are estimated to total about $400 billion per year.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated that there were about 371,000 food service managers in 2004, with 40 percent being self-employed small business owners. Food service managers may work in hotels and restaurants, hospitals and nursing care facilities, institutions, government facilities or private businesses that provide food service on site to employees.

Vocabulary Focus

1. Fresh свежий
2. Off низкого качества
3. Sell by date срок годности
4. Raw сырой
5. Ripe созревший
6. Rotten сгнивший
7. Tough жёсткий
8. Undercooked недоваренный
9. Unripe незрелый
10. Overcooked переваренный
11. Expensive дорогой
12. Cocktail longue коктейль-бар в холле
13. To cater for поставлять провизию; угождать
14. Catering общественное питание
15. The catering trade ресторанное дело
16. Gourmet гурман
17. A la carte menu меню «а ля карте» (ресторанное меню с указанием цены каждого блюда)
18. Waiter официант
19. Trolley столик-каталка
20. Gueridon service обслуживание у столика (приготовление блюд непосредственно на виду у посетителей)
21. Dish блюдо, кушанье
22. To serve готовить, накрывать
23. Table d’hote «табльдот» (общий обеденный стол, комплексный обед)
24. Counter прилавок
25. Tray поднос
26. Luncheon обед
27. Toppings начинки
28. Refreshing освежающий

 

Speaking

Compose dialogues according to the information given below:

· You suggest your friend to go to a restaurant and give reasons for your choice.

· Dinner at the restaurant.

Creative task

Project. Imagine that you want to open some cafe or restaurant in your native town (city) or abroad. What kind of cafe (restaurant) will it be? What will make it competitive? What kind of food will it serve? Offer a menu for your cafe (restaurant) according to the plan:

a) appetizers;

b) first course;

c) second course;

d) dessert;

e) drinks.


Unit 9. Tourism Promotion

Group Discussion

Discuss the following issues:

1. What is promotion?

2. Does promotion really fuel the success of an enterprise? Why?

3. What kinds of promotion can you name?

4. What are the media?

5. What are the printed media? What are the broadcast media?

6. What is word of mouth? What role does it play in tourism promotion?

Reading

Promotion

Promotion involves distributing information about a product, product line, brand, or company.

Promotion is generally sub-divided into two parts:

· above the line promotion: promotion in the media (e.g. TV, radio, newspapers, Internet and mobile phones) in which the advertiser pays an advertising agency to place the ad;

· below the line promotion: all other promotion. Much of this is intended to be subtle enough for the consumer to be unaware that promotion is taking place. E.g. sponsorship, product placement, endorsements, sales promotion, merchandising, direct mail, personal selling, public relations, trade shows.

Promotion Methods

Promoters bring crowds through a variety of methods. The most direct are guerrilla marketing techniques such as plastering posters on outdoor walls, flyposting, and distributing handbills on windows of cars parked in entertainment districts. Promoters also keep mailing lists, emails, SMS and MMS messages.

Publicity

Publicity is the deliberate attempt to manage the public's perception of a subject. The subjects of publicity include people (for example, politicians and performing artists), goods and services, organizations of all kinds, and works of art or entertainment.

Publicity methods include:

· contest;

· event sponsorship;

· analysis or prediction;

· poll or survey;

· invention and presentation of an award.

The advantages of publicity are low cost, and credibility (particularly if the publicity is aired in between news stories like on evening TV news casts). New technologies such as weblogs, web cameras, web affiliates, and convergence (phone-camera posting of pictures and videos to websites) are changing the cost-structure.

Advertising

Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of products and services through the creation and reinvention of the "brand image". For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet, carrier bags and billboards. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.

Money spent on advertising has increased dramatically in recent years. In 2007, spending on advertising has been estimated at over $150 billion in the United States and $385 billion worldwide.

Types of advertising

Media

Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"), in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, etc. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.



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