Main types of tourism in Russia 

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Main types of tourism in Russia

Министерство культуры Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования

«Санкт-Петербургский Государственный университет

Культуры и искусств»

К. В. Агнаева


Учебное пособие для студентов специальности

«Социально-культурный сервис и туризм»




Preface. 2

Coursebook Outline. 3

Unit 1. Tourism Industry. 5

Unit 2. Types of Tourism.. 14

Unit 3. Means of travel 53

Unit 4. Working in tourism.. 68

Unit 5. Travel Agency. 73

Unit 6. Hotels. 79

Unit 7. Business Travel 86

Unit 8. Food service. 93

Unit 9. Tourism Promotion. 97

Questions. 103

References. 104

Appendix. 105




The proposed textbook is calculated for a language course for graduate students majoring in “Tourism”. The course concentrates on the main aspects of tourism industry, its regulation, research and development, latest trends and future prospects, awareness of which is essential for professionals in tourism industry.

The course is intended for students who already have a basic knowledge of English. It comprises theoretical fundamentals of tourism and provides for the input in a wide range of contexts relevant to the field.

The textbook consists of nine units; each of them is focused on a definite aspect of tourism. The structure of each unit is made up according to the latest trends and strategies in the foreign language teaching and, therefore, incorporates such methods as “dialogue method”, presentation, creative writing, small study groups, brainstorming, group discussion, symposium-forum, project work. The notes on teaching methods provide for better understanding of task requirements and skills improvement students gain while accomplishing the task.

The textbook can also be used for self-studying or for the purpose of all-round education.

Course book Outline


Unit 1. Tourism Industry.

Group discussion about definition, history, benefits, advantages and disadvantages of tourism. Main text: tourism statistics and main types of tourism in Russia. Vocabulary focus. Reconstruction of giving situation in dialogue. Presentation of one of the World’s most Visited Tourist Attractions.

Unit 2. Types of Tourism.

Group discussion about traditional/brand new, popular/less popular types of tourism. Main text: different types of tourism. Vocabulary focus. Reconstruction of giving situation in dialogue. Preparing account on one particular type of tourism in one particular place of Russia.

Unit 3. Means of travel.

Group discussion about different means of travel. Main text: means of travel. Vocabulary focus. Reconstruction of giving situation in dialogue. Writing a story of one of the given topics.

Unit 4. Working in tourism.

Group discussion about jobs in tourism and necessary skills. Main text: jobs in tourism. Vocabulary focus. Reconstruction of giving situation in dialogue. Writing about a career in tourism industry.

Unit 5. Travel Agency.

Group discussion about travel agency. Main text: travel agency. Vocabulary focus. Reconstruction of giving situation in dialogue. Making a business plan of an enterprise.

Unit 6. Hotels.

Group discussion about hotels. Main text: classification of hotels by type. Vocabulary focus. Reconstruction of giving situation in dialogue. Preparing a booklet of accommodations.

Unit 7. Business Travel.

Group discussion about business tourism. Main text: business trip Vocabulary focus. Dialogues’ composition. Making a list of dos and don’ts for travelers.

Unit 8. Food service.

Group discussion about unusual restaurants and culinary trips. Main text: the history of food service management. Vocabulary focus. Reconstruction of giving situation in dialogue. Making a menu of a restaurant.

Unit 9. Tourism Promotion.

Group discussion about promotion in tourism. Main text: tourism promotion. Vocabulary focus. Dialogues’ composition. Advertising the enterprise.


Unit 1. Tourism Industry


Group Discussion

The group discussion is a conversation on a selected topic, with leadership. The group discussion is a good method when sharing ideas, in order to stimulate interest in problems, to help members express their ideas, to identify and explore a problem, to create an informal atmosphere, to get opinions from persons who hesitate to speak. The group discussion provides for sharing of ideas, broadens viewpoints, and encourages togetherness among members.

Discuss the following issues:

1. What is tourism?

2. What do you know about the history of tourism?

3. What are the businesses that work together to make up the entire tourism industry?

4. What benefits of tourism can you name?

5. Are there any negative impacts of tourism? If yes, what are they?

6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of being involved in tourism business?


Although often underestimated, the tourism industry can help promote peace and stability in developing countries by providing jobs, generating income, diversifying the economy, protecting the environment, and promoting cross-cultural awareness. Tourism is the fourth largest industry in the global economy.

Tourism is a vital part of the global economy. Generating roughly $1 trillion in global receipts in 2008 (up 1.8 percent from 2007), international tourism ranked as the fourth-largest industry in the world, after fuels, chemicals, and automotive products. The breadth of international travel also has greatly expanded in recent years to encompass the developing world. In 1950 just fifteen destinations—primarily European—accounted for 98 percent of all international arrivals. By 2007 that figure had fallen to 57 percent. Once essentially excluded from the tourism industry, the developing world has now become its major growth area. Tourism is a key foreign exchange earner for 83 percent of developing countries and the leading export earner for one-third of the world’s poorest countries. For the world’s forty poorest countries, tourism is the second-most important source of foreign exchange after oil.

The economic might of the tourist industry has helped transform societies, often for the better. Tourism has several advantages over other industries:

· It is consumed at the point of production so that it directly benefits the communities that provide the goods.

· It enables communities that are poor in material wealth but rich in culture, history, and heritage to use their unique characteristics as an income-generating comparative advantage.

· It creates networks of different operations, from hotels and restaurants to adventure sports providers and food suppliers. This enables tourist centers to form complex and varied supply chains of goods and services, supporting a versatile labor market with a variety of jobs for tour guides, translators, cooks, cleaners, drivers, hotel managers, and other service sector workers. Many tourism jobs are flexible or seasonal and can be taken on in parallel with existing occupations, such as farming.

· It tends to encourage the development of multiple-use infrastructure that benefits the host community, including roads, health care facilities, and sports centers, in addition to the hotels and high-end restaurants that cater to foreign visitors.

Vocabulary Focus

1. Overseas 1.прил. 1) заморский 2) заокеанский 3) заграничный 4) внешний 2.нареч. 1) за морем 2) за границей 3) через море 4) за границу
2. To book 2.гл. 1) записывать, вносить в книгу, регистрировать 2) заказывать; бронировать; брать билет 3) принимать заказы на билеты 4) заручаться согласием; заставлять кого-л. давать обещание 5) заводить на кого-л. досье, дело 6) заносить в список; рекрутировать; производить перепись 7) подписываться (при сборе денег) 8) разг. поймать с поличным
3. Resorts 1.сущ. 1) курорт 2) посещаемое место, излюбленное место 3) а) прибежище; средство спасения б) обращение (к чему-л. / кому-л. как к средству спасения) 4) сборище; скопление; толпа 2.гл. (resort to) 1) прибегать к (чему-л.), обращаться к (чему-л.) 2) уст. (часто) посещать, бывать, собираться (у кого-л. или в каком-л. месте)
4. A tropical beach tropical - тропический метафорический, фигуральный, переносный beach - (морской) берег, взморье; отмель; берег моря между линиями прилива и отлива; посадить на мель
5. To hitchhike гл. путешествовать бесплатно на попутных машинах, автостопом
6. To explore гл. 1) а) исследовать, рассматривать, изучать, анализировать б) пробовать, экспериментировать 2) выяснять, устанавливать, узнавать, обнаруживать 3) мед. исследовать, зондировать (рану) 4) горн.; геол. разведывать
7. To climb гл. 1) взбираться, влезать, карабкаться, подниматься 2) (climb out of) выбираться; выкарабкиваться (из чего-л.) прям. и перен. 3) (climb into) влезть (во что-л.); натянуть на себя (одежду) 4) авиа. набирать высоту 5) виться (о растениях)
8. Restriction сущ. ограничение
9. Leisure 1.сущ. досуг, свободное время 2.прил. свободный
10. Jet-air liner авиац. реактивный лайнер
11. City dweller городской житель
12. To take pictures фотографировать
13. Castle 1.сущ. 1) замок; дворец 2) убежище, оплот 3) шахм. ладья 2.гл. 1) заключать в замок 2) украшать зубчатыми башенками, придавать вид замка 3) делать рокировку (в шахматах)
14. Waterfall сущ. водопад
15. Picturesque прил. 1) живописный (о ландшафте); колоритный (о внешнем виде) 2) яркий, образный, колоритный, красочный (о языке)
16. To broaden one's mind расширить кругозор
17. Exhibition сущ. 1) выставка 2) показ, проявление, демонстрация 3) повышенная стипендия, именная стипендия 4) амер. публичный экзамен 5) представление суду (документов и т. п.) 6) мед. назначение или применение лекарств
18. Advantages and disadvantages преимущества и недостатки


"Dialogue Method" is one of the simplified communication skills the object of which is to spread the concept and the skill of active listening and empathic understanding those are effective to prevent misunderstanding and to make rapport in all of the situation of a dialogue.

Reconstruct the following situation into a dialogue:

· You work in the international tourism organization. Tell your friend about modern trends in tourism.

Creative task

Presentation is the practice of showing and explaining the content of a topic to an audience or learner. Presentations invite students to go beyond a unit's content to ask questions that are "essential," or questions that go to the heart of a larger issue.

Divide in groups of 2-4 people. Make a presentation of one of the World’s most Visited Tourist Attractions (see Appendix). Explain what is so special about the place, its history, value for the mankind, etc.

Unit 2. Types of Tourism


Group Discussion

Discuss the following issues:

1. What types of tourism do you know?

2. What types are traditional ones?

3. What types are brand new?

4. What are more popular/less popular? Why?


Adventure travel is tourism, involving exploration or travel to remote or exotic areas, where the traveler should "expect the unexpected". Adventure tourism is rapidly growing in popularity, as tourists seek different kinds of vacations. It may be any tourist activity, including two of the following three components: a physical activity, a cultural exchange or interaction and engagement with nature.

Adventure tourism gains much of its excitement by allowing its participants to step outside of their comfort zone. This may be from experiencing culture shock or through the performance of acts that require significant effort and involve some degree of risk (real or perceived) and/or physical danger. This may include activities such as mountaineering, trekking, bungee jumping, mountain biking, rafting, zip-lining and rock climbing. Some obscure forms of adventure travel include dark tourism, disaster tourism and ghetto tourism. Other rising forms of adventure travel are jungle tourism and overland travel.

Agritourism is a style of vacation that normally takes place on a farm or ranch. This may include the chance to help with farming and ranching tasks during the visit. Other terms associated with agritourism are "farm direct marketing", "sustainable agriculture" and "agritainment". Agritourism is considered to be a niche or uniquely adapted form of tourism and is often practiced in wine growing regions such as Australia, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and North America. In Ukraine you can find it mostly in the Carpathians.

Agritourism includes any farm open to the public at least part of the year. Dude (or guest) ranches offer tourists the chance to work on cattle ranches and sometimes include cattle drives. Tourists can pick fruits and vegetables, ride horses, taste honey, learn about wine, shop in farm gift shops and farm stands for local and regional produce or hand-crafted gifts. In the USA such "U-pick" farms were at their most popular in the 1970s. People are more interested in how their food is produced and want to meet the producers and talk with them about what goes into food production. Children who visit the farms often have not seen a live duck, or pig, and have not picked an apple right off the tree. This form of expanded agritourism has given birth to what are often called "entertainment farms". These farms cater to the pick-your-own crowd, offering not only regular farm products, but also food, mazes, open-pen animals, train rides, picnic facilities and pick-your-own produce.

The great advantage of agritourism is that it is one alternative for improving the incomes and potential economic viability of small farms and rural communities.

Culinary tourism is valued by tourism industry professionals as one of the most popular niches in the world's tourism industry. Culinary tourism is defined as the pursuit of unique and memorable eating and drinking experiences, according to the International Culinary Tourism Association. Culinary tourism differs from agritourism in that culinary tourism is considered a subset of cultural tourism (cuisine is a manifestation of culture) whereas agritourism is considered a subset of rural tourism. Culinary tourism and agritourism are linked, as the seeds of cuisine can be found in agriculture.

Culinary tourism is not just experiences of the highest caliber - that would be gourmet tourism. This is perhaps best illustrated by the notion that culinary tourism is about what is unique and memorable, not what is necessarily pretentious and exclusive. Similarly, wine tourism and beer tourism are also regarded as subsets of culinary tourism.


Cultural Tourism

Cultural tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, especially its arts. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle. Culture has always been a major object of travel. Heritage, culture and the arts have long contributed to appeal of tourist destination. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend more than standard tourists do.

One type of cultural tourism destination is living cultural areas. This trend is evident in the rise in the volume of tourists who seek adventure, culture, history, archaeology and interaction with local people. For an indigenous culture that has stayed largely separated from the surrounding majority, tourism can present both advantages and problems. On the positive side are the unique cultural practices and arts that attract the curiosity of tourists and provide opportunities for tourism and economic development. On the negative side is the issue of how to control tourism so that those same cultural amenities are not destroyed and the people do not feel violated.

Cultural heritage tourism (or just heritage tourism) is a branch of tourism oriented towards the cultural heritage of the location where tourism is occurring. It involves visiting historical or industrial sites (that may include old canals, railways, battlegrounds, etc.), modern urban districts, coastal or island ecosystems, and inland natural areas. The overall purpose is to gain an appreciation of the past. It also refers to the marketing of a location to members of a diaspora who have distant family roots there. Decolonization and immigration form the major background of much contemporary heritage tourism. Falling travel costs have also made heritage tourism possible for more people.

Heritage tourism can also be attributed to historical events that have been dramatized to make them more entertaining (theme parks and country clubs) - for example, a historical tour of a town or city using a theme such as Cossacks or Vikings.

Dark tourism (also black tourism or grief tourism or thanatourism, derived from the Ancient Greek word thanatos for the personification of death) is tourism involving travel to sites associated with death and suffering. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide such as concentration camps. This includes castles and battlefields such as Culloden near Inverness, Scotland; sites of disaster, either natural or manmade such as Ground Zero in New York; prisons now open to the public such as Beaumaris Prison in Anglesey, Wales; and purpose built centers such as the London Dungeon. One of the most notorious destinations for dark tourism is the Nazi extermination camp at Auschwitz in Poland, Chernobyl site in ex USSR or Bran Castle, Poienari Castle in Romania.

Dark tourism poses severe ethical and moral dilemmas: should these sites be available for visitation and, if so, what should the nature of the publicity involved be. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.

Disaster tourism is the act of traveling to a disaster area as a matter of curiosity. The behavior can be a nuisance if it hinders rescue, relief, and recovery operations. If not done because of pure curiosity, it can be cataloged as disaster learning.

Disaster tourism took hold in the Greater New Orleans Area in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. There are now guided bus tours to neighborhoods that were severely damaged by storm-related flooding. Some local residents have criticized these tours as unethical, because the tour companies are profiting from the misery of their communities and families. The Army Corps of Engineers has noted that traffic from tour buses and other tourist vehicles have interfered with the movement of trucks and other cleanup equipment on single-lane residential roads. Furthermore, during the first six months after the storm, most of these neighborhoods lacked electricity, phone access, street signs, or access to emergency medical or police assistance. Simply traveling to these neighborhoods was hazardous. For these reasons, organized disaster tours are now banned from two of the most severely damaged areas in the city, the Lower 9th and St. Bernard Parish near the Industrial Canal.

On the other hand, such communities as Gentilly and Lakeview, along the 17th Street Canal, have welcomed organized tour groups as a means to publicize the scale of the destruction and attract more aid to the city. Much of the recovery effort in the New Orleans relies on out-of-state volunteers and donations. Numerous non-profit organization, including Habitat for Humanity International and Catholic Charities, have converged on the city to gut and rebuild homes. There is also a movement by local residents to bring congressmen and other national leaders to the city and view the damage in person, since recovery efforts have been hampered by the failure of many homeowners and businesses to receive claims from their insurance providers.

Ecotourism (also known as ecological tourism) is travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It helps educate the traveler, provides funds for conservation, directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities, and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights. Ecotourism appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals. Generally speaking, it focuses on volunteering, personal growth and learning new ways to live on the planet. It typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Ecotourism is a conceptual experience, enriching those who delve into researching and understanding the environment around them. It gives us insight into our impacts as human beings and also a greater appreciation of our own natural habitats.

Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation and creation of economic opportunities for the local communities.

Ecotourism is a form of tourism that involves traveling to tranquil and unpolluted natural areas. According to the definition and principles of ecotourism established by The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) in 1990, ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people.

Medical Tourism

Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare) is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of traveling across international borders to obtain health care. Such services typically include elective procedures as well as complex specialized surgeries such as joint replacement (knee/hip), cardiac surgery, dental surgery, and cosmetic surgeries. However, virtually every type of health care, including psychiatry, alternative treatments, convalescent care and even burial services are available. As a practical matter, providers and customers commonly use informal channels of communication-connection-contract, and in such cases this tends to mean less regulatory or legal oversight to assure quality and less formal recourse to reimbursement or redress, if needed.

Over 50 countries have identified medical tourism as a national industry. However, accreditation and other measures of quality vary widely across the globe, and there are risks and ethical issues that make this method of accessing medical care controversial. Also, some destinations may become hazardous or even dangerous for medical tourists to contemplate.

The concept of medical tourism is not a new one. The first recorded instance of medical tourism dates back thousands of years to when Greek pilgrims traveled from all over the Mediterranean to the small territory in the Saronic Gulf called Epidauria. This territory was the sanctuary of the healing god Asklepios. Epidauria became the original travel destination for medical tourism.

Spa towns and sanitariums may be considered an early form of medical tourism. In eighteenth century England, for example, patients visited spas because they were places with supposedly health-giving mineral waters, treating diseases from gout to liver disorders and bronchitis.

Factors that have led to the increasing popularity of medical travel include the high cost of health care, long wait times for certain procedures, the ease and affordability of international travel, and improvements in both technology and standards of care in many countries.

Medical tourists can come from anywhere in the First World, including Europe, the Middle East, Japan, the United States, and Canada. This is because of their large populations, comparatively high wealth, the high expense of health care or lack of health care options locally, and increasingly high expectations of their populations with respect to health care.

A large draw to medical travel is convenience and speed. Countries that operate public health-care systems are often so taxed that it can take considerable time to get non-urgent medical care. Taking Canada as an example, an estimated 782,936 Canadians spent time on medical waiting lists in 2005, waiting an average of 9.4 weeks. Canada has set waiting-time benchmarks, e. g. 26 weeks for a hip replacement and 16 weeks for cataract surgery, for non-urgent medical procedures. In Costa Rica, Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand, Cuba, Colombia, Philippines or India, a wealthy patient could feasibly have an operation the day after their arrival, while the poor may die before they receive help.

The cost of surgery in India, Thailand or South Africa can be one-tenth of what it is in the United States or Western Europe, and sometimes even less. A heart-valve replacement that would cost $200,000 or more in the US, for example, goes for $10,000 in India - and that includes round-trip airfare and a brief vacation package. Similarly, a metal-free dental bridge worth $5,500 in the US costs $500 in India, a knee replacement in Thailand with six days of physical therapy costs about one-fifth of what it would in the States, and Lasik eye surgery worth $3,700 in the US is available in many other countries for only $730. Cosmetic surgery savings are even greater: a full facelift that would cost $20,000 in the US runs about $1,250 in South Africa.

Popular medical travel worldwide destinations include: Argentina, Brunei, Cuba, Colombia, Costa Rica, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Jordan, Lithuania, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand, and recently, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Tunisia and New Zealand. In Europe Belgium, Poland and Slovakia are also breaking into the business.

The typical process is as follows: the person seeking medical treatment abroad contacts a medical tourism provider. The provider usually requires the patient to provide a medical report, including the nature of ailment, local doctor’s opinion, medical history, and diagnosis, and may request additional information. Certified medical doctors or consultants then advise on the medical treatment. The approximate expenditure, choice of hospitals and tourist destinations, and duration of stay, etc., is discussed. After signing consent bonds and agreements, the patient is given recommendation letters for a medical visa, to be procured from the concerned embassy. The patient travels to the destination country, where the medical tourism provider assigns a case executive, who takes care of the patient's accommodation, treatment and any other form of care. Once the treatment is done, the patient can remain in the tourist destination or return home.

Music tourism is the act of visiting a city or town, in order to see a gig or festival. With the presence of the tourist, money is spent and the local economy benefits. This sort of tourism is particularly important to small villages such as Glastonbury, as well as large cities like Glasgow.

Music tourism is one of the newest typology of tourism. Music tourism can be categorized under pleasure tourism, as it involves travel of people to watch a music concert. Rock music and hip-hop music are the two main genre of music which create music tourism.

Nautical tourism is an increasingly popular way to combine love of sailing and boating with vacation and holiday activities. First defined as an industry segment in Europe and South America, it has since caught on in the United States and the Pacific Rim.

Not only is nautical tourism an enjoyable way to see unique parts of the world, it is also a very profitable industry. Many tourists who enjoy sailing combine water travel with other activities. Supplying the equipment and accessories for those activities has spawned businesses for those purposes. With many nautical enthusiasts living onboard their vessels even in port, nautical tourists bring demand for a variety of goods and services. Marinas developed especially for nautical tourists have been built in Europe, South America and Australia.

Tourist services available at marinas catering to nautical tourists include:

· leasing of berths for sailing vessels and nautical tourists who live onboard;

· leasing of sailing vessels for holiday and recreational use (charter, cruising and similar);

· reception, safe-guarding and maintenance of sailing vessels;

· provision of stock (water, fuel, supplies, spare parts, equipment and similar);

· preparation and keeping sailing vessels in order;

· providing information to nautical enthusiasts (weather forecasts, nautical guides etc.);

· leasing of waterscooters, jetskis, and other water equipment.

Overland travel or overlanding refers to an "overland journey" - originating with Marco Polo's first overland expedition in the 13th century from Venice to the Chinese court of Kublai Khan. Today overlanding is a form of extended adventure holiday, embarking on a long journey, often in a group. Overland companies provide a converted truck or a bus plus a tour leader, and the group travels together overland for a period of weeks or months.

Since the 1960s overlanding has been a popular means of travel between destinations across Africa, Europe, Asia (particularly India), the Americas and Australia. The "Hippie trail" of the 60s and 70s saw thousands of young westerners travelling through the Middle East to India and Nepal.

Rail Overland Travel

At 9,288km the Trans-Siberian Railwa y is one of the longest overland journeys in existence today, taking 7 days to reach Vladivostok from Moscow, and providing an alternative to air travel for journeys between Europe and Asia.

The Indian Pacific railway, completed in 1970, links Sydney and Perth in Australia. Covering 4,343km over 4 days, the railway includes the longest stretch of straight railway line in the world.

The introduction of Japan's high speed railway Tōkaidō Shinkansen in 1964 changed the face of rail travel. The railway has carried more than 4 billion passengers and its new N700 series trains are capable of 300 km/h. France's TGV holds the record for the fastest train, with a top speed of more than 500 km/h, making it faster than air travel for many journeys within the country.

Road Overland Travel

The Silk Route or Silk Road historically connects the Mediterranean with Persia and China. Today the route refers to overland journeys between Europe and China, taking either the northern route - through Russia and Kazakhstan - or the southern route - through Turkey, Iran, Pakistan and North India - to Urumqi or Xian in China. These routes are still popular today, with companies such as Oasis Overland and Odyssey Overland offering tours on the southern route.

Other overland routes

In Africa, commercial overland travel began with the Trans Africa and Cape to Cairo described above. From the mid 1980s East and Southern Africa became more sought after by tourists and Nairobi to Cape Town is now the most travelled overland route in Africa. As more tourists look for adventure trips that fit in to their annual holiday, shorter sections of overland routes have become available such as two to three week round trip from Nairobi taking in Kenya and Uganda.

Istanbul to Cairo, via Syria and Jordan, is a classic overland route. It is a route that has been travelled for centuries, particularly during the Ottoman Empire. Historically it overlapped with the Hajj, with many people covering all or part of the route as part of their pilgrimage to Mecca. Backpackers discovered it in the '70s and '80s, with hippies searching for spiritual peace who departed to Jerusalem from Istanbul instead of going to India via Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. After the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, onward travel from Jerusalem to Cairo became a possibility. It is now well travelled by backpackers and overland companies alike although the amount of travelers journeying the route can be affected by any unrest in neighboring countries.

Pop-culture tourism is the act of traveling to locations featured in literature, film, music, or any other form of popular entertainment.

Popular destinations include:

· Los Angeles, California film studios;

· New Zealand after The Lord of the Rings was filmed there;

· Japan for japanophiles or lovers of Japanese pop-culture;

· North Bend, Washington and in particular Twede's Cafe where much of the television show Twin Peaks was shot;

· Tunisia, location of the filming of the Star Wars movies;

· Burkittsville, Maryland, where tourists re-create the most gruesome scenes from The Blair Witch Project.

Pop-culture tourism is in some respects akin to pilgrimage, with its modern equivalents of places of pilgrimage, such as Elvis Presley's Graceland and the grave of Jim Morrison in Père Lachaise Cemetery.

Poverty tourism or poorism, also known as township tourism or slumming is a type of tourism, in which tourists travel to less developed places to observe people living in poverty. Poorism travel tours are popular in places like India, Ethiopia, and even places that have had natural disasters such as hurricanes and tsunamis. After Hurricane Katrina, Louisiana became a big poorism site.

Slumming (derived from slum) originally referred to a practice, fashionable among certain segments of the middle class in many Western countries, whereby one deliberately patronizes areas or establishments which are populated by, or intended for, people well below one's own socio-economic level, motivated by curiosity or a desire for adventure. Most often these establishments take the form of bars or restaurants in low-income areas.

Recreational slumming was popular in Victorian London, where omnibus rides through Whitechapel were in vogue. Similarly, slumming tours were documented through the Five Points slums in Manhattan during the 1840s.

It's also associated with the middle 1980s, as an outgrowth of the yuppie subculture. The sense that upper-class establishments were phony, overpriced, and affected made it fashionable among middle-class professionals to frequent "dives", due to their supposed authenticity and local color.

"Slumming" (also known as "class tourism") has come to refer to many activities that involve interaction with the less fortunate, especially when motivated by curiosity, adventure, laziness, boredom, and even outright greed and miserliness.

Township tourism is a term used to describe a form of tourism that emerged in post-apartheid South Africa and Namibia. South African settlements are still visibly divided into wealthy, historically white suburbs and poor, historically black townships, because of the effects of apartheid and racial segregation. Before 1994 it was rare for tourists to visit townships. Increasingly the established South African tourism industry sees the townships as a resource for attracting tourism revenue. Smaller operations, including many emerging black tourism operators, see township tourism as a means of empowerment and of bolstering the self-esteem of people in these historically marginalized communities. Although township tours vary in form, they often differ from other tourism experiences in being interactive, socially minded, and potentially empowering for the communities involved. However they have also courted controversy, because of fears that they misrepresent South African culture.

Religious Tourism

Religious tourism, also commonly referred to as faith tourism, is a form of tourism whereby people of faith travel individually or in groups for pilgrimage, missionary, or leisure (fellowship) purposes.

Tourism Segments

Religious tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry including:

· pilgrimages;

· missionary travel;

· leisure (fellowship) vacations;

· faith-based cruising;

· crusades, conventions and rallies;

· retreats;

· monastery visits and guest-stays;

· faith-based camps;

· religious tourist attractions.


Although no definitive study has been completed on worldwide religious tourism, some segments of the industry have been measured:

Ø According to the World Tourism Organization, an estimated 300 to 330 million pilgrims visit the world's key religious sites every year.

Ø According to the U.S. Office of Travel and Tourism Industries, Americans traveling overseas for "religious or pilgrimage" purposes has increased from 491,000 travelers in 2002 to 633,000 travelers in 2005 (30% increase). North American religious tourists comprise an estimated $10 billion of this industry.

Ø According to the Religious Conference Management Association, in 2006 more than 14.7 million people attended religious meetings (RCMA members), an increase of more than 10 million from 1994 with 4.4 million attendees.

Christian tourism is a subcategory of religious tourism. As one of the largest branches of religious tourism, it is estimated that seven percent of the world's Christians - about 150 million people - are "on the move as pilgrims" each year.

Christian tourism refers to the entire industry of Christian travel, tourism, and hospitality. In recent years it has grown to include not only Christians embarking individually or in groups on pilgrimages and missionary travel, but also on religion-based cruises, leisure (fellowship) vacations, crusades, rallies, retreats, monastery visits/guest-stays and Christian camps, as well as visiting Christian tourist attractions.


Although no definitive study has been completed on Christian tourism, some segments of the industry have been measured:

Ø The Christian Camp and Conference Association states that more than eight million people are involved in CCCA member camps and conferences, including more than 120,000 churches.

Ø Short-term missions draw 1.6 million participants annually.

Ø Christian attractions including Sight & Sound Theatre attracts 800,000 visitors a year while the Holy Land Experience and Focus on the Family welcome center each receives about 250,000 guests annually. Recently launched Christian attractions include the Creation Museum and Billy Graham Library, both of which are expected to receive about 250,000 visitors each year as well.

Ø 50,000 churches in the United States possess a travel program or travel ministry.


In religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or search of great moral significance. Sometimes, it is a journey or shrine of importance to a person's beliefs and faith. Members of many major religions participate in pilgrimages. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim.

Effects on trade

Pilgrims contributed an important element to long-distance trade before the modern era, and brought prosperity to successful pilgrimage sites, an economic phenomenon unequaled until the tourist trade of the 20th century. Encouraging pilgrims was a motivation for assembling (and sometimes fabricating) relics and for writing hagiographies of local saints, filled with inspiring accounts of miracle cures. Lourdes and other modern pilgrimage sites keep this spirit alive.

Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers like Saint Jerome. Pilgrimages also began to be made to Rome and other sites associated with the Apostles, Saints and Christian martyrs, as well as to places where there have been apparitions of the Virgin Mary.

Sports Tourism

Sports tourism involves people traveling to participate or to observe sports. These activities may include people competing in an international event, such as the Olympics, or simply sitting amongst the audience watching the World Cup match.

The British Tourism Authority claims that 20% of the tourist trips are for the prime purpose of sport participation, and 50% of the tourist trips include among other purposes sport participation.

There are various health impacts involved when looking at sports tourism. People are generally interested and motivated to play sports when participating in sports tourism. Many people all over the world travel to Hawaii to surf as it is a popular destination for big waves. The physiological impact of sports tourism can be seen in athletes who are actively involved, going overseas to compete with other people. These athletes typically have a good physique as it is naturally normal for them to want to improve and train to be better. They lead a lifestyle which centers on their health and physical well-being.

Sports allows for the mind to relax when done for recreation. People who engage in sports tourism in a non-competitive environment typically use it as an opportunity to get away and re-charge. Sports also cause the brain to secrete endorphins, which prevents stress and strengthens the body against pain. At the same time, it makes people increase their self-confidence and boosts their self-esteem.

The health risks involved in sports tourism applies to both the athletes and fans. They might train too hard to compete, risking injuries. Also, one needs time to adapt to another country and this may sometimes be difficult, sometimes even causing sickness (for example, jet lag). Similarly, because of the internal time difference, fans all over the world purposely stay up to watch games, and this leads to an irregular sleeping pattern. Cases of fans falling ill during these periods are common, with increased consumption of junk food combined with late nights.

The environmental impacts of sports tourism is classified as negative impacts. It consists of pollution and depletion. In this case, it refers to depletion of resources. For a sports events to be held (which is the main reason for sports tourism), many resources are required.

Pollution can occur in terms of air, land, water and sound. Air pollution happens basically due to the emission of harmful gases from vehicles. For example during major world games such as the Olympics and World Cup, there will be more vehicles than usual thus increasing the amount of air pollution. Sound pollution occurs due to the noise made by the spectators. As for land pollution, it usually occurs in natural habitats. For instance, sports like mountain climbing pollute the land as the equipments use can destroy the natural surroundings. Apart from that, littering caused by the masses also contribute to land pollution.

Among the sociocultural impacts of sports tourism are land use, cultural exchanges, preservation of traditions, national identity, and, unfortunately, violence. The use of land is necessary to sports tourism. Sports take up space. Some of these sports may even require facilities to be specially built. For instance, golf will definitely require land to be allocated to build its course. Singaporeans, who want to experience golf in a bigger and more fulfilling golf course, may seek to travel to nearby Malaysia instead, and this is a form of land use for Malaysia resulting from sports tourism.

It is certain that cultural exchanges will take place whenever people of different cultural backgrounds meet. Sports tourists will nevertheless learn about the culture of the country they visit when they arrive at their destination, although their main purpose of travel is to participant in sports, or to observe sports (but not for cultural purposes).

Once-dying traditions can also be ‘revived’ through sports tourism. The need to display these traditions to tourists will bring these traditions ‘back to life’. Showcasing traditional food, traditional costumes, culture and ethnics will not only enrich these sports tourists’ experience to the country, but also help preserve the traditions, instead of letting them gradually disappear from this world.

Violence usually occurs among the spectators who are unsatisfied with the announced results. The spectators/audiences usually from the losing side will create fights with the other side. Violence is one of the negative impacts that can arise from sports tourism. It is an unhealthy scene as this can sour the relationship between two counterparts. Violence in sports tourism does not only happen among countries, but also within one country itself.

The national pride and prestige one feels when a mega event is held in his country is perpetual. It is a proud feeling to know that your country is able to hold an international event, because it will be broadcast worldwide, and therefore known to the rest of the world.

In Germany "national pride" ("Nationalstolz") is often associated with the former Nazi regime. Strong displays of national pride are therefore considered poor taste by many Germans. There is an ongoing public debate about the issue of German patriotism. The World Cup in 2006, held in Germany, saw a wave of patriotism sweep the country in a manner not seen for many years. Although many were hesitant to show such blatant support as the hanging of the national flag from windows, as the team progressed through the tournament, so too did the level of support across the nation. By the time the semi-final against Italy came around, the level of national pride and unity was at its highest throughout the tournament, and the hosting of the World Cup is seen to have been a great success for Germany as a nation.

Water tourism (also known as a boating holiday) is traveling by boat while on holiday, with the express purpose of seeing things meant for the water tourist. This can be traveling from luxury port to luxury port, but also landing a boat for lunch or other day recreation at specially prepared day boat-landings.

Wildlife tourism can be an eco and animal friendly tourism in both captive and wild environments. It has experienced a dramatic and rapid growth in recent years worldwide. Wildlife tourism, in its simplest sense, is watching wild animals in their natural habitat.

Wildlife tourism is also a multi-million dollar industry offering customized tour packages and safaris.

A safari is an overland journey. It usually refers to a trip by tourists to Africa, traditionally for a big-game hunt; today the term often refers to a trip taken not for the purposes of hunting, but to observe and photograph big game and other wildlife. There is a certain theme or style associated with the word, which includes khaki clothing, belted bush jackets, pith helmets or slouch hats, and animal skins — like leopard's skin.

Entering the English language in the late 19th century, the word safari means "long journey" in Swahili. Originally from the Arabic سفرة (safra) meaning a journey. The verb for "to travel" in Swahili is "kusafiri", the noun for the journey is "safari". These words are used for any type of journey, e.g. by bus from Nairobi to Mombasa. The person generally attributed to having used the word in English is Sir Richard Francis Burton, the famous explorer.

Although the word safari came to popular usage in reference to hunting and touring expeditions in East Africa, it is now also used to mean watching and photographing wildlife in all parts of Africa. The term has also spread to cover other adventurous journeys and expeditions, including whale watching safaris, Arctic safaris, Amazon safaris, eco-safari, etc.

The most well known safari areas in Africa include The Masai Mara and Serengeti in East Africa, Kruger National Park in South Africa, Etosha in Namibia, and The Okavango Delta and Chobe National Park in Botswana.

A big-game hunter is a person engaged in hunting for large animals for trophies or game. The pursuit of the major objective might place the hunter at risk of personal harm. Potential big-game sought include, but are not limited to, bears, big cats, boars, elephants, buffalo, kudu, antelope, rhinoceros, hartebeest, moose, elk, and deer. Big game hunters hunt in places such as New Zealand, British Columbia, Montana, Ethiopia, Zambia and other parts of Africa. The weapons they use include, but are not limited to, rifles, shotguns, crossbows, and some types of handguns.

Wine tourism refers to tourism whose purpose is or includes the tasting, consumption or purchase of wine, often at or near the source. Wine tourism can consist of visits to wineries, vineyards and restaurants known to offer unique vintages, as well as organized wine tours, wine festivals or other special events.

Many wine regions around the world have found it financially beneficial to promote such tourism; accordingly, growers associations and others in the hospitality industry in wine regions have spent significant amounts of money over the years to promote such tourism. This is true not only to "Old World" producers (such as Spain, Portugal, France or Italy), but also for the so-called "New World wine" regions (such as Australia, Argentina, Chile, United States or South Africa), where wine tourism plays an important role in advertising their products. In Argentina, for example, the Mendoza Province is becoming one of the tourist destinations in the country as Argentine wine strides to gain international recognition. Similarly, the National Wine Centre of Australia showcases the Australian wine industry, and visitors from around the world visit Northern California's Wine Country.

Vocabulary Focus

1. Abroad нареч. 1) за границей; за границу 2) широко; повсюду 3) уст. вне дома, вне своего жилища; из дому 4) амер. в Европе; в Европу (из-за океана) 5) ошибочно, неточно, рассеянно; далеко от цели
2. Amenities сущ.; мн. ч. 1) прелести 2) красоты 3) блага 4) удобства
3. Convention сущ. 1) собрание, съезд 2) (Convention) ист.; = National Convention (Национальный) конвент (во Франции, в 1792-95 гг.) 3) соглашение, договорённость, договор, конвенция 4) обычай, традиция, правила поведения 5) условность (в искусстве)
4. Cruise 1.сущ. 1) круиз, морское путешествие, плавание 2) амер.; лес. таксация (осмотр и оценка строевого леса в определённом районе) 3) воен.; = cruise missile крылатая ракета 2.гл. 1) совершать круиз, путешествовать 2) разг. гулять, прогуливаться 3) перемещаться с крейсерской скоростью (оптимальной в течение длительного периода) 4) мор. крейсировать, плавать по определённому маршруту 5) = cruise about курсировать, объезжать (какой-л. район, территорию) 6) амер.; сниж.; = cruise about завлечь клиента, клеиться на улице(о проститутках) 7) разг. промчаться; проскочить 8) разг. обойти (кого-л. в соревнованиях), одержать лёгкую победу 9) лес. таксировать (давать материальную оценку леса, определять запасы древесины)
5. Facilitate гл. облегчать; содействовать; способствовать; помогать, продвигать
6. Launch 1.сущ. 1) спуск судна на воду 2) запуск (ракеты, спутника) 3) начало (каких-л. действий) 4) выпуск новых товаров на рынок 2.гл. 1) а) бросать с силой, швырять, метать б) запускать (спутник, ракету); выпускать (снаряд);катапультировать в) запускать (воздушный шар, воздушного змея) г) спускать судно на воду 2) разразиться (об угрозе, обвинении) 3) (launch into) энергично браться (за что-л.), бросаться, пускаться 4) а) начинать (какие-л. действия) б) выпускать на рынок (товар); издавать (полиграфическую продукцию)
7. Round-trip поездка туда и обратно, поездка в оба конца
8. Theme park сущ. тематический парк; парк отдыха с аттракционами, оборудованием, посвящённый одной теме (часто детский)
9. Tourist attraction сущ. туристическая достопримечательность
10. Visa I 1.сущ. 1) виза (на документе) 2) разрешение; визирование 2.гл. 1) выдавать визу 2) визировать (документ) IIсущ. Виза (международное объединение банков и его кредитная карточка)


Reconstruct the following situation into a dialogue:

· Your foreign friend wants to come to Russia, but hasn’t yet chosen a destination. Characterize the trends in tourism in Russia and recommend your friend a particular place to visit according to his/her preference.


Creative task

The symposium-forum is a symposium (a series of short speeches before an audience which present different aspects of a topic) followed by audience participation. The symposium-forum is a good method to provide for group interaction after a symposium, when a combination of content presentation and audience reaction is needed, when difficult ideas must be handled in the right way before they are openly discussed, when presenting different points of view for the purpose of audience reaction, when the group needs concise information. The symposium-forum spotlights issues and can be used to present much information in a short time; change of speakers increases interest and adds variety; audience reaction encourages purposeful listening.

Symposium-forum: Prepare your account on the one particular type of tourism in the one particular place of Russia. Present your report. During the symposium-forum listen carefully to other speakers in order to be able to take part in the following discussion.


Discuss the places and types of tourism presented on the symposium:

· Was there any surprising/unknown information to you? What exactly?

· Would you like to take any such trips? Why?



Unit 3. Means of travel


Group Discussion

Discuss the following issues:

1. What part does transportation play in tourism industry?

2. When did railroads spread?

3. When were steamships developed?

4. Why have railroads and steamships lost much of their business?

5. What means of transportation has become the principal carrier for long distance travel?


Air travel

Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, airport security has taken the word "security" to a new level. Not only do you have to go through the metal detector and put your carry-on baggage through an X-ray machine, but there are now some new procedures you must follow when traveling by air. These new rules are for your protection and are designed to keep flights safe for all passengers. It is important to listen and obey anything you are told to do when you are going through the various airport security checkpoints.


1. Be ready to put your baggage through the X-ray machine. Take off anything that is metal and put it into your carry-on before you get to the front of the line. Going through security will be much quicker if you prepare ahead of time.

2. Remove your coat or jacket to put it through the X-ray machine (you don't have to take off your suit jacket or sweater. You need to put your jacket through the X-ray machine.

3. Cooperate with the airport personnel. If you are asked to have an additional screening, you must cooperate. If you don't, yo


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