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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Secular Pilgrimage (Personality Cult)
In modern usage, the terms pilgrim and pilgrimage can also have a somewhat devalued meaning as they are often applied in a secular context. For example, fans of Elvis Presley may choose to visit his home, Graceland, in Memphis, Tennessee.
In a number of Communist countries, secular pilgrimages were established as an "antidote" to religious pilgrimages, the most famous of which are:
· USSR: Mausoleum of Lenin in Red Square, Moscow;
· PRC: Mausoleum of Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square, Beijing;
· Germany: Birthplace of Karl Marx, Trier;
· Italy: Mausoleum of Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini, Predappio.
Space tourism is the recent phenomenon of tourists paying for flights into space pioneered by Russia.
As of 2009, orbital space tourism opportunities are limited and expensive, with only the Russian Space Agency (ISS) providing transport. The price for a flight brokered by Space Adventures to the International Space Station aboard a Soyuz spacecraft is $20–28 million.
Infrastructure for a suborbital space tourism industry is being developed through the construction of spaceports in numerous locations, including California, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Florida, Virginia, Alaska, Wisconsin, Esrange in Sweden as well as the United Arab Emirates.
With the realities of the post-Perestroika economy in Russia, its space industry was especially starved for cash. The Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS) offered to pay for one of its reporters to fly on a mission. For $28 million, Toyohiro Akiyama was flown in 1990 to Mir with the eighth crew and returned a week later with the seventh crew. Akiyama gave a daily TV broadcast from orbit and also performed scientific experiments for Russian and Japanese companies. However, since the cost of the flight was paid by his employer, Akiyama could be considered a business traveler rather than a tourist.
At the end of the 1990s, MirCorp, a private venture by then in charge of the space station, began seeking potential space tourists to visit Mir in order to offset some of its maintenance costs. On April 28, 2001, Dennis Tito, an American businessman, became the first "fee-paying" space tourist when he visited the International Space Station (ISS) for seven days. He was followed in 2002 by South African computer millionaire Mark Shuttleworth. The third was Gregory Olsen in 2005, who was trained as a scientist and whose company produced specialist high-sensitivity cameras. Olsen planned to use his time on the ISS to conduct a number of experiments, in part to test his company's products. They paid in excess of USD 20 million each.
More affordable suborbital space tourism is viewed as a money-making proposition by several other companies, including Space Adventures, Virgin Galactic, Starchaser, Blue Origin, Armadillo Aerospace, XCOR Aerospace, Rocketplane Limited, the European "Project Enterprise", and others. Most are proposing vehicles that make suborbital flights peaking at an altitude of 100-160 kilometers. This goes beyond the internationally defined boundary between Earth and space of 100 km. A citizen astronaut will only require three days of training before spaceflight. Spaceflights will last 2.5 hours and carry 6 passengers. Passengers will experience three to six minutes of weightlessness, a view of a twinkle-free starfield, and a vista of the curved Earth below. Projected costs are expected to be about $200,000 per passenger. Virgin Galactic had already pre-sold nearly 200 seats for their suborbital space tourism flights.
Sports tourism involves people traveling to participate or to observe sports. These activities may include people competing in an international event, such as the Olympics, or simply sitting amongst the audience watching the World Cup match.
The British Tourism Authority claims that 20% of the tourist trips are for the prime purpose of sport participation, and 50% of the tourist trips include among other purposes sport participation.
There are various health impacts involved when looking at sports tourism. People are generally interested and motivated to play sports when participating in sports tourism. Many people all over the world travel to Hawaii to surf as it is a popular destination for big waves. The physiological impact of sports tourism can be seen in athletes who are actively involved, going overseas to compete with other people. These athletes typically have a good physique as it is naturally normal for them to want to improve and train to be better. They lead a lifestyle which centers on their health and physical well-being.
Sports allows for the mind to relax when done for recreation. People who engage in sports tourism in a non-competitive environment typically use it as an opportunity to get away and re-charge. Sports also cause the brain to secrete endorphins, which prevents stress and strengthens the body against pain. At the same time, it makes people increase their self-confidence and boosts their self-esteem.
The health risks involved in sports tourism applies to both the athletes and fans. They might train too hard to compete, risking injuries. Also, one needs time to adapt to another country and this may sometimes be difficult, sometimes even causing sickness (for example, jet lag). Similarly, because of the internal time difference, fans all over the world purposely stay up to watch games, and this leads to an irregular sleeping pattern. Cases of fans falling ill during these periods are common, with increased consumption of junk food combined with late nights.
The environmental impacts of sports tourism is classified as negative impacts. It consists of pollution and depletion. In this case, it refers to depletion of resources. For a sports events to be held (which is the main reason for sports tourism), many resources are required.
Pollution can occur in terms of air, land, water and sound. Air pollution happens basically due to the emission of harmful gases from vehicles. For example during major world games such as the Olympics and World Cup, there will be more vehicles than usual thus increasing the amount of air pollution. Sound pollution occurs due to the noise made by the spectators. As for land pollution, it usually occurs in natural habitats. For instance, sports like mountain climbing pollute the land as the equipments use can destroy the natural surroundings. Apart from that, littering caused by the masses also contribute to land pollution.
Among the sociocultural impacts of sports tourism are land use, cultural exchanges, preservation of traditions, national identity, and, unfortunately, violence. The use of land is necessary to sports tourism. Sports take up space. Some of these sports may even require facilities to be specially built. For instance, golf will definitely require land to be allocated to build its course. Singaporeans, who want to experience golf in a bigger and more fulfilling golf course, may seek to travel to nearby Malaysia instead, and this is a form of land use for Malaysia resulting from sports tourism.
It is certain that cultural exchanges will take place whenever people of different cultural backgrounds meet. Sports tourists will nevertheless learn about the culture of the country they visit when they arrive at their destination, although their main purpose of travel is to participant in sports, or to observe sports (but not for cultural purposes).
Once-dying traditions can also be ‘revived’ through sports tourism. The need to display these traditions to tourists will bring these traditions ‘back to life’. Showcasing traditional food, traditional costumes, culture and ethnics will not only enrich these sports tourists’ experience to the country, but also help preserve the traditions, instead of letting them gradually disappear from this world.
Violence usually occurs among the spectators who are unsatisfied with the announced results. The spectators/audiences usually from the losing side will create fights with the other side. Violence is one of the negative impacts that can arise from sports tourism. It is an unhealthy scene as this can sour the relationship between two counterparts. Violence in sports tourism does not only happen among countries, but also within one country itself.
The national pride and prestige one feels when a mega event is held in his country is perpetual. It is a proud feeling to know that your country is able to hold an international event, because it will be broadcast worldwide, and therefore known to the rest of the world.
In Germany "national pride" ("Nationalstolz") is often associated with the former Nazi regime. Strong displays of national pride are therefore considered poor taste by many Germans. There is an ongoing public debate about the issue of German patriotism. The World Cup in 2006, held in Germany, saw a wave of patriotism sweep the country in a manner not seen for many years. Although many were hesitant to show such blatant support as the hanging of the national flag from windows, as the team progressed through the tournament, so too did the level of support across the nation. By the time the semi-final against Italy came around, the level of national pride and unity was at its highest throughout the tournament, and the hosting of the World Cup is seen to have been a great success for Germany as a nation.
Water tourism (also known as a boating holiday) is traveling by boat while on holiday, with the express purpose of seeing things meant for the water tourist. This can be traveling from luxury port to luxury port, but also landing a boat for lunch or other day recreation at specially prepared day boat-landings.
Wildlife tourism can be an eco and animal friendly tourism in both captive and wild environments. It has experienced a dramatic and rapid growth in recent years worldwide. Wildlife tourism, in its simplest sense, is watching wild animals in their natural habitat.
Wildlife tourism is also a multi-million dollar industry offering customized tour packages and safaris.
A safari is an overland journey. It usually refers to a trip by tourists to Africa, traditionally for a big-game hunt; today the term often refers to a trip taken not for the purposes of hunting, but to observe and photograph big game and other wildlife. There is a certain theme or style associated with the word, which includes khaki clothing, belted bush jackets, pith helmets or slouch hats, and animal skins — like leopard's skin.
Entering the English language in the late 19th century, the word safari means "long journey" in Swahili. Originally from the Arabic سفرة (safra) meaning a journey. The verb for "to travel" in Swahili is "kusafiri", the noun for the journey is "safari". These words are used for any type of journey, e.g. by bus from Nairobi to Mombasa. The person generally attributed to having used the word in English is Sir Richard Francis Burton, the famous explorer.
Although the word safari came to popular usage in reference to hunting and touring expeditions in East Africa, it is now also used to mean watching and photographing wildlife in all parts of Africa. The term has also spread to cover other adventurous journeys and expeditions, including whale watching safaris, Arctic safaris, Amazon safaris, eco-safari, etc.
The most well known safari areas in Africa include The Masai Mara and Serengeti in East Africa, Kruger National Park in South Africa, Etosha in Namibia, and The Okavango Delta and Chobe National Park in Botswana.
A big-game hunter is a person engaged in hunting for large animals for trophies or game. The pursuit of the major objective might place the hunter at risk of personal harm. Potential big-game sought include, but are not limited to, bears, big cats, boars, elephants, buffalo, kudu, antelope, rhinoceros, hartebeest, moose, elk, and deer. Big game hunters hunt in places such as New Zealand, British Columbia, Montana, Ethiopia, Zambia and other parts of Africa. The weapons they use include, but are not limited to, rifles, shotguns, crossbows, and some types of handguns.
Wine tourism refers to tourism whose purpose is or includes the tasting, consumption or purchase of wine, often at or near the source. Wine tourism can consist of visits to wineries, vineyards and restaurants known to offer unique vintages, as well as organized wine tours, wine festivals or other special events.
Many wine regions around the world have found it financially beneficial to promote such tourism; accordingly, growers associations and others in the hospitality industry in wine regions have spent significant amounts of money over the years to promote such tourism. This is true not only to "Old World" producers (such as Spain, Portugal, France or Italy), but also for the so-called "New World wine" regions (such as Australia, Argentina, Chile, United States or South Africa), where wine tourism plays an important role in advertising their products. In Argentina, for example, the Mendoza Province is becoming one of the tourist destinations in the country as Argentine wine strides to gain international recognition. Similarly, the National Wine Centre of Australia showcases the Australian wine industry, and visitors from around the world visit Northern California's Wine Country.
Reconstruct the following situation into a dialogue:
· Your foreign friend wants to come to Russia, but hasn’t yet chosen a destination. Characterize the trends in tourism in Russia and recommend your friend a particular place to visit according to his/her preference.
Symposium-forum: Prepare your account on the one particular type of tourism in the one particular place of Russia. Present your report. During the symposium-forum listen carefully to other speakers in order to be able to take part in the following discussion.
Discuss the places and types of tourism presented on the symposium:
· Was there any surprising/unknown information to you? What exactly?
· Would you like to take any such trips? Why?
Unit 3. Means of travel
Discuss the following issues:
1. What part does transportation play in tourism industry?
2. When did railroads spread?
3. When were steamships developed?
4. Why have railroads and steamships lost much of their business?
5. What means of transportation has become the principal carrier for long distance travel?
Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, airport security has taken the word "security" to a new level. Not only do you have to go through the metal detector and put your carry-on baggage through an X-ray machine, but there are now some new procedures you must follow when traveling by air. These new rules are for your protection and are designed to keep flights safe for all passengers. It is important to listen and obey anything you are told to do when you are going through the various airport security checkpoints.
AIR TRAVEL BASICS
1. Be ready to put your baggage through the X-ray machine. Take off anything that is metal and put it into your carry-on before you get to the front of the line. Going through security will be much quicker if you prepare ahead of time.
2. Remove your coat or jacket to put it through the X-ray machine (you don't have to take off your suit jacket or sweater. You need to put your jacket through the X-ray machine.
3. Cooperate with the airport personnel. If you are asked to have an additional screening, you must cooperate. If you don't, you will not be able to go any further through security. You will only be asked to have an additional screening if you set off the metal detector or if the computers randomly choose you to have an additional screening. Also, if you do set off the metal detector, you will have either a hand wand screening and/or a pat down.
4. If your bag has been chosen for an additional screening, don't try to help or grab the bag before they are done. Let them do their job.
5. Only bring one carry-on and one personal item on the plane. You are required to check all other luggage. Acceptable personal items include: purses, laptops, or briefcases.
6. Do not try to bring half-eaten natural fruit through security unless it is wrapped.
7. If you are between the ages of 13 and 17 and are unaccompanied by an adult, you must have your parent/guardian's written permission to travel.
8. Something that seems safe to you might be considered a possible weapon when it comes to traveling by plane. If you bring something on the "banned" list, you have broken the law, and you can be prosecuted. Although the list of banned items may vary slightly from airline to airline, some illegal items include: pocket knives, scissors, razors, ice picks, manicure sets, and even cork screw wine bottle openers.
9. If you have a question about your item, don't bring it. If it is very important to have on your trip, put it in your checked luggage.
10. If you have something that could be considered threatening, you have three options: take it back to your car, give it to someone in your party to put in their checked luggage, or leave it with the police (you won't get it back).
11. Remember to have your picture ID, boarding pass, and ticket with you (and on your person) at all times. You may be asked for any of these items at any time while going through security.
By remembering these helpful tips when going through security check points in the airport, your trip will not be unnecessarily delayed, and your airport experience will be less stressful.
Travel by rail
1. Pack snacks.Some trains have dining cars, but not all of them have edible food or the food is astronomically expensive. You may also be able to buy snacks, but chances are they aren’t all that healthy, and the selection might be poor. When you’re stuck on a train track 12 hours from anywhere, the last thing you want is to be hungry, so come prepared with a variety of stuff to nibble on. Bonus points for healthy snacks, especially because you’re not going to get a lot of exercise on board.
2.Wear shoes.In some countries it’s against the law not to wear shoes, but in all countries, it’s just a good idea. I’m not saying you can’t slip them off when you’re sitting at your seat or once you’ve hunkered down in the observation car, but wear shoes whenever you have to walk somewhere and please, under every single circumstance you can think of, wear shoes in the bathroom.
3. Bring wet wipes and toilet paper.After a long day and a long night with canned train air, you’re going to want to take a shower. No can do … but the next best thing is a good wipe down with a wet wipe. I find them particularly helpful for waking up in the morning. As for the toilet paper, some trains will have it, others won’t at all, but all will be running a little low by the time the ride is over.
4. If you’ll be on the train for longer than one night, get a sleeper.I don’t mind riding coach. In fact, the seats are quite comfy and way roomier than trying to squeeze into an airplane seat. They may even recline quite nicely. I can sleep for one night in these seats … and “sleep” is probably a stretch. More than one night, though, and I’m a mess. I’ve spent nights in sleepers on trains, though, and I sleep amazingly well, so the extra cost for the sleeper is worth it. There’s nothing like the lull of the train to rock a person to sleep.
5. Unplug.Some trains are beginning to offer free wireless internet service, but I strongly suggest you leave the laptop off. One of the greatest things about riding a train is that it epitomizes the concept of slow travel. This is your opportunity to pull out a journal, catch up on a good book or just watch the landscape roll by. Rarely do we have the chance just to relax anymore, but you can still carve out that time on a train.
As with any kind of travel in enclosed spaces over a prolonged period of time, it can be a tall order getting on with even the best friend you’ve known all your life, let alone complete strangers. At some point during your coach holidays your nerves could be tested, and you’ll need to keep them in check before you find yourself in a full-blown barny worthy of the next series of Coach Trips. With that in mind, we’ve put together 6 top tips for coach holidays etiquette to ensure a chilled out coach experience.
1. Be considerate. First and foremost, always remember that you are sharing a coach with 48 other people so as a rule of thumb, think before you act. It’s probably not the best time to pump your club tunes/classical music up on your mp3 so loud that the people in the next motorway lane can hear, and it isn't wise to sing aloud to your favourite tunes or rustle bags or food wrappings which could disturb other passengers’ dozing. The same goes for mobile phones – no-one likes the bloke on the train who talks too loudly and commentates on passing scenery, and it’s no different on a coach. Remember too that coaches have luggage restrictions like everything else, so don’t take everything including the kitchen sink. Be selective so there’s room for other people’s luggage too.
2. Keep your children under control. If children are accompanying you on the coach holiday, bring enough to keep them amused for the entire journey. There’s nothing worse than being stuck on a coach (with no means of escape apart from jumping out the fire exit) when there’s a screaming child that’s bored out of their minds. If they don’t have to travel with you then leave them at home. If they do, and nothing else works…consider tranquilisers. Strong ones. Duck tape is another option!
3. No pongy picnics. Most coach companies prefer you not to eat on board but if you have to, and you’re allowed, leave the pongy picnic at home. The last thing other passengers want to inhale is last night’s masala leftovers or boiled egg sarnies. You should probably think twice about removing your socks and shoes after a day’s sightseeing too.
4. Punctuality is key. If you stop off somewhere on an excursion, don’t be late in re-boarding the coach unless you want the scowls from your fellow passengers to be etched in your memory for the rest of the trip. The same applies to joining and service station stops. Being late is a sure-fire way to rub fellow passengers up the wrong way, so just don’t do it!
5. Keep your opinions to yourself. Everyone has their own views and you’re bound to strike up conversation with your fellow coach-goers, but it’s a good idea to keep strong opinions to yourself. It doesn’t matter how much you want this party to win the election or what you think of the current PM, topics like politics are best avoided, as are any race, sexual or religious-related views.
6. Embrace the experience. Above all else, you are here to have fun, so embrace the experience! Once you’ve followed tips 1-5, getting to know your fellow passengers, especially if you’re travelling on your own, can make the whole trip more enjoyable for you and you may even strike up friendships that last a lifetime.
By: Rachel Jones
Travel by car
1. Get the oil changed and your fluids checked before you leave. I’ve owned a few beater cars in my life. I’ve taken more than one road trip in a lemon. And I’ve been stuck on the side of the road in the middle of nowhere more times than I care to admit. Be ye not so stupid.
Make sure your vehicle is road trip ready before you leave. Have the oil changed, fill up on windshield wiper fluid and make sure you have your license, registration and insurance up to date – and actually in the carwith you.
2. Go with someone you love. Or like. A lot. Good companionship can make all the difference on a road trip. The longer the trip, the more compatible you better be with the person you plan to be confined in a car with for hours on end.
Of course, a long road trip in the car can be a great opportunity to get to know someone better. But if you’re thinking of tagging along with people who normally irritate the crap out of you just to save a little dough – think about flying instead.
3. Take turns driving. As a woman, I’ve never understood those couples where the man is the only who does the driving. This is especially true when driving long distances. If you can manage to get yourself around town by yourself, you can handle a turn at the wheel for a road trip.
It’s nice to get a break from the driving. It’s also nice to get a break from just sitting and watching out the window and trying really, really hard not to say anything when the other driver gets really, really close to the car in front of him. I mean, you know, for example. Don’t be afraid to do some of the driving.
4. Bring your own music. Do you remember in the 80s when you had mixed tapes for everything? First Date Mix. Prom Night Mix. Ode To My Love For You Mix. A road trip is the perfect excuse to revive the mix (although it will probably take the form of a burned CD or a playlist on your iPod).
Prepare yourself for inevitable stereo static with ample back up music. Bring twice as much as you think you’ll listen to. My playlists (because I am an iSnob) are crammed with cheesy songs I know the words to, musical soundtracks and nostalgic favorites.
Don’t be afraid to turn it up and sing along at the top of your lungs. The chances of you ever seeing that driver who’s giving you funny looks from the car beside you again are slim to none. Unless you happen to stop at the same rest stop.
5. Bring sunglasses and sunscreen. Maybe I’m the only person to ever get sunburned through a car window – but I doubt it. And I know for a fact that I’m not the only person in my marriage who has had to stop at a convenient store to buy sunglasses because they didn’t think about having to stare into the sun for hours on end.
Sunglasses will prevent squinting and eye strain. Sunscreen will prevent an embarrassing sunburn on one half of your body. And cancer.
6. Avoid stupid traffic tickets. You know what’s not fun when you’re on vacation? Getting arrested. You know what’s also not fun and probably a more likely scenario? Having to spend hundreds of dollars from your travel budget on a speeding or seat belt ticket.
Wear your seat belt. Use your turn signal. Don’t speed (or if you do, at least go with the flow of traffic). You’re going to get stuck in the exact same traffic jam due to construction as everyone else a few miles down the road anyway.
7. Bring your own food and drinks. I don’t get why some people don’t pack a cooler and snacks when they take a road trip. Are you surprisedto learn that your body requires food and water? Or are you just hoping to find something deliciously nutritious at a gas station?
Yeah. I don’t think so. Convenient store food is fine up to a point, but if you’re going to be spending hours (or days) in a vehicle, plan ahead and bring food that doesn’t suck. I load up on water bottles, cans of pop, juice boxes, crackers, pre-made sandwiches, fruit and other travel friendly snacks.
When I’m traveling with kids, I try to bring as many individually packed snacks as possible to avoid the need for sharing. I’ll teach them manners when I’m not stuck in a car with them.
8. Bring garbage bags. If you’re going to be in the car for hours, chances are you’re going to be eating in the car. And drinking in the car. And chewing gum that comes in itty bitty gum wrappers in the car.
Stay on top of the mess as you make it with a small garbage bag. This might sound like a silly detail, but riding in your own filth is.. well.. gross. And an ever rising mound of wrappers and empty bottles rising on your floorboards will make your car feel infinitely smaller than it actually is. A well organized, decluttered road trip is a happy road trip.
9. Get gas before you’re on E. My husband and I drove 1400 miles once in 24 hours. We had this brilliant idea to keep driving until we were just about out of gas in order to save time and get more driving done between pit stops. We came >this< close to being stranded on the side of a back road in Illinois in the middle of the night, miles from a gas station or signs of civilization.
Learn from our foolishness.
If you get out your pencil and paper and do the math, you’ll see that you aren’t saving any gas, money or time by driving until you’re on fumes. When you’re driving in unfamiliar territory, you never know when the next gas station will come up – or whether or not it will be open. Start looking for your next pit stop when you hit the 3/4 tank mark to avoid any long walks by the side of the road with the little red gas can.
10. Use the bathroom every time you stop. I would think this would be a no brainer. But I’ve traveled with children, so I know not everyone understands the wisdom of “just try, you don’t know when you’ll be able to go again”.
Whether you’re stopping for food (I told you so!) or to fill up with gas, spend the extra few minutes to hit the restroom. If you don’t, you’re pretty much guaranteed to find yourself having to pee about 15 minutes after you’re back on the road.
11. For Pete’s sake, just pull over and let the woman pee. Now, if someone happensto announce that they have to use the restroom not long after you’ve made your most recent pit stop, for the love of all things holy just stop and let her – er, them- go.
A good road trip isn’t a race. Tacking on 10 minutes at the next exit is not going to ruin your vacation or cause you to lose some Awesome Travel Time Trophy. And it will make your traveling companion much more pleasant to ride with. Believe me.
12. Plan time for unexpected stops. Speaking of extra time… there really is no trophy that I have ever heard of for making good time. The best road trips are just as much about the journey as the destination.
Allow yourself extra time for unexpected detours when you’re planning your trip. Pull over and check out that massive ball of twine. Stop and take pictures in front of those really cool bluffs. Some of the coolest places I’ve been have been on the way to where I was going.
13. Sleep. When it’s not your turn to drive, don’t be afraid to get some sleep. This is especially important if you’re driving through the night or plan to spend more than 8 hours on the road.
Of course, sleeping in the car isn’t exactly comfortable. I highly recommend bringing pillows (and a blanket, if there’s room!) or a good travel pillow. It’s not a night at The Ritz, but it will help. A well rested driver is a safer driver. And a well rested passenger is a less irritable and more enjoyable passenger.
14. Avoid rush hour traffic. It’s one thing to tack on time on your road trip for an interesting roadside attraction. It’s another thing entirely to loose hours sitting in rush hour traffic because you ended up in Chicago at 5pm.
If at all possible, plan your route so that you hit major cities outside of peak driving times. If that’s not possible, look for bypasses and alternate routes. The miles you loose driving around the city will be worth the time and gas you save by not idling in bumper to bumper commuter traffic. Remember that you might be on vacation, but the rest of the world still has to work during the week – and they have to drive to get there.
15. Bring a map. A real, actual, paper map that does not talk to you. I love GPS. In fact, love is probably not a strong enough word for the affection I have for a dashboard device that tells me where to go and when to turn. But even the best navigation system in the world makes mistakes.
Bring a map and double check your computer generated route. It’s also nice to have a map on hand if you find yourself having to detour around a city, or looking for the best route to that big ball of twine you’re stopping to see.
16. Pack games for the kids. One of the main reasons I end up vacationing road trip style is because I have kids. Airplane tickets for a family of four are surprisingly more expensive than an airplane ticket for one. Go figure.
A backseat full of bored kids can ruin the shortest card ride. It can make a long road trip unbearable for everyone. Plan ahead. Bring a variety of road trip friendly activities to keep the young travelers occupied. Some of our family favorites include coloring books, crossword puzzles, puzzle books, and travel versions of board games. And of course, you can always fall back on a rousing game of I Spy.
17. Wear flip flops. I loathe flip flops as a fashion option. I’m kind of a snob like that. But for road trips, a slip on/slip off footwear choice is a must.
Every single person in my family takes off their shoes if they’re in the car for too long. That means every single person in my family has to put their shoes back on every single time we stop. For food. For bathroom breaks. For staring at that dang ball of twine. It can take 15 minutes to find shoes, find socks, put back on socks and shoes, lace up shoes and finally get out of the dang car. If you’re taking a road trip as a family, flip flops are your friend.
18. Have fun! No, really. Ultimately, the success of your road trip is dependent on your state of mind. You can do everything on the list and still have a horrible experience if you’re focused on how long you’re driving and when you’ll get there and how much you hate being stuck in the car.
Or, you can forget every single tip I’ve given you and find yourself laughing uproariously in the middle of rush hour traffic, having the time of your life.
Planning ahead can make things easier and help avoid some common pitfalls, but ultimately something will go awry and it will be up to you to keep a positive attitude and make the most of your road trip experience. Relax. Smile. And enjoy the ride.
By: Britt Reints
Reconstruct the following situations into a dialogues:
· Imagine that you are at the information office of some railway station and you want some information about the trains.
· You are at the airport. You go to complete the necessary formalities.
· Two tourists are on board one of the Black Sea liners. They discuss the pleasures of travelling by sea, on-board facilities.
· You have just returned from a coach journey and want to persuade your friend to travel by coach. Describe all the advantages of coach travel to your friend.
· You are going to rent a car so that you and your friend can go on a trip to Oslo. You are at the Self-Drive car rental company.
Write a story on one of the following topics:
· Railways in a chosen country.
· Promotion of the air company.
· River (sea or sightseeing) cruise within a chosen country.
· Coach tour around the country.
Unit 4. Working in tourism
Discuss the following issues:
1. In what way is tourism similar to most other service industries?
2. What should be the final result of efforts made by the people who work in tourism?
3. What jobs in tourism can you name?
4. Do all the jobs in tourism require special skills?
5. What are the special skills desirable in tourism?
People working in tourism jobs provide services for local and international travelers. Work in the industry may include:
· guiding people on tours or outdoor recreation activities
· developing travel packages to sell to travel agents
· helping people organise and book their travel plans.
Tourism is closely linked to hospitality (accommodation, cafés and restaurants), and air, road and water transport services.
Types of jobs you could do
People who work in tourism can do a variety of jobs including:
· active outdoor work such as teaching people snowsports;
· guiding roles;
· transporting people and telling them about tourist attractions;
· helping people plan and book travel and activities.
There is also work in tourism in areas such as sales, marketing and finance. Some of these jobs are also found in a range of other industries:
· Check-in agents check passengers onto flights and ferry crossings, take their tickets and luggage, and give them boarding passes, or assist them to use self-check systems. If they work in an airport, they may also meet and dispatch aircraft.
· Hunters and trappers find and catch or shoot animals for food, pelts (skins), fur, research, or to remove pests.
· Outdoor recreation guides and instructors teach or guide outdoor activities such as rafting, kayaking, diving, skiing, hunting, fishing, climbing, tramping and caving.
· Tour guides escort people on sightseeing, educational or other tours, and describe points of interest.
· Travel agents/advisers make travel arrangements and bookings for clients, and provide information about tourism attractions. They may sell airline tickets, book accommodation, tours and attractions, do ticketing, and process payments.
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