ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Кафедра иностранных языков №2



Кафедра иностранных языков №2

 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

 

к практическим занятиям по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов 1 курса очной и заочной форм обучения

Специальности «Автомобили и автомобильное хозяйство»

 

Тюмень, 2009

 

 

Утверждено редакционно-издательским советом

Государственного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования

«ТЮМЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ НЕФТЕГАЗОВЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

 

Ответственный редактор: д.п.н. И. Г. Пчелинцева

Составители: ассистент Э. А. Пирвердиева

 

Методические указания к практическим занятиям по дисциплине «Английский язык» предназначены для студентов очной и заочной форм обучения по специальности «Автомобили и автомобильное хозяйство» и направлены на изучение профессиональной лексики, развитие навыков монологической и диалогической речи, а также перевода текстов в сфере профессиональной коммуникации.

 

 

© Государственного образовательного учреждения Высшего профессионального образования

«ТЮМЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ НЕФТЕГАЗОВЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

 

Тюмень 2009

 

Unit 1

 

Brands

 

Read the article and answer the questions which follow.

 

Brand DNA

 

Every car has а brand DNA which makes it distinctive and instantly recognizable. When you see а BMW or Rover, for example, you know exactly what it is. The importance of national culture in brand DNA is critical, even
though global takeovers, mergers, and partnerships are constantly reshaping the car industry. Volvo, based in Sweden, is now owned by an American company, and Britain's Jaguar, Rolls-Royce, and Bentley are no longer British-owned Chrysler, that most American of manufacturers, is now part of а German company. Spain's Seat and the Czech car maker Skoda are owned by Germany's Volkswagen. And General Motors has controlled Sweden's Saab for а number of years.

Brand DNA consists of corporate identity and an unmistakable design which is influenced by culture. 'Britishness' or 'Frenchness' is important. But how can 'Americanness' or 'Italianness' be defined by а few hundred pounds of sheet metal bent over а frame and set down on four wheels?

То Fiat, Italian means 'sporty'. "People buy Italian cars because they look Italian," said Richard Gadeselli, head of corporate affairs for Fiat Auto S.p.А. "Even the humble Seicento (Fiat's smallest car) has а sporty feel. In everything we design, we try and strive for that. If we took the badges off, people would say, 'I don't know what that is, but it feels Italian’.”

Similarly, Japanese design is unmistakably Japanese because of its Zen-like purity and simplicity. Akira Fujimoto, chief editor оf Japan's Car Styling magazine, says that the level of detail is the key to Japanese design. "With an American car, you can see the differences at 300 metres. With а Japanese car, you see the differences at three metres. Japan is а small country so there's no need to see the differences from far away."

Peter Horbury, chief designer for Volvo Cars, although British himself, says he believes the Swedish essence of Volvo is something the company should keep even if it is owned by Ford Motor Со. But what is Swedishness? "Sweden is known as а caring society," he said. "Swedish cars are safe, practical, and functional and have а timeless quality."

 

2. Answer the questions:

1.What do you understand by brand DNA?

2.Do you agree that cars from different countries have different styles?

3. If so, what is your favourite national style?

4.Which country does your car come from?

5.Does it reflect the style of that country?
6.How would you describe German, Japanese, French, or Italian style?

 

Here are some of the factors people consider when buying a car.

Unit 2

 

Car parts

Unit 3

 

Safety

 

Unit 4

 

Materials and their properties

 

Read this text and answer the questions.

 

Unit 5

 

The car of the future

 

It is а cold winter morning but your саг is waiting for you, warm and comfortable, at exactly the temperature you like. You open the door by pressing your finger against the 1ock and your car greets you with a friendly ‘Hi, how are you?’ sit down and the computer reminds you of your schedule. You start the car.

You now have a joystick, steering-by-wire, braking-by-wire. The old mechanical parts of the past are gone. As you back out of your driveway, warning sensors warn you about objects and pedestrians in your way. Using voice commands you programme your route, check your emails and dictate answers, ask for local and international news, look up phone numbers, and plау music.

The саr а1sо lоoks after your health. Sensors in your seat and armrest tell you your weight and blood pressure, while sensors in the dashboard notice if you are drowsy and vibrate the joystick to wake you. Many of thе oldworries associated with driving, are gone. Traffic jams don't happen any more because your car automatically avoids crowded roads. Collision avoidance sensors present accidents.

Speeding tickets are also а thing of the past - sensors pick up signals from traffic signs and automatically adjust your speed or stop your car. And breaking down is no longer а problem. Your car diagnoses any potential faults or worn parts and worns you and the service station. When you arrive at the service station, the spare parts are а1ready waiting for you. Your car can even park itself. Just stop at any parking space (your car knows, of course, if parking is permitted here) and operate the automatic parklng system. The car scans the size and shape of the available space and then reverses in.

 

2. Are the following sentences about the text true or false?

 

1.You'll still need а key to open the car door.

2.You'll по longer have а steering wheel.

3.Sensors in the dashboard will measure your blood pressure.

4.You won't be able to fall asleep while driving.

5.You won't need to read traffic signs anymore.

6.You’ll still need good parking skills.

 

Supplementary Reading

What Was The First Car?
A Quick History of the Automobile for Young People

Several Italians recorded designs for wind driven vehicles. The first was Guido da Vigevano in 1335. It was a windmill type drive to gears and thus to wheels. Vaturio designed a similar vehicle which was also never built. Later Leonardo da Vinci designed a clockwork driven tricycle with tiller steering and a differential mechanism between the rear wheels.A Catholic priest named Father Ferdinand Verbiest has been said to have built a steam powered vehicle for the Chinese Emperor Chien Lung in about 1678.

There is no information about the vehicle, only the event. Since Thomas Newcomen didn't build his first steam engine until 1712 we can guess that this was possibly a model vehicle powered by a mechanism like Hero's steam engine, a spinning wheel with jets on the periphery. Newcomen's engine had a cylinder and a piston and was the first of this kind, and it used steam as a condensing agent to form a vacuum and with an overhead walking beam, pull on a rod to lift water. It was an enormous thing and was strictly stationary.

The steam was not under pressure, just an open boiler piped to the cylinder. It used the same vacuum principle that Thomas Savery had patented to lift water directly with the vacuum, which would have limited his pump to less than 32 feet of lift. Newcomen's lift would have only been limited by the length of the rod and the strength of the valve at the bottom. Somehow Newcomen was not able to separate his invention from that of Savery and had to pay for Savery's rights. In 1765 James Watt developed the first pressurized steam engine which proved to be much more efficient and compact that the Newcomen engine.

The first vehicle to move under its own power for which there is a record was designed by Nicholas Joseph Cugnot and constructed by M. Brezin in 1769. A replica of this vehicle is on display at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, in Paris. I believe that the Smithsonian Museum in Washington D. C. also has a large (half size ?) scale model. A second unit was built in 1770 which weighed 8000 pounds and had a top speed on 2 miles per hour and on the cobble stone streets of Paris this was probably as fast as anyone wanted to go it.

The picture shows the first model on its first drive around Paris were it hit and knocked down a stone wall. It also had a tendency to tip over frontward unless it was counterweighted with a canon in the rear. the purpose of the vehicle was to haul canons around town.The early steam powered vehicles were so heavy that they were only practical on a perfectly flat surface as strong as iron. A road thus made out of iron rails became the norm for the next hundred and twenty five years. The vehicles got bigger and heavier and more powerful and as such they were eventually capable of pulling a train of many cars filled with freight and passengers.As the picture at the right shows, many attempts were being made in England by the 1830's to develop a practical vehicle that didn't need rails.

A series of accidents and propaganda from the established railroads caused a flurry of restrictive legislation to be passed and the development of the automobile bypassed England. Several commercial vehicles were built but they were more like trains without tracks.The development of the internal combustion engine had to wait until a fuel was available to combust internally. Gunpowder was tried but didn't work out. Gunpowder carburetors are still hard to find. The first gas really did use gas.

They used coal gas generated by heating coal in a pressure vessel or boiler. A Frenchman named Etienne Lenoir patented the first practical gas engine in Paris in 1860 and drove a car based on the design from Paris to Joinville in 1862. His one-half horse power engine had a bore of 5 inches and a 24 inch stroke. It was big and heavy and turned 100 rpm. Lenoir died broke in 1900.Lenoir had a separate mechanism to compress the gas before combustion.

Part 2

In 1862, Alphonse Bear de Rochas figured out how to compress the gas in the same cylinder in which it was to burn, which is the way we still do it. This process of bringing the gas into the cylinder, compressing it, combusting the compressed mixture, then exhausting it is know as the Otto cycle, or four cycle engine. Lenoir claimed to have run the car on benzene and his drawings show an electric spark ignition. If so, then his vehicle was the first to run on petroleum based fuel, or petrol, or what we call gas, short for gasoline.

Siegfried Marcus, of Mecklenburg, built a can in 1868 and showed one at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873. His later car was called the Strassenwagen had about 3/4 horse power at 500 rpm. It ran on crude wooden wheels with iron rims and stopped by pressing wooden blocks against the iron rims, but it had a clutch, a differential and a magneto ignition. One of the four cars which Marcus built is in the Vienna Technical Museum and can still be driven under its own power.

In 1876, Nokolaus Otto patented the Otto cycle engine, de Rochas had neglected to do so, and this later became the basis for Daimler and Benz breaking the Otto patent by claiming prior art from de Rochas.

The picture to the left, taken in 1885, is of Gottllieb Daimler's workshop in Bad Cannstatt where he built the wooden motorcycle shown. Daimler's son Paul rode this motorcycle from Cannstatt to Unterturkheim and back on November 10, 1885. Daimler used a hot tube ignition system to get his engine speed up to 1000 rpm

The previous August, Karl Benz had already driven his light, tubular framed tricycle around the Neckar valley, only 60 miles from where Daimler lived and worked. They never met. Frau Berta Benz took Karl's car one night and made the first long car trip to see her mother, traveling 62 miles from Mannheim to Pforzheim in 1888.

Also in August 1888, William Steinway, owner of Steinway & Sons piano factory, talked to Daimler about US manufacturing right and by September had a deal. By 1891 the Daimler Motor Company, owned by Steinway, was producing petrol engines for tramway cars, carriages, quadricycles, fire engines and boats in a plant in Hartford, CT.

Steam cars had been built in America since before the Civil War but the early one were like miniature locomotives. In 1871, Dr. J. W. Carhart, professor of physics at Wisconsin State University, and the J. I. Case Company built a working steam car. It was practical enough to inspire the State of Wisconsin to offer a $10,000 prize to the winner of a 200 mile race in 1878.

The 200 mile race had seven entries, or which two showed up for the race. One car was sponsored by the city of Green Bay and the other by the city of Oshkosh. The Green Bay car was the fastest but broke down and the Oshkosh car finished with an average speed of 6 mph.From this time until the end of the century, nearly every community in America had a mad scientist working on a steam car. Many old news papers tell stories about the trials and failures of these would be inventors.By 1890 Ransom E. Olds had built his second steam powered car, pictured at left. One was sold to a buyer in India, but the ship it was on was lost at sea.

Part 3

 

Running by February, 1893 and ready for road trials by September, 1893 the car built by Charles and Frank Duryea, brothers, was the first gasoline powered car in America. The first run on public roads was made on September 21, 1893 in Springfield, MA. They had purchased a used horse drawn buggy for $70 and installed a 4 HP, single cylinder gasoline engine. The car (buggy) had a friction transmission, spray carburetor and low tension ignition. It must not have run very well because Frank didn't drive it again until November 10 when it was reported by the Springfield Morning Union newspaper.

This car was put into storage in 1894 and stayed there until 1920 when it was rescued by Inglis M. Uppercu and presented to the United States National Museum.Henry Ford had an engine running by 1893 but it was 1896 before he built his first car. By the end of the year Ford had sold his first car, which he called a Quadracycle, for $200 and used the money to build another one. With the financial backing of the Mayor of Detroit, William C. Maybury and other wealthy Detroiters, Ford formed the Detroit Automobile Company in 1899. A few prototypes were built but no production cars were ever made by this company. It was dissolved in January 1901. Ford would not offer a car for sale until 1903.

The first closed circuit automobile race held at Narragansett Park, Rhode Island, in September 1896. All four cars to the left are Duryeas, on the right is a Morris & Salom Electrobat. Thirteen Duryeas of the same design were produced in 1896, making it the first production car.At left is pictured the factory with produced the 13 Duryeas. In 1898 the brothers went their separate ways and the Duryea Motor Wagon Company was closed. Charles, who was born in 1861 and was eight years older than Frank had taken advantage of Frank in publicity and patents. Frank went out on his own and eventually joined with Stevens Arms and Tool Company to form the Stevens-Duryea Company which was sold to Westinghouse in 1915. Charles tried to produce some of his own hare-brained ideas with various companies until 1916.

Thereafter he limited himself to writing technical book and articles. He died in 1938. Frank got a half a million dollars for the Westinghouse deal and lived in comfort until his death in 1967, just seven months from his 98th birthday.In this engraving Ransom Eli Olds is at the tiller of his first petrol powered car. Riding beside him is Frank G. Clark, who built the body and in the back are their wives.

This car was running by 1896 but production of the Olds Motor Vehicle Company of Detroit did not begin until 1899. After an early failure with luxury vehicles they established the first really successful production with the classic Curved Dash Oldsmobile.The Curved Dash Oldsmobile had a single cylinder engine, tiller steering and chain drive. It sold for $650. In 1901 600 were sold and the next years were 1902 - 2,500, 1903 - 4,000, 1904 - 5,000. In August 1904 Ransom Olds left the company to form Reo (for Ransom Eli Olds). Ransom E. Olds was the first mass producer of gasoline powered automobiles in the United States, even though Duryea was the first auto manufacturer with their 13 cars.Ransom Olds produced a small number of electric cars around the turn of the century. Little is known about them and none survive.

The picture at left is the only known picture of one of these rare cars. It was taken at was taken at Belle Island Park, Michigan. In 1899 and 1900, electrics outsold all other type of cars and the most popular electric was the Columbia built by Colonel Albert Augustus Pope, owner of American Bicycle Company. J. A. Koosen and H. Lawson in a 1895 Lutzmann. This is typical of American design in the mid 1890's. It was truly a horseless carriage. Tiller steering, engine under the floorboards, very high center of gravity, not designed for road travel. Imagine climbing into one of these and trying to drive across town and around a few corners. Kind of scary, huh?

This Daimler of 1899 was owned by Lionel Rothchild. The European design is much advanced of the American designs of the same time. Gottlieb Daimler took part in the London-to-Brighton run in 1896 but died in 1900 at the age of 66 without ever meeting Benz. His German engines powered the automobile industries of Britain and France.

The 1908 Haynes in the back ground shows the rapid development of the petrol powered car when compared to the 1894 model in the foreground. Consider the present difference between a 1998 Tarus and the 14 year old 1984 Tarus. Some difference. Old man Haynes claimed to have build the 1894 car in 1893 but had no proof.The Rolls Royce Silver Ghost of 1906 was a six cylinder car that stayed in production until 1925. It represented the best engineering and technology available at the time and these cars still run smoothly and silently today. This period marked the end of the beginning of the automobile.

by William W. Bottorff

The Atomic Automobile

Part 2

Another practical design aspect was the addition of air intakes at the leading edge of the roof and at the base of the roof supports, apparently to be used as part of the reactor's cooling system.Ford's nuclear automobile embodied the naive optimism of the era. Most people were ignorant of the dangers of the atomic contraption, as well as the risk that every minor fender-bender had the potential to become a radioactive disaster. In fact, the Nucleon concept was often received with great enthusiasm. Some sources even claim that the US government sponsored Ford's atomic car research program.

The Nucleon's silent, sleek, and efficient design was poised to secure its place in the American lifestyle of the future. It seemed inevitable that the internal combustion engine would fade into obscurity, becoming a quaint relic of a pre-atomic past. But the Nucleon's design hinged on the assumption that smaller nuclear reactors would soon be developed, as well as lighter shielding materials. When those innovations failed to appear, the project was scrapped due to conspicuous impracticality; the bulky apparatus and heavy lead shielding didn't allow for a safe and efficient car-sized package. Moreover, as the general public became increasingly aware of the dangers of atomic energy and the problem of nuclear waste, the thought of radioactive atomobiles zipping around town lost much of its appeal. Atoms had broken their promise; the honeymoon was over.

BENTLEY. THE NEW GENERATION

 

The new Bentley TURBO R. British elegance that confirms the immense, power waiting to be released. The most refined automotive technology. The world’s finest sporting car, sleek and streamlined, safe and quiet, comfortable and ele­gant and yet so powerful. Delivering the most exiting driving experience in lux­urious surroundings.

The new proportions of the classic radiator shell combined with a restyled air dam to streamline the front, while the integrated bumpers and colour coded sills continue the smooth line around to the rear balance.

By adding new and larger 17-inch road wheels with specially designed directional tyres TURBO R gains a noticeable improvement in performance and responsiveness. While Brooklyn's with its new 16-inch road wheels and low profile tyres enjoys improved handling, performance and above all comfort.

Ever since the 1920s when W.O. Bentley first produced a series of rnotor cars which swept the board of Le Mans, the Bentley marque has stood for engineering innovation, always striving to provide their owners with the maximum driving pleasure. The mighty 6.75 litre V8 Bentley engine delivers real exhilaration.

Still assembled by hand to tolerances of tenth thousandth of an inch, these finely balanced engines harness the most advanced electronic management and control systems.

The new adaptive shift control system for turnover arms changes the trans­mission panel to the style of driving and allows a maximum extraction of Bentley power and sporting exhilaration.

To enjoy such performance in luxurious surroundings is the unique Bentley experience and the subtlest cockpit now sports some thoughtful innovations. A tilt adjustable steering wheel swings up to allow easy entry and exit when the door is opened or the key removed from the ignition.

The new centre console and the fascia layout present the driver with absolute control. A new centre armrest now houses the CD multichanger as well as the telephone. New veneer panels reveal the new in-car entertainment controls. The new centre console also provides independent air conditioning to the rear com­partment. A new seat design has improved comfort and support, while provid­ing increased head room.

So many Bentley engineering advances have contributed to safer driving
throughout the history of motoring. Safety derived through immense power and
reserve for safer overtaking. Side impact protection bars pioneered by the com­pany in 1981. Antilock braking systems perfectly suit the Bentley's high performance.

The most sensitive adaptive ride control that monitors the acceleration, braking and cornering style every one hundredth of a second to ensure the car is kept stable and responsive. Full-sized driver and passenger airbags are neatly housed in the immaculate interior. The driver information panel is still one of the most sophisticated such instrument outside the world of aviation.

And the dual level air conditioning system designed to maintain driver alert­ness and concentration through carefully balanced temperature controls, allow­ing cooler air to flow at head level, with warmer stream soothing the feet as they rest on Wilton carpets and lamb wool rugs. The commanding driving position supported by the new ergonomically designed seats gives the Bentley's driver the safest control. This combination of safety and powerful elegance, this fu­sion of thrusting exhilaration with traditional luxury is the very latest develop­ment in the pursuit of Bentley's sporting excellence .To own the new Bentley is to appreciate the ultimate driving experience.

 

Список литературы:

1. Гинзбург Ю.В. Современный англо-русский автомобильный словарь.-М.:

ЗАО «КЖИ «За рулём», «Иврус», 2003.-488с.: ил.

2. Marie Kavanagh English for the Automobile Industry.-Oxford, 2008.-79 p.

3. http://www.yahoo.com

Составитель: ПирвердиеваЭ. А., ассистент

Ответственный редактор: Пчелинцева И. Г., д.п.н., профессор

Подписано к печати: Бум. писч. №1

Заказ № Уч. изд. л.

Формат 60/90 1/16 Усл. печ. л.

Отпечатано на RISO GD 3750 Тираж 36 экз.

 

Издательство «Нефтегазовый Университет»

Государственного образовательного учреждение высшего профессионального

образования

«Тюменский государственный нефтегазовый университет»

625000, г. Тюмень, ул. Володарского, 38

Отдел оперативной полиграфии издательства «Нефтегазовый университет»

625039, г. Тюмень ул. Киевская, 52

 

 

Кафедра иностранных языков №2

 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

 

к практическим занятиям по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов 1 курса очной и заочной форм обучения





Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-12-12; Нарушение авторского права страницы

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 18.232.146.10 (0.02 с.)